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World Literature Review 1st semester


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Which religion stressed harmony with nature and the universal order?
Hinduism? Confucionism?
Hammurabi’s code:
A code of 282 laws compiled to govern life in Mesopotamia where retaliation was a principle and punishment was more severe on lower classes, where officials were accountable, and there were consumer protection laws and laws about marriage.
Roman Senate (members):
a council of about 300 patricians who at first were advisory and by the third century BC had the force of law.
Food surpluses Catal Huyuk
Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey Because they had more food than was required for one family, some people could have other jobs so they, had greater degree of social stratification.
Direct democracy:
form of democracy in which political power is exercised by the citizens without representatives acting on their behalf.
Geography of Greece :
mountainous peninsula with many islands; small plains and river valleys surrounded by mountains which separated people so they developed their own ways of life. There was a lot of sea-life.
First triumvirate (members):
Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar
“homo erectus” :
second stage in early human development where the people used larger and more varied tools and sood erect and used fire purported to have started 1.5 million years ago.
Which philosopher said “ the unexamined life is not worth living”?
the community life of monks within a monastery that included disciplines of work and spiritual life
Domesday Book
the first census taken in Europe since Roman times that counted people, manors, and farm animals. Initiated by William of Normandy
How were the masses distracted from serious political issues:
The GAMES ??? Gladiators Bread and circuses
Greek tragedies⬦what area examined:
the nature of good and evil, the rights of the individual; the nature of divine forces, the nature of human beings.
Feudal contract
the relationship between a lord and vassal made official by a public ceremony but unwritten. The vassal gave advice, money, rescue and received protection in battle and in court, and sometimes land.
Types of Middle Ages vernacular literature –
troubadour poetry and the chanson de geste, or heroic epic poem, all in the languages of the people.
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He is best known for the lever and pulley and for working with spheres and cylinders and for computing the constant pi. He invented the Archimedes screw which pumps water. Coined saying “Eureka!” when he understood specific gravity.
Edict of Milan:
(313 AD) declared that the Roman Empire would end all government-sanctioned persecution of religion, especially Christianity.
Characteristics of civilization: (6)
(6) cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, art
Theories about the fall of Rome:
1. Christianity’s emphasis on spiritual values weakened Roman military values 2. Non-italian values gained prominence over Italian values 3. Lead poisoning from lead pipes led to mental decline 4. Plague wiped out a tenth of the population 5. Rome’s slaves kept them from developing technology 6. Rome failed politically
Nile River:
a 4000 mile long river running from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean sea, whose yearly flooding made the land of Egypt quite fertile, leading to agriculture and travel.and a sense of order.
a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
Heroic epic poem
a chanson de geste, these poems written in vernacular language were about battles and political contests like knights fighting for their kings.
a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold which included defending the Church and defenseless people and treating captives as honored guests, and to fight for glory, not goods.
Magna carta
a feudal document that recognized the mutual rights and obligations of kings and vassals but which showed the monarch’s power was limited and not absolute.
a form of government where the leader is not a monarch and some citizens have the right to vote.
Saint Benedict
a monk who developed a set of rules to govern his monastery that became a model used by other orders to develop their communities and included work, prayer, singing, obedience and a vow of poverty.
Mount Olympus:
a mountain peak in northeast Greece near the Aegean coast; believed by ancient Greeks to be the dwelling place of the gods
1066/ William the Conqueror
a Norman, invaded England, and captured the throne, ending the Anglo-Saxon Reign.
Pax Romana
a period of a hundred years of peace in Rome under the rule of five good emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius and Marcus Aurelius. The empire expanded and there was construction and legal reform
A philosopher from Athens in the fourth century who believed human beings were free to follow self-interest as a basic motivating force. The pursuit of pleasure was the only true good.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Carolingian Renaissance
a revival in learning spawned by Charlemagne which revived Latin and Greek classical studies and the copying of ancient works and scriptures by Benedictine monks.
Define civilization:
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
Neolithic revolution:
a term first suggested in the 1920s by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe as a description of the switch made by ancient peoples from nomadic, hunter-gatherer behaviour to a settled, agrarian way of life, during the neolithic period. It was the first of a series of agricultural revolutions that have punctuated human history.
Persian’s Royal Road:
a vast system of principal roadways constructed, c. 500 BCE. The Royal Road was at least 1600 miles in length and allowed for efficient transportation of troops from region to region within the Persian empire. The Road also allowed for rapid communication between satrapies, and resulting increases in governmental efficiency
Hadrian’s wall
an ancient Roman wall built by Hadrian in the 2nd century; marked the northern boundary of the Roman Empire in Britain and separated off Scotland on the north side.
an architectural style of the 11th and 12th centuries including building churches in a basilicas shape with a barrel or cross vault with massive pillars and walls.
Results of the plague
As many as 50-60% of the population died.People thought the Jews poisoned wells, so there was a huge surge of anti-semitism, trade declined and labor prices went up, but fewer people ate less food so prices for food fell and serfdom changed to rent.
Before Christ and Anno Domini (the year of the Lord)
Craft guild
beginning in the 11th century, these trade associations organized almost every craft or type of merchandizing, setting standards of production and even fixing prices.
believing in many gods
Religions that trace their roots through Abraham:
Christianity, Judaism, Islam
c. :
circa, meaning about the time
Common era/ Before the common era
First Christian emperor:
Missi dominici -
court officials appointed by Charlemagne to be ``messengers of the lord king.'' The Missi Dominici were charged with supervising the regional counts and verifying that they were governing in accordance with the wishes of the king.
Phoenecian alphabet:
dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. Modern alphabets thought to have descended from the Phoenician include Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, and Latin (the last via the Old Italic alphabet). Like Proto-Canaanite, Arabic and Hebrew, Phoenician is a consonantal alphabet (an abjad), and contains no symbols for vowel sounds, which had to be deduced from context.
Compass rose:
directional marker on a map that identifies four main directions: north, south, east and west.
Dating by centuries:
Each century is called by the century number ahead of the actual date, as in the first century ran from the year zero to the year 99, and the last century was the twentieth.
How can one achieve a good life? By living in a just and rational state where philosopher kings are at the top, warriors next, and everybody else below. He believed women should be equally educated and have position
In Hindu belief where the term originated, it is the idea that the good and evil a person does will return either in this life or in a later one. Among Pagans, the theory is that whatever negative or positive energies one sends out will come back to the sender in like kind What goes around comes around!
Results of the crusade
It benefited port cities of Italy, but spurred on anti-semitism. It broke down the feudal system and led to stronger central governments. Increased trade led to more taxes and more strengthening of nation-states.
Liberation. The Hindu concept of salvation, which comes through the merger of the human soul (Atman) with the World Soul (Brahman). Before such a union takes place, the human soul has to go through reincarnation, an endless cycle of existence and rebirths.
Four hemispheres
Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western They overlap! Each covers half the globe.
Rule a form of government in which power is centralised in the hands of an organised élite and is used for their social and/or economic benefit.
Guild training system
one began as an apprentice at age ten or so, and lived with their masters. In five to seven years they became a journeyman and worked for wages for other masters, and became a master after producing a masterpiece which had to be approved by the guild.
one who believes that the evidence for and against the existence of God is inconclusive because it cannot be demonstrated by the senses. He doesn’t care or doesn’t know if there is a god.
Julius Caesar:
Originally ruling as one leader in three in the First Triumvirate, he seized power after “crossing the Rubicon” and started a dictatorship in 45 BC., but was assassinated the next year.
peasants legally bound to the land who had to provide labor, rent, and be subject to the lord’s control.
Family of languages derived from Latin:
Romance languages such as: Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Sicilian, and Romanian
rule by a king
Greek tyrants:
Rulers who seized power by force from the land-holding aristocrats; enforcing their power with hired soldiers and winning favor by building things. They predated democracy.
Punic wars:
Series of three wars between Rome and Carthage that resulted in the destruction of Carthage. Hannibal lead Carthage in the Second Punic War and the name is a derivative of Phoenician
someone who does not lead a settled life but moves from place to place, usually seeking pasture for herds of grazing animals.
T he head of the Roman family who had absolute control over all the members of his family, including the right of life & death. providing his children with education, character training & religious upbringing.
Homo sapiens sapiens:
The “doubly wise” modern species of humans anatomically modern that appeared in Africa 150,000 to 200,000 years ago
the basic belief that people live more than one life. You live, you die, your essence or soul lives on and is born again in another body in the next life.\\
Define empire:
the domain ruled by an emperor or empress as the head of state
Epic of Gilgamesh:
The first literary epic in Western civilization; written down in Babylonia c. 2000 bce; included story of Great Flood
The first system of writing in human history, developed in ancient Mesopotamia, which used a reed to impress wedge-shaped marks onto the surface of clay tablets.\
Twelve Tables:
the first written code of Roman law, passed about 450 BC., suitable for more of an agrarian economy
Five pillars of Islam:
the five guiding principles of life as a Muslim; five duties that must be adhered to. They are the profession of faith (shahadah), prayer (salat/salaat), charity or almsgiving (zakat), fasting (sawm) and a pilgrimage to Makkah (hajj).
the grant of land made to a vassal
the Greek term for city-state, from which the term 'politics' is derived. the body of citizens which comprise a state,
the language of everyday speech as opposed to Latin, which was the universal language.
The last emperor who persecuted the Christians who also instituted the Tetrarchy, which consisted of four rulers of the Empire.
Relative location
the location of a point expressed in relationship to the location of other points or in relation to a geographic reference system
Lord-vassal relationship:
the lord had legal authority over marriage and travel and land, and could get a portion of the vassal’s crop, but he could not take away the vassal’s land but he had to protect them.
William and Mary
the monarchs under which the glorious revolution took place in 1689
The most popular philosophy of the Hellenistic world and in the Roman Empire. People could find happiness by living in harmony with the will of God and by bearing whatever life offered. It was more social and political than Epicureanism.
Yahweh :
the name of God from ancient Hebrew civilization
the people who turned Rome from a village into a city and brought in the toga and cloak into Roman style.
the period of time before writing was able to record what happened
the relationship made when a warrior swares an oath of loyalty to his leader and fights for him in return for the leader taking care of the warrior’s needs.
the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100 - 1500. Scholasticism attempted to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. Sophists, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Hellenistic Era:
the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies inclusive of Southwest Asia.
the study of humanity from a comprehensive, holistic approach; the study of humankind from the earliest times to the present, including the four subfields: physical anthropology, archaeology, socio-cultural anthropology and linguistics. the study of behavior, artifacts, and beliefs of different cultures.
Aristocracy :
the system of government in which aristocrats (upper class citizens) have controlling power. In an aristocracy people are generally born into distinct social classes and there is little or no upward mobility.
the vesting of legal and economic power in a lord supported economically from his own direct landholding and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction. ...\
Vikings & Franks
The Vikings invaded Europe after the reign of Charlemagne, but the Frankish Lords welcomed them and converted them to Christianity, forming Norman France or Normandy.
Roman architecture:
They used Greek forms like colonnades and rectangular buildings but they added curved lines and arches, vaults and domes, and they used concrete on a massive scale, and built roads and aqueducts.
Legacy of Rome:
towns and cities, language, painting & sculpture, law, travel & communication, government, architecture, and literature & ideas
Sumerian’s inventions:
wagon wheel; potter’s wheel; sundial, arch, bronze, number system based on 60, geometry, astronomy
Why civilizations have religions?
Which religion stressed duty and humanity?

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