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Music Midterm


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a musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance
musical composition for instruments in which one or more themes are developed through melodic imitation
ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people
Terraced Dynamics
This meant a sudden change from full to soft, with no crescendo or decrescendo
Basso Continuo
a system of partially improvised accompaniment played on a bass line, usually on a keyboard instrument,
a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as "voices".[1] In the Middle Ages, the term was widely used to denote any works in canonic style; by the Renaissance, it had come to denote specifically imitative works
Concerto Grosso
common type of orchestral music of the Baroque era (c. 1600–c. 1750), characterized by contrast between a small group of soloists (soli, concertino, principale) and the full orchestra (tutti, concerto grosso, ripieno).
Baroque Suite
usually pieces just a few minutes long (6 minutes is pretty long for a renaissance composition!), for typically up to 5 or 6 players, and in a very polyphonic style where the voices are of equal importance
Chamber Music
a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber
in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung
a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form
a large-scale musical composition on a sacred or semisacred subject, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. An oratorio’s text is usually based on scripture
a large-scale musical composition on a sacred or semisacred subject, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, no scrpiture
a musical composition intended to be sung, as opposed to a sonata, a composition played instrumentally
music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform.
Sonata Allegro Form
Expostion Development Recapitulation coda
Theme and Variations
changing styles, fast to slow
Minuet and Trio
A B A form
normally refers to the volume of a sound or note, but
is the quality of a musical note or sound or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices or musical instruments
getting louder, getting softer
represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound
is the speed or pace of a given piece
a set of five horizontal lines and four spaces, each of which represents a different musical pitch
Time Signature
how many beats are in each measure
is a broken chord where the notes are played or sung in sequence, one after the other, rather than ringing out simultaneously
amount of rhythms played at a specific time
a texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices
is the simplest of textures, consisting of melody without accompanying harmony.
is a texture in which two or more parts move together in harmony, the relationship between them creating chords.
type of musical texture that refers to the practice of two or more musicians simultaneously performing slightly different versions of the same melody
the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony
music's harmonic center or tonic
Modulation/Key Change
the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another
series of chords played in order
any system which represents aurally perceived music, through the use of written symbols.
Pope Gregory I
standardized music
Gregorian Chant
the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic liturgical chant in Western Christianity that accompanied the celebration of Mass and other ritual services
poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadours but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France
Notre Dame School
group of composers working at or near the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
Church Modes
any one of eight scalar arrangements of whole and half tones, derived by medieval theorists,
Mass (Five Sung Prayer)
1. Kyrie 2. Gloria 3. Credo 4. Sactus 5. Agnus
'a piece of music in several parts with words'
a type of secular vocal music composition, written during the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Throughout most of its history it was polyphonic and unaccompanied by instruments, with the number of voices varying from two to eight
character, in Greek tragedy.
bounded by the interval of a perfect fourth (an interval the size of two and one-half steps,
Greater Perfect System
diatonic two-octave system:A above middle C and A below middle C
Lesser Perfect System
diatonic 1-octave system: A below middle C
a great mathematician, mystic and scientist
a Christian or pagan[2][3][4][5] philosopher of the 6th century
1st century geographer
the chief exponent of the theory of music between antiquity and the early Middle Ages
Word Painting
the musical technique of having the music mimic the literal meaning of a song
Melodic solo song of reflective character, often with a contrasting middle section. It is used to express a moment of importance in the action of an opera or oratorio
a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech
theme, always played by the tutti, returns in different keys throughout the movement
the lengthening or widening of rhythms, melodies, intervals or chords.
the shortening of rhythms, melodies, intervals or chords
original melody has a rising major third (see interval), the inverted melody has a falling major third
Tone row involves taking the twelve available semitones in any given octave, and rearranging them in such an order that there is no tonal link between conseutive not
part of a musical drama/piece
Jacopi Peri
an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. He wrote the first work to be called an opera today, Dafne (around 1597), and also the first opera to have survived to the present day, Euridice
Florentine Camerata
a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama/ 1st opera
String Quartet
a musical ensemble of four string instruments — usually two violins, a viola and cello — or a piece written to be performed by such a group
usually refers to a three-part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra,fast, slow,fast
Long musical composition for orchestra, usually in several movements,fast,slow,dance like, fast
one solo voice sings a melodic part, usually with considerable ornamentation, over a rhythmically independent bass line
The Enlightenment
term used to describe a time in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority
Dare to Know
Kant claimed it was the motto for the entire period, and used it to explore his theories of reason in the public sphere
German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity
German-English Baroque composer, who is famous for his operas, oratorios, and concerti grossi
Monteverdi's work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period
an English Baroque composer. Purcell incorporated Italian and French stylistic elements but devised a peculiarly English style of Baroque music
a Baroque music composer and Venetian priest, as well as a famous virtuoso violinist, born and raised in the Republic of Venice. The Four Seasons, a series of four violin concerti, is his best-known work and a highly popular Baroque piece
an Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music
the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum. He was probably French, and he probably lived and worked in Paris at the Notre Dame Cathedral, and was the earliest member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony who is known by name
a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the twelfth and beginning of the 13th century. He was the most famous member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony.
an important Medieval French poet and composer. He is one of the earliest composers for whom significant biographical information is available.
an Austrian composer. He was one of the most important, prolific and prominent composers of the classical period.
was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era
a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era

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