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Film Final- Chapters 6-12


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categorical form of documentaries
organizing information about the world being show in the movie in categories/subcategories
harmonic components of sound to give it a certain tone quality. the "texture/feel" of the sound
match on action
shows the continuation of movement across two shots
arguments from source
arguments that rely on what are seen as reliable sources
batch of genre films that have intense popularity and influence over a distinct period. occurs when a successful film produces a burst of imitations
empty frames
covers elided time
onscreen/offscreen diegetic sound
depends on whether the source is inside or outside the frame
german expressionism
1919-1926. film image became graphic art. depended heavily on mise en scene. play of light and dark that has actually been painted onto the set
temporal ellipsis
omits seconds, minutes, hours, days, years or centuries
sneaking in/sneaking out
musical score grows louder when no dialogue, and fades down where there is
emphasize actions taking place in separate planes. constructs a variety of spaces in a film
most common pattern of spatial editing in classic continuity style
classical hollywood cinema
1908-1927. emergence of narrative continuity and development of basic continuity principles
jump cut
2 shots of the same subject are cut together but do not have enough of a difference between camera distance and angle; there is a noticeable jump on screen
frequency of sound vibrations affects the pitch of sound. helps distinguish music and speech from noises
rhetorical form
filmmaker tries to persuade the audience to believe in his argument about something in debate
sound mixing
guiding the viewer's attention with a particular sound
elliptical editing
presents actions in such a way that it consumes less time on screen then it does in the story
imitates conventions of documentaries but does not try to fool the audience into believing it's real
shapes how we perceive images, directs our attention within images, cues us to form expectations, gives a new value to silence
eye line match
shot 1 shows someone looking offscreen at something; shot 2 is what is being looked at
clay animation
sculptor creates objects/characters using plasticine. the positions of the characters are slightly remolded between exposures
compilation film
assembles images from archival sources
alternates shots from one line of action in one place with shots of other events in other places
western film
emerged in early cinema history. central theme of genre is conflict between civilized order and the lawless frontier
punctuation shot change
signals that sometime has been omitted. used with a dissolve, wipe or fade
graphic relations
form of editing that focuses on graphic configurations independent of the shots relation to the time and space of the story
horror film
most recognizable by intended emotional effect on audience. heavy make-up is a prominent iconographic element
genre iconography
recurring symbolic images that carry meaning from film to film
cheat cut
mismatch slightly the positions of characters or objects
establishing shot
shows the overall space
direct cinema
records an ongoing event as it happens with minimal influence by the filmmaker
diegetic sound simultaneous in story with images
noise, music, speech that comes from space in story that occurs at the same time as image
Temporal Continuity
duration is in complete continuity (plot time=story time) or elided (story time=greater than plot time)
shot/reverse shot
cuts back and forth between one end of the axis and the other
kuleshov effect
basing the arrangement of a whole space when only a portion of it is shown
re-establishing shot
re-establishes the overall space
overlapping editing
expands story time. the action from the end of one shot is partly repeated at the beginning of the next
diegetic sound earlier in story than image
sound come from an earlier point in the story than action visible on screen
one more shots out of their presumed story order. editing moves from the present event to a past event and then back to the present event
diegetic sound
sounds that has a source in the story world
axis of action
line in which the space of the scene in constructed. determines the half circle in which the camera can be placed to film the action. mise en scene and camera work together to establish the semi-circular space
rhythmic relations
form of editing that allows the filmmaker to determine the duration of each shot to accentuate a moment or decentaute a moment
dialogue overlapp
used in editing a conversation with shot/reverse shot. smooths down the visual change of shot
graphic and rhythmic editing
shot 1 and 2 are joined based on graphic and rhythmic qualities despite their time and space
associational form
suggests ideas by grouping images that may not have any immediate logical connection; we have to find a way to connect them
experimental film
challenges orthodox film subject matter and style and form of film. any sort of footage may be used
spatial relations between shot 1 and shot 2
type of editing that can juxtapose two points in space and imply a relationship between them
subject centered arguments
arguments about subject matter
beat, pulse, tempo, pace
spatial and temporal discontinuity
uses spatial continuity in ambiguous ways
offscreen sound
crucial to our film experience, creates the illusion of a bigger space. shapes our expectations of scene development. can make a film's narrative restricted or not restricted
internal diegetic sound
sound that comes from inside the character's mind
kind or type
non-diegetic/internal diegetic sounds
sounds overs. they do not come from real space in the scene
cut out animation
flat puppets with movable joints. filmmaker manipulates cut out images frame by frame to create moving collages
aims to present factual information about the world. states an opinion/idea or suggests a solution to a problem
abstract form
organizing entire film's system around colour, shapes, sizes and movements
fade in
shot gradually lightens from black
pixilation animation
frame by frame, jerky movement of people/ordinary objects
sound later than image
images onscreen are occurring in the past, while sound is occuring during present/future time
viewer centered arguments
arguments that appeal to the viewer's emotions
extent to which sound is faithful to the source we think it's from
film style
technical choices the filmmaker chooses and adheres to throughout the film. results from historical constraints and choices. plans progression of story. points out story parrallels
graphic match
editing graphics to achieve smooth continuity or abrupt contrast
dramatic sound stream
combination of sounds to enhance unrestricted objective narration
musical film
came into being in response to technical innovation
french impressionism and surrealism
1918-1930. relies on cinematography and editing. narration gives psychological depth. heavy use of point of view shots
computer animation
images created on computers and then transfered onto film
editing moves from the present event to a future event and then returns to the present
synchronous sound
matching sound with image in projection (hear at the same time we see the source of the sound)
non-diegetic sound
sound that comes from a source outside the story world
sound we hear from vibrations in the air. the amplitude the vibrations produce is the sense of loudness we hear
sound bridge
lingering sound briefly from the end of one scene onto another
group style
consistent use of techniques across the work of several filmmakers
asynchronous sound
the sounds don't match with images on screen
external diegetic sound
sound we assume has a physical source in the scene
continuity editing
allows space, time and action to continue in a smooth flow over a series of shots
sound has spatial dimensions because it comes from a source
shot 2 replaces shot 1 by a boundary line moving across the screen
fade out
shot gradually darkens at the end to black
a shot of another event elsewhere that will not last as long as the elided action
briefly superimposes the end of Shot 1 and the beginning of shot 2
montage sequence
brief portions of footage joined by dissolves and music to create few moments of film out of lengthy series of action
italian neorealism
1942-1951. post war period. revealing temporal social conditions. looser narratives- open ended slice of life. narrative relations. cinematography and editing won't match up as neatly. end with limited closure. location shooting. non- actors star in the films
interview/talking head
records testimonies about events or social movements
most common way of joining two shots
single frame films
each shot is only one frame long
model/puppet animation
characters are made and moved using wires, string etc.
non-simultaneous sound
sound we hear that has occurred or will occur later in the story than the events we're seeing
sound perspective
characteristic of diegetic sound. sense of spatial distance and location for sound
temporal relations between shot 1 and shot 2
form of editing where the filmmaker can manipulate the plot's story time and temporal succession
drawn animation
characters are drawn on a sheet of celluloid called a cel; photograph; than redrawn slightly different and photographed to show movement
portrait documentary
centres on scenes from the life of a compelling person
filmmaker edits dialogue by cutting against natural speech rhythms. a change of rhythm may shift our expectations
simultaneous sound
sound takes place at the same time in terms of story events
film movement
film produced at a particular time period. has a specific industrial structure

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