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Roman History Test 2


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Aristocratic leaders of the late republic that used the people\'s assemblies and the tribunate to gain power
\"The Best Men\" - more conservative Senators: wanted to limit the power of the popular assemblies and the tribunes and extend the power of the senate.
senatus consultum ultimum
\"The final decree of the senate\" passed in times of emergency to give consuls semi-dictatorial powers to defend the state.
organized bodies of local businessmen, or guilds.
\"knights\" - the lower of the two aristocratic classes - constituted the cavalry ranks of the Roman republic for a time.
tax collectors who vied for tax collecting contracts
pontifex maximus
highest priest in the Roman religion.
pater patriae
father of the country - an honorific title granted by the senate. Awarded to Cicero, Caesar and Augustus
\"First Citizen\" - an honor bestowed upon Augustus.
List of enemies to the state - done by Sulla and Octavian - stripped person of citizenship and gave a reward for the assassination of any person on the list. Property confiscated .
Social War
War fought between 91 and 88 BC between Rome and rebelling Italian allies. Many were upset at the disproportionate land distribution and lack of rights.
A set of offices (10) that had the power to convene the Concilium Plebis and put up plebecita up for vote. Tribune could also summon the senate and lay proposals before it. Also had right to sacrosanctity.
First Triumvirate
Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. A secret political alliance that lasted from 60-53BC
Second Triumvirate
The political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony, formed on 26 November 43 BC - Given Imperium Maius which outranked the consuls.
Ides of March
March 15, 44BC the date of Julius Caesar\'s assassination.
The Philippics
A series of 14 speeches given by Cicero condemning Mark Antony
Gaius and Tiberius Gracchus
Two brother who both held the office of tribune in the 2nd century BC who attempted to pass land reform legislation. Considered the fathers of the populares. Both were assassinated by parties associated with optimate entities in the senate.
Numidian commander who fought against Sulla and Marius in the Jugurthine war, eventually lost and was paraded in a triumph.
(Mithridates VI) King of Pontus who was finally defeated by Pompey.
Gaius Marius
Roman consul who fought in the Jugurthine war and against the Cimbri and Teutones. Rival of Sulla.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Consul and dictator of the Roman republic, Sulla was a figure at the height of the conflict between the populares and the optimates. Marched on Rome twice and used his dictatorship to balance powers between the Senate and the tribunate. Engaged in proscriptions of Marius supporters after winning the battle of the Colline gate.
Cornelius Cinna
Consul and colleague of Marius - a populare.
Quintus Sertorius
Opposer of Sulla, moved to Hispania when Sulla defeated Marian forces for the last time. Held out in Spain for some time until he was assassinated by Perpenna\'s men.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
Pompey - prodigious commander of the late Roman republic, member of the First Triumvirate. Later engaged in and lost the civil war against Julius Caesar. Defeated Sertorius\' forces in Spain and put down Spartacus\' revolt.
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Commanded the decisive Sullan victory at the Colline gate. Helped surpress the Spartacan revolt. Desire for a triumph led him to Syria, where he died at the battle of Carrhae fighting the Parthian Empire.
Roman slave and gladiator who was a leader of the slave revolt in the Third Servile War.
Roman politician who attempted to overthrow the Roman Republic, and especially the power of the senate.
Cato the Younger
A politician and a statesman known for his legendary stubbornness and integrity.
Gaius Julius Caesar
Legendary dictator of Rome who subjugated the Gauls, defeated Pompey in a civil war, and established reforms of the republic that centralized the bureaucracy of Rome. He was assassinated by a faction of Senators including Brutus and Cassius on March, 15 44.
Ancient historian who was a partisan of Caesar. Wrote on Jurgurthan war and Catilinarian conspiracy.
Known for his popularist tactics and feuding with Milo and Cicero. Died in a melee between his gangs and those of Milo.
Wife of Clodius, Curio, and Mark Antony.
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Famous orator, philosopher and politician. Instrumental in ending the Catilinarian conspiracy, and bringing Octavian to power.
Son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. Killed by Octavian
Sister of Octavian, 4th wife of Antony who raised Antony and Cleopatra\'s children.
Part of the second triumvirate
The subject of the Laudatio Turiae, she was the wife of a man who was proscribed by the Second Triumvirs, she helped him escape.
Marcus Junius Brutus
Assassin of Julius Caesar.
Sextus Pompey
Youngest son of Pompey the Great, last opposition to the Second Triumvirate, when he held out in Sicily interrupting the grain supply to Rome. Was eventually defeated, and then caught in flight and executed at the hands of Octavian\'s minions.
Lover of both Caesar and Mark Antony. Plutarch blames her influence on Antony\'s failure.
Donations of Alexandria
Where Antony (illegally) distributed lands to his and Cleopatra\'s children. The illegal donation of Roman lands caused the final breach between him and Octavian.
Expert general of Octavian, notably won the battle of Actium.
First emperor of Rome: consolidated all the major powers of Roman offices into the princeps. Earned honor of pater patriae.
Res Gestae
Funerary inscription of Augustus - a first person account of his life and accomplishments.
A river in Northern Italy that was illegal to cross from North to South as a Roman commander. Julius Caesar did and this launched the civil war with Pompey.
53-BC. Site of a battle between Crassus and the Parthians, where the Romans suffered a devastating loss, despite outnumbering the Parthians considerably.
48 BC. Where Caesar defeated Pompey during the Roman civil war. Pompey fled from this battle to Egypt, where he was assassinated.
31 BC. Decisive battle between forces of Antony and Octavian. Octavian\'s forces won, and this allowed him to consolidate control over all of the Roman empire.
Final battle between Antony and Octavian\'s forces and those of the assassins of Caesar (Brutus and Cassius). In the first day, Cassius had his freedman kill him, thinking that they had lost (when they had not). Brutus commits suicide after losing the second battle.
A defining river of Mesopotamia, along with the Tigris.
Leges Vainiae
Gave Julius Caesar the governorship of cisalpine gaul and Illyricum for 5 years
Bona Dea Scandal
In which Clodius was discovered infiltrating a women\'s only religious rite (Bona Dea) that was occurring at Caesar\'s residence. Clodius was brought up on charges of incestus which he tried to defend himself using the alibi that he was out of town. Cicero testified against him, assuring that he was in fact in town. However, Clodius won due to bribery done by Crassus. Caesar divorced his wife afterwards : \"Caesar\'s wife must be above suspicion\"
The optimate\'s response to the gang tactics of Clodius, played a big part in bringing Cicero back from exile. Murdered Clodius in an accidental encounter on the Via Appia.
King of the Parthians during Crassus\' war against them.
\"The die is cast\"
The phrase attributed to Caesar as he crossed the Rubicon, commencing the civil war against Pompey.
Mother of Brutus and mistress of Caesar.
Exile of Cicero
58 BC - Due to a law passed by Clodius that exiled anyone who had executed a Roman without trial - directed at Cicero who had put to death the Catilinarian conspirators a few years earlier. Without the support of the Senate, especially Pompey, Cicero was forced into exile.
Return of Cicero
57 BC. Due to a movement begun by Milo, Cicero was granted amnesty unanimously save for a vote against the decision by Clodius.
Caelius Rufus
Was brought into trial under charges of political violence against a politician, but ostensibly for poisoning Clodius\' sister Clodia. Defended successfully by Cicero in his Pro Caelio speech.
Sister of Clodius, known for her sexual promiscuity, and historically associated with the character Lesbia - a character in several of the poet Catullus\' poems.
Conference at Luca
56 BC. A meeting of the First Triumvirate that reaffirmed the bond between the three men.
Jugurthine War
(112-105 BC) War of Rome with the client prince of Numidia, Jugurtha.
capite censi
A non-landowner class of Roman citizens. Traditionally not allowed in army due to lack of land, but Gaius Marius began to admit them.
Northern European tribe defeated along with the Teutones by Gaius Marius.
Social War (date)
91-87 BC
Fulvius Flaccus
Ally of Gaius Grachhus who attempted to gain citizenship for Italian Allies
Livius Drusus
Proposed legislation for the citizenship of the Italian allies and was assassinated for it in 91 BC.
Renamed itself Italia during the Social War - was the common capital of the revolting Italian allies during the Social war.
Of the populares, Saturninus was a political ally of Gaius Marius. His supporters beat to death his opponent in a race for his 3rd tribuneship, leading to the Senate declaring an SCU against him. Gaius Marius captured him, but before legal proceeding could take place, he was stoned to death by his opponents using roof tiles.
Sulla\'s First March on Rome
88 BC. Angered by the fact that his original command to fight Mithridates had been rescinded and conferred to Marius, Sulla marched into the city and expelled the friends of Marius. After which , he continued on his way to fight Mithridates.
Sulpicius Rufus
Tribune who Marius convinced to revoke the Senate\'s giving of the command to fight Mithridates to Sulla, and re-confer it upon Marius. Resulted in Sulla\'s first march on Rome.
Sulla as Dictator
82-79 BC Established reforms for the empowerment of the Senate over more popular power sources, namely the Tribunate. No Tribune could hold any office on the cursus honorum, and could no longer propose legislation.
Pompey and the Aegean Pirates
He won a special commission to end the pirate problem in the Aegean: finished with remarkable speed, only taking 3 months to essentially rid the Mediterranean of pirates.
Ally of Sulla, was an expert general who exhibited his qualities in the 3rd Mithridatic War. Sulla dedicated his memoirs to him and gave him custody of his son over Pompey.
Pompey in the East
Pompey finishes the third Mithridatic war, and brings Syria Pontus, Asia and Judea under Roman control.
Jugurtha\'s Grandfather
Successor to Masinissa, predecessor of Jugurtha
Sons of Micipsa
Adherbal, Hiempsal and Jugurtha was adopted.
King of Mauretania, fickle ally of Jugurtha, eventually betrayed him to Sulla
Q. Caecilius Metellus
Consul who essentially won the Jugurthine war, and was unhappy to give the command over to Gaius Marius, who dealt the final blow along with Sulla.
Mother of the Gracchi
Philosopher who influenced Tiberius Gracchus to pursue the land reform movement on behalf of the plebs.
Appius Claudius
Member of the land reform commission, ally of Tiberius Gracchus
Attalus III of Pergamum
Dedicated his kingdom to the Romans in his will. Tiberius Gracchus requested that his treasury be given to the Roman people, but the Senate refused.
Scipio Nasica
Led opposition to Tiberius Gracchus, who beat Ti. to death.
Tribune who, at the behest of the senate, continually vetoed Tiberius Gracchus\' reforms. Eventually was stripped of his office by Tiberius
ager publicus
Land confiscated from defeated peoples, and was supposedly public
courts de repetundis
Courts that were set up to hear corruptions charges against senators
Persusine War
War between Fulvia, Lucius Antony and Octavian. Octavian eventually wins after a siege of Perusia
Doors of Janus Closed
Signified the end of Roman war, closed by Agustus in 29 BC.
L. Hirtuleius
Second in command to Sertorius
Populare who betrayed Sertorius in Spain.
Adulescentulus Carnifex
\"The Teenage Butcher\" a nickname given to Pompey indicative of his bloody tactics in the early part of his career.
Laws dealing with treason. Often resulted in the interdiction of fire and water
Dictator Legibus Faciendis et Rei Publicae Constituendae
(Dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution
Heavily armored soldier with greaves breastplate sword and massive shield: main element to greek-style phalanx
Military formation created by the greeks. Involved a solid unit where hoplite shields would protect not only each soldier, but also his neighbor.
Spanish sword - good for slicing. Was an element of the fighting attire of Roman legionaries.
A narrow, tall shield good for pushing - defensive armament of Roman legionaries.
triplex acies
Three line infantry lineup - newbies up front, best troops in middle, and veterans in the third line. Enabled refreshment of tired soldiers smoothly. Third line could cover retreats.
Leaders picked for their military prowess, who would lead a century of men (80)
8 men
10 contubernia (80 men)
2 centuries (60 men)
3 maniples (3*160)
1 legio
10 cohorts (30*160)
Marius Reforms
Eliminated property qualifications for joining the army, skirmishers and spearmen were drawn from allies only, noRomans, un-landed members were known as Marius\' mules cohorts became the main unit had a training program for the gladius instituted

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