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history finals flash-two


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New lands Reclamation Act
the government would take some money from the sale of property lands and use that money to irrigate western lands.
exposures of reality, said to have racked through the dirt and exposed it to the public—The Jungle
Henry Ford
finalized the assembly line, and “invented the car”
John Muir
worked with Teddy Roosevelt to save the national forests
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
forbid the manufacture and sale of impure foods nad harmful and addictive drugs; and also required labels
heating process of tires to make rubber
Elkins Act 1903
Made it illegal to accept a rebate
National Consumer League
Florence Kelly- wanted to use boycott, fought for justice in the work place
Self-efficient farms
grow food for themselves
Assembly lines
Mass production of goods. Workers not only had to be “good” at one specific job. Jobs were now able to be done much fast, more effectively, and cheaper. Not as many people were needed to do the job.
Socialism- US socialism influenced by Karl Marx and foreign counties
Wobblies (practiced Marx’s ideas)-
o Wanted to over through the capitalist system
o Willing to use violence to achieve their goals- strikes, sabotage, and boycotts
o Socialism and Communism promoters
Progressivism and women
fought for justice, wanted to progress in the work place and increase fair treatment for workers
17th, 18th, 19th amendments
17th- There would be 2 senators from each state to represent, 18th- Volstead act (against alcohol) 19th- 1920 women suffrage
Populists Party (ch. 19)
Support farmers, increased currency, free and unlimited coinage of silver, government ownership of the railroads, telephone and telegraph, government owned railroad land, graduated income tax, national warehouse system to store grain and produce until the market conditions improve, wanted to reform politics.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
(WCTU)- 1879. These women fought for the outlawing of alcohol, helped to get the 18th amendment passed-- Carrie Nation KS- against alcohol
Meat Inspection Act- 1906
rules were now put on meat and the processing of it. This made the meat much cleaner and safer for the public.
“The Great Train Robbery”
the first motion picture
“Birth of a Nation Act”
first full motion picture
Hepburn Act 1906
-Gave the ICC authority to regulate expressways oil companies, bridges, railroads, fairies across state lines, sleeping cars
-Fix just and reasonable rates (that could be checked by the courts)
-No granting free passes
-Railroads were required to use uniform methods of accounting
Homestead Act 1862
turned over vast amounts of the public domain to private citizens. 270 millions acres, or 10% of the area of the United States was claimed and settled under this act à had to live on the land, build a home, make improvements and farm for 5 years before they were eligible to "prove up"
High-voltage transmission lines
allowed for high transmission of energy; helped to increase production, assembly lines and other technological advances
Initiative- ***these next 3 words have to do with this
(Populist wanted to included more of the average person⬦.so therefore at the local level they all started petitions)--when people start a petition to start a law; taking the initiative
recalling or kicking out an elected official out or getting rid of a law by an petition
to put a law before the voters- to change an already existing law
Australian Ballot
a secret ballot; people now had the privacy of voting. They did not have to share or show who they voted for; they could do it in booths/private
Commercial farms
Specializing in different types of farming
-A lot of money is needed
-Power driven machines
-Took over the small farms
-Scientific knowledge
A HUGE reform movement that fought for the rights of workers and tried to bring about justice to the work place
farmers party out of this 2 parties emerge (both minor and farmer parties)
National Women’s Trade Union League
Formed in order to get minimum wage living; devoted itself to securing better occupational conditions for women and encouraging women to join the labor movement
Jane Adams
Founded the American Civil Liberties Union in 1920
Florence Kelly
Made important contributions to social reform; developed strategies such as consumer boycotts of sweatshop-produced clothing and the use of clothing labels to guarantee legally produced clothes.
Terrence Powderly
Affiliated with the Knights of Labor and advanced the organization rapidly and was appointed as grandmaster workman, the union’s highest post
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
Christopher Sholes
Invented the typewriter
Burlingame Treaty of 1869
Both China and the U.S. were to recognize the inherent and inalienable right of a man to change his home an allegiance, and also the mutual advantage of free migration and emigration of their citizens and subjects, respectively for purposes of curiosity, trade, or as permanent residents
William Jennings Bryan
Gave the famous “Cross of Gold” speech; congressman from Nebraska; served as the Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
“Cross of Gold Speech”
Wanted more currency, more silver than gold, more money for farmers—given my William Jennings Bryan. Delivered on July 9th, 1896 at the Democratic National Convention on whether or not the coinage of silver and gold should be allowed
Andrew Carnegie
Gained much wealth and gave much of it away; made money in stocks; highly known for contributions to innovations in steel companies
Northwestern European- Old Wave
1830’s – 1880’s --The old wave of immigration came from Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, and the Scandinavia countries. It started with the potato famine of the 1830’s. The Irish were the first to come over as immigrants and settled themselves well
New Wave
The new wave of immigrants came form mostly South and Eastern Europe. Mostly from Russia, Poland, Italy, Greece, Czech, and Austria
The Grange
AKA The Patrons of Husbandry; a farmer’s organization based on a union, but more like a support system; it’s biggest nemesis was the railroads; they were able to get Congress to pass the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
“Yellow- god contract”
A requirement by a firm that a worker agree not to engage in collective labor action (union)
Niagara Falls
First hydroelectric plant; 1885
International Ladies Garment Workers Union; founded by Rose Schnelderman and Leona O’Reilly; said to be one of the most important and progressive unions in the United States; founded in 1900 and started as an organization dominated by Jewish and Italian immigrants
United Mine workers
Formed under the Knights of Labor; industrial union including all workers in the coal industry.
“Company Towns”
Towns that started out as mining towns and then flourished into larger cities
Thomas Edison
Founded the first central power plant for electricity
An economic theory advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods in a system of society with no private property but instead the means of production is controlled by the state
Karl Marx
Wrote the Communist Manifesto which said that socialism would turn to communism and then the poor people would eventually overthrow the rich
A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritative party controls state owned means of production resulting in a final stage in which the state has withered away and economic goods are distributed equitably
George Pullman
Inventor of the sleeping car
Samuel Morse
Developed the Morse Code
Knights of Labor
Started by Urian Stephens, taken over by Terrence Powderly; started in Philadelphia; sought to promote unionism to embrace all workers, skilled and unskilled, in a single labor organization; it called for an 8 hour day, reserving of public lands for actual settlers, a fiat currency, prohibition of child labor, equal pay for the sexes, abolition of contract system for prison labor and government ownership of railways and telegraphs.
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
Made the railroads the first industry subject to Federal regulation. The law was passed largely in response to public demand that railroad operations be regulated. The Interstate Commerce Act addressed the problem of railroad monopolies by setting guidelines for how the railroads could do business. The law required just and reasonable rate charges applying only to railroads, prohibited rebates, prohibited “preference” in rates, forbade long haul short haul discrimination, prohibited pooling of traffic or markets, and most importantly established a Interstate Commerce Commission
National Labor Union
Founded by William Sylvis; never really went through; focuses on mutual support; desired for a government imposed 8 hour work day and the interest in the organization of cooperatives which confronted the difficulties of credit; involved local and state politics
Henry Bessemer
Developed dominant steel manufacturing technology
Carrie Chapman Catt
a key coordinator of the woman suffrage movement. She founded the League of Women Voters and revitalized the National American Woman Suffrage Association
Booker T. Washington
a reformer who fought for black rights. Preserved Tuskegee Institute.
W. E. B. DuBois
a reformer who fought for black rights
Morrill Act of 1862
Donated lands to the agriculture
18th Amendment
Volstead act (against alcohol)
First Billion Dollar Corp.
Andrew Carnegie- born in Scotland, immigrant to the US, looking for a new life, corporation: US Steal Company, first billion dollar company, wanted his children to be hard working therefore didn’t give them much.
John. D. Rockefeller
Became wealthy by gaining control of the oil market and driving out or buying out his competition.
Credit Moblier
a construction company created by leaders of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1867. The company was exposed five years later as one of the major scandals in American History, damaging the reputation of politicians and businessmen alike
Pacific Coast Immigration
Chinese immigration to the coast, they were discriminated against extremely
Plessy v. Ferguson- 1896
supreme court case that basically ruled that states had the right to regulate railroad companies in that state
Grover Cleveland
-Did his own paper work
-Complained about the fancy food in the white house
-Cussed openly
-Only president elected to non-consecutive terms
-Elected only a few months before the depression
-First president to assert that for the sake of the national economy had the right to interfere in labor issues
-Was called a "Dictator"
U.S. Grant
Commander for the Union army. , he was later elected as president for 2 terms but his cabinet has corrupt people in it
Laisse Faire government
laissez-faire says that an economic system functions best when there is no government interference
Upton Sinclair
Wrote The Jungle
The Jungle
Jurgis and Ona come to Chicago from Lithuania, have their wedding in a bar in Chicago, have come to Chicago in search of a better life in Packingtown which is a brutal and dirty working place and very difficult to find a job. Shows family struggles of debt, death and hopelessness
“just know everything there is to know about them”- this was her response to me when I asked what exactly she meant by this.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
gave constitutional power of congress regulate interstate commerce, declared illegal every contract, restraint of interstate and foreign trade
Monroe Doctrine
The US did not want to interfere with international affairs
the world was getting smaller and smaller. The Eurpean countires were loosing their colonies and empires.
Spanish- American war 1898
On April 25, 1898 the US declared war on Spain after the sinking of the battle ship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. In the contents of the signing, Spain lost control over its overseas empire (Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippine islands, Guam, and other Pacific islands. Tensions between Spain and the Americas started in 1492 when Spain sailed west into the western hemisphere. Over time, Spain slowly began to lose its empires in the west (the US). Soon is only held on to the islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. All of these individual islands began to fight for their independence also. America also had a great influence with these islands. America began to invest money into Cuba’s sugarcane and some of the other islands products. The Spanish did not like this US involvement and influence. Tensions began to rise and eventually erupted with an explosion in the U.S.S. Maine; which then led to war. On December 10, 1898, the peace treaty was signed and the war ended. The US lost about 3,000 lives and it coasted them $250 million dollars.
Battleship Maine
On February 15, 1898, a mysterious explosion destroyed the American battleship Maine in Havana Harbor and helped propel the United States into a war with Spain
Pres. William McKinley and the Spanish American War
for the Spanish American war question just basically know what happened, what was gained and what was lost. America lost over many lives, mainly due to yellow fever. Spain lost all of its over seas empire. And all of the islands that used to be in their control now were “independent” but the US did not believe that they were capable of handling a government on their own so they intervened…(surprise, surprise)
-1873- American Association for the advancement of science
-1887- Forest Bureau- took money from the sale of public lands and used that money to irrigate other lands
-New lands Reclamation Act- 150 million acres – set aside for national parks and other reserves
Loss of life during the Spanish- American War –due to what?
Some due to wounds; but most due to diseases and non-immunity to different things
U.S.S. Organ and the Panama Canal
the Spanish-American war was a very short war. The USS Organ was called to help and by the time that it traveled around South America the war had already ended
“Open Door Policy”
this recommended that all nations would have equal trading and development rights in the Eastern Hemisphere.
strong feeling of pride in ones own country.
A relationship of protection and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent country or region.
Walter Reed
was an American doctor. He joined the army and became a captain. He discovered great advanced with yellow fever and eventually found that it came from mosquitoes.
Yellow Fever
An infectious tropical disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, especially A. aegypti, and Haemagogus and characterized by high fever, jaundice, and often gastrointestinal hemorrhaging. Also called yellow jack.
Japan and China – Open door Policy
the western powers had power now to come in and “equally” trade and develop business in these areas
Commodore M. C. Perry Drago Doctrine- U.S. rejects claim that any Europeans Nation has the right to use fore to collect debts from a Latin- American country
Perry believed that it was not fair for the European nations to collect debts from Latin- American counties. Perry believed that in order for the Latin- American counties to re-start after the war they needed to be pardoned from their major debts.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
was riding in an open car in Sarajevo, Bosnia with his wife. He was the heir to the Austrian thrown. A Serbian nationalist was who assassinated him and his wife. (the nationalists did not to be taken over and controlled by other countries)
Woodrow Wilson
1913- very smart, had a very hard time letting young soldiers go over to war, 2 terms. Wanted peace and towards the end had a hard time “getting through” to the public
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria -Hungry, Italy
Causes of WWI
Imperialism (Empire)
Have not- Germany, Austria- Hungry
Haves- France, England, Russia
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand – was riding in an open car in Sarajevo, Bosnia with his wife. He was the heir to the Austrian thrown. A Serbian nationalist was who assassinated him and his wife. (the nationalists did not to be taken over and controlled by other countries)
Nationalism- smaller countries want to be free
“ A War to make the World Safe for Democracy” Wilson’s War message
this was one of Wilson’s justifications for going to war. He had a hard time letting the young men go to war. He wanted to have a good reason to fight. He said that the US had a duty to fight to make the world safe for democracy.
“A war to End all Wars”- How does Wilson justify US involvement
Wilson said that this war was going to be the war to end all wars. He wanted to give the US people a good reason for fighting and believed that if they won this could be the last war of the time.
Zimmerman Notes- US relations with Mexico
A secret note intercepted by the US in which Germany was asking for a secret alliance with Mexico against the US and the Triple Entente. Bad for the US b/c they had fought against Mexico just a few years prior to this.
A passenger ship that was sunk by submarine warfare. Germans attacked May 7, 1915- 1198 killed total and 128 Americans killed
Submarine warfare
the bombing of ships and vessels as they crossed the ocean to bring supplies for the war. At first any ship could be bombed then with the Sussex Pledge it was limited to only warships. But then Germany ended that agreement –one cause of the US involvement in the war
John J. Pershing
of the American Expeditionary Force (where was his hometown)- Nebraska (Omaha?)
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Modern war, open not secret diplomacy, freedom of seas, removal of tariffs and trade barriers, reduction of land weapons, end to colonization, liberation of small countries, and a league of nations (14th)
League of Nations
nations together working together to keep peace- fell through because the US did not join. Today we have the UN
Treaty of Versailles
Ended WWI
The 14th Point
“general association of nation to give mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity.” (League of nations)
Imperialism/Expansionism- Monroe Doctrine (document based essay)

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