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MUMH final exam


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Program music
Music that describes a nonmusical subject, like a story, object, or scene, through the use of musical effects
Plainchant/Gregorian chant
he central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the western Christian Church
A "statement" by John Cage where the musicians sit on stage silently for 4 min and 33 sec and the focus is on the silence or the sounds made my the audience and atmosphere.
John Cage
Father of "chance" music. Late 20th century. -- 4'33"
the person who commissioned art; supporter of the fine arts; endorse their political ambitions, social positions, and prestige.
ny musical instrument which creates sound primarily by way of the instrument vibrating itself, without the use of strings or membranes
Avante garde music that explored new ideas
an early 20th century artistic movement which was attracted to the directness, instinctivness and exoticism nonurban cultures
Hector Berlioz
One of the first composers to really utilize the program symphony. Early Romantic. -- Fantastic Symphony, 5th movement.
The idea of speaking-- beginning middle end
Music for Eighteen Musicians
By Steve Reich it is minimalist style. Uses a very systematic and symmetrical approach. The late 20th century.
a 1965 Hindi movie
Pictures - "Gate of Kiev"
Again by Musorgsky. Is about A gate that was never finished. It ends very grand and incorporates two Russian melodies as a way of celebrating nationalism.
Symphony No. 1, III
By Gustav Mahler. About lost love, Late Romantic era
Wagner's approach to opera
He felt opera should go back to its routes as being more like just a drama set to music. He disliked aria's because they stopped the action. He used opera to deep thought and ideas less than singing and entertainment. He also used leitmotivs to help guide the audience.
A feeling of intense pride for ones homeland
Franz Joseph Haydn
A composer who wrote many many symphonies. Classical. -- Symphony No. 95 in C minor.
composition written specifically for orchestra with four separated and contrasting movements
The "theme" in a Fugue that appears again and again in each of the instrumental or vocal lines
any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points
Aida excerpt
An opera written by Verdi that takes place in Eygpt. Romantic period. Seamless melody from beginning to end.
a musician who is a consummate master of technique and artistry
Renaissance characteristics
Polyphony introduced, more pleasant sounding.
a traditional Indonesian ensemble typically including many tuned percussion instruments including bamboo xylophones and wooden or bronze chimes and gongs
Music Drama
An opera that avoids discrete numbers such as arias, recitatives, or ensembles, and in which the music reflects or embodies the action of the drama. Started by Wagner.
elaborates on the thematic elements of the composition
operatic solo; a song sung by one person in an opera or oratorio
a group of musicians playing or singing together
Verdi's approach to opera
Focused on the voice, never letting the orchestra over rule it. He also concentrated on highly dramatic situations.
Who sponsored and consumed classical music?
Slowly, music was being made available to the middle class and taken away from the patronage system.
It is a lied by Franz Schubert. Early Romantics.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Was a prodigy from birth. Classical. -- Symphony No. 40 in G Minor
Johann Sebastian Bach
Another famous Classical composer famous for his Fugue's. -- The Art of Fugue
Pictures at an Exhibition - "Promenade"
By Modest Musorgsky, pictures at an exhibition is about paintings his friend did. Promenade shows the different moods on an onlooker strolling past the different pictures. Late Romantic.
"Fate" motive
The repetitive "dun dun dun dunnn" in Beethoven's Symphony # 5
a German art song of the 19th century for voice and piano
Sonata form
a musical form having 3 sections -- exposition and development and recapitulation
"Elektronische musik"
The use of electronics in music
A gamelan
A group of five Russian nationalist composers. Means "mighty five". Mily Balakirev, Alexander Borodin, Cesar Cui, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Modest Musorgsky
Basso Continuo
universal in the Baroque era (1600-1750), were, as the name implies, played continuously throughout a piece, providing the harmonic structure of the music.
Aleatoric Music
(chance music) great variety of music in which certain elements usually specified by the composer are left to chance.
Ya Sin
An Islamic Qur'an recitation.
Edgard Varèse
Found is calling after WWII in electronic music. Late 20th century. -- Poeme electronique.
"Endless Melody"
A part of Wagner's Gesamkunstwerk, it made the line between recitative and aria less noticeable.
Arnold Schoenberg
A German composer who was famous for his "expressionism" work. He started serialism. Early modernist. -- Pierrot Lunaire
Repetitive, often synthesized music in which small changes occur over long spans of time.
Aaron Copland
A composer who lived af--ter WWII who was influenced by Europe especially Stravinksy. un-modern modernism. --Appalachian Spring
Musique concrete
Where composers used electronic devices to record sounds from everyday life and turn it into music
Monophonic texture
Simplest texture, a single unaccompanied melody. (Gregorian chante)
Antonio Vivaldi
A venetian composer famous for his Concerto's. Baroque. -- Violin Concerto in G
Violin Concerto in D
Johannes Brahms. A concerto written for a virtuoso violin friend, Joseph Joachim. Even thought it was during the late romantic era it uses very classical formating.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
"Saved" polyphonic in the church by writing polyphonic masses where the words were still distinguishable. The Renaissance. -- Pope Marcellus Mass (Gloria)
Episode (ritornello form)
The passages of music separating the later subject entries in a fugue
Poème électronique
By Edgard Varese it is an electronic piece that uses musique concrete (pre-recorded sounds). First played at worlds fair in a pavallion with lighting effects. Late 20th century.
Modest Musorgsky
Part of the Russian "Kuchka" wrote Pictures at an Exhibition about his friends paintings and a way to show Russian pride. Late Romantic.
any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes
Pope Marcellus Mass: Gloria
Part of the mass that emphasis's the words sung, By Giovanni pierlugigi Da Palestrina. The Renaisance.
Appalachian Spring
A ballet by Aaron Copeland and danced by Martha Graham. About a simple farm marriage. Showed a very American side. During modernist era but not "modern"
Absolute music
a term used to describe music that is not explicitly "about" anything, non-representational or non-objective
Steve Reich
Old master of the minimalist style. Late 20th century. -- Music for 18 Musicians.
Coronation of Poppea, excerpts
A cynical opera about mistresses. By Monteverdi. Early baroque.
Giuseppe Verdi
The greatest of Italian opera composers in the 19th century. Strongly emphasized the voice in his operas. Romantic.-- Aida
Sought to express the most extreme human feelings by divorcing art from everyday literalness.
Sachs-Hornbostel Classification
A classification of the different instruments in an orchestra
Gustav Mahler
A romantic who wrote many romantic-style compositions but they sounded somewhat un-romantic. Symphony No. 1.
Classical characteristics
New systematical approach to music. Music was starting to sound more "vocal" with different ranges and harmonies.
any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane
Name for the orchestral music that typically starts the movement off
Claudio Monteverdi
One of the very first people to compose opera. Early Baroque. -- Coronation of Poppea
Ludwig van Beethoven
Probably the most famous and revered composer of all time. Half Classical- half Romantic. Uses "the Fate motive". -- Sympohny No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67
Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, I
By Mozart. Classical.
Claude Debussy
The bridge between Romantic and early Modernist. --Three Nocturnes (clouds)
Opera buffa
informal description of Italian comic operas
Pierrot lunaire - "Nacht," "Der Mondfleck"
Written by Arnold Schoenburg, it is music set to the poetry of Albert Giraud. Schoenburg uses Sprechstimme (speech song) to give the recitation an eerie quality. Early Modernism. Expressionist.
A subdivision or scene of an opera. The recitative part of a larger vocal number within an opera
Medieval characteristics
Always religious church music, not usually polyphony. Gregorian chant etc.
the Persian word for the science and art of music
Violin Concerto, "La stravaganza"
By vivaldi. Baroque.
Romantic characteristics
Music is now thought of as a form of expression. More diverse rhythm and harmonies. More experimentation
How does the symphony work?
Four movements. Sonata. Fast. Minuet-Trio. Sonata (rondo)
A method for writing music that is not in a key, in which all notes are equally important.
Johannes Brahms
Lived during the late romantic era but concentrated on more "classical" works. --Violin Concerto in D. Op. 77
String quartet
an instrumental quartet with 2 violins and a viola and a cello
Who sponsored and consumed baroque music?
Where supported by patrons and writing music was more a job an an art form.
homophonic texture
When there is only one melody of real interest and it is combined with other sounds
Symphony No. 5, I
By Beethoven, uses "the Fate motive" Early romantic, late classical.
The beginning
Concerto grosso
a baroque composition for orchestra and a group of solo instruments
John Adams
One of the most famous still-living American composers. Somewhat of a minimalist but incorporates other styles. Late 20th century. -- El Nino
The Rite of Spring excerpt ("Augers of Spring" Nuages)
A ballet that caused a huge riot. By Igor Stravinsky. Early Modernism.
Symphonie fantastique, V
A program symphony by Berlioz with an idee fixe
the ancient court music of Japan
Symphonic poem
an orchestral composition based on literature or folk tales
a fast movement (usually in triple time)
Die Walküre excerpt
( The Valkyrie) Written by Richard Wagner. A HUGE mythological work that shows the downfall of humanity through myth. Tells of two incestuous lovers. Wagner uses leitmotives throughout. Romantic opera.
Polyphonic genre of the baroque area, uses one them throughout and often treats that theme with a good deal of contrapuntal ingenuity and learning
Best known modernist movement where painters used flickering color networks to show everyday life.
an opera solo that is much like speaking.
"Modern"/20th Century characteristics
Extremely experimental. No boundaries.
Mass - Proper/Ordinary
Proper- For the Season or occasion; Ordinary- for the everyday
"Total work of art". An idea relating to music drama and opera started by Wagner.
a section of a musical composition or movement in which themes introduced earlier are repeated
Igor Stravinsky
An avant garde ballet composer. Early modernist. -- The Rite of Spring
Richard Wagner
2nd most influential composer He had the concept of "total work of art". Romantic. -- The Valkyrie
is a musical motive associated with some person, thing, idea, or symbol in the drama. (Wegner)
From the Japanese gagaku
Art of Fugue, Contrapunctus IV
Part of a huge group of Fugues. By Bach. Baroque.
Character Piece
based on a single idea or program. Romantic music
It favors eclecticism in musical form and musical genre, and often combines characteristics from different genres, or employs jump-cut sectionalization. ostmodern music is simply the state of music in postmodernity, music after modernity. In this sense, postmodern music does not have any one particular style or characteristic, and is not necessarily postmodern in style or technique
Who sponsored and consumed romantic music?
The patronage system is basically gone. Artists support themselves and music is basically available to anyone looking for it.
Minuet and trio
consists of the minuet, the trio, and the return of the minuet
Baroque characteristics
Interest and the grand, overdone, and dramatic. The very beginnings of opera. Concerto's and Fugues
polyphonic texture
When two or more melodies are played or sung simultaneiously

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