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Muratori History Final Study Cards


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What is laissez faire?
Allowance by the government to let businesses operate with little or no interferance - the legalization of "free commerce/trade".
Who was Adam Smith?
An admirer of the physiocrats, and an advocate of laissez faire.
What are one's "natural rights", according to John Locke?
Life; Liberty; Property.
Name the six philosophes.
(1) Hobbes, (2) Locke, (3) Montesquieu, (4) Voltaire, (5) Diderot, (6) Rousseau
Name an enlightened despot and where they came from.
Frederick the Great (Prussia); Catherine the Great (Russia); Joseph II (Austria)
Who was Andreas Vesalius?
The "father of anatomy" - he dissected corpses (sometimes illegally obtained) to point out errors in the logic of Galen.
The title of Nicolaus Copernicus' most famous book.
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres."
(France) Name the estate:
(1) Peasant;
(2) Merchant;
(3) Nobles;
(4) Monarchy;
(5) Upper Clergy;
(6) Lower Clergy.
(1) Third;
(2) Third;
(3) Second;
(4) Second;
(5) First;
(6) First.
(France) Who killed the radical journalist Jean Paul Marat?
Charlotte Corday.
(France) When the king and queen were forced to come to Paris so the revolutionaies could watch them more closely, they were brought where?
The Tuileries.
(France) Term for the "middle class".
(France) Citizens of Paris attacked it in search of gunpowder.
The Bastille.
(Napoleon) Where was Napoleon born? What was his native tongue?
Corsica; Italian.
(Napoleon) Who was Napoleon's wife?
Josephine (de Beauharnais).
(Napoleon) In 1799, The First Consul was overthrown and General Napoleon was installed as the new leader of France. What is the French word for this "seizure of power"?
Coup d'etat.
(Napoleon) At it's longest, Napoleon's empire stretched for ____ miles. At it's largest, he ruled over ____ million people.
1500 miles; 70 million people.
(France) List the dates:
(1) Tennis Court Oath;
(2) Storming of the Bastille;
(3) March on Versailles.
(1) June 20, 1789;
(2) July 14, 1789;
(3) October, 1789.
(France) Who was Olympe de Gouges, and what did she write?
A playwright and French suffregette, she wrote "Declaration of the Rights of Women."
(France) Who was Robespierre?
A revolutionary Jacobin leader who sought to control France with an iron fist; he began the Reign of Terror, beheading "enemies of the public" with little or no legal justification.
(Latin America) Toussaint L'ouverture helped liberate which country?
Haiti. (Previously Hispaniolia.)
(Latin America) Who was Simon Bolivar? What countries did he help liberate?
Simon Bolivar was an educate creole. He helped liberate Venezuela, Columbia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia.
(Latin America) What race was Dom Pedro? Where did he rule?
Portugese; Brazil.
(Latin America) Where did Father Miguel Hidalgo give his "Grito", his speech preaching revolutions against Spain?
Dolores, Mexico.
(Latin America) Who was Father Jose Morelos?
A priest who led armed forces in the effort to liberate Mexico.
(Latin America) What countries did Jose de San Martin help liberate? What famous general did he fight against?
Argentina, Peru, Chile; Napoleon Bonaparte.
(Agricultural Revolution) What were enclosures, and what did they allow for?
"Enclosures" were large farm field enclosed by fences, privatized land that, along with the concept of crop rotation, paved the way to allow for agricultural experimentation.
(Industrial Revolution) Why was England [Britain] the country where the Industrial REvolution technically began?
Land, labor, and capitol -- good natural resources in abundance (coal and iron for materials, river for power, and harbors for imports and exports); an expanding economy; practiced mercantilism; lots of workers.
(Industrial Revolution) Who built the first steamboat? What was it called?
Robert Fulton; "The Clermont".
(Industrial Revolution) Give a benefit versus a non-benefit of working in an Industrial Age factory.
(+) Creates jobs; encourages technological progress; education expands; cheaper clothing and other items; diet and housing improve.

(-) Long hours; dangerous working conditions; widespread illness; short average lifespan (sometimes as low as 17 years); lack of sanitary codes; factory owners live luxuriously while working class suffers.
(Latin America) What two countries chiefly colonized Latin America?
Portugal and Spain.

"Apotheosis of Homer" by Ingres (1827). What is the theme?

"Liberty Leading the People", Romantic. (1830) Who was the artist?
De Las Crox.

"March of the Weavers", by Kollwitz, Realism. (1897) What is the giveaway that this piece is "realistic"?
Dark, dreary feeling -- realistic art style -- inability to see the subject's faces clearly.

What is this picture called? Who is the artist?
"Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" by Joseph Turner.

"Women Ironing", Realism. (1834) Who is the artist?
(Africa) Who was Cecil Rhodes?
An English prime minister who wanted the entire continent of Africa to be under British rule.
(Africa) Which canal was completed in 1869?
The Suez Canal.
(Africa) Which country had no colonies in Africa by 1914?
The Netherlands.
(Africa) It was in which war that the Chinese lost Hong Kong to Britain?
The Opium War.

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