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World Civ Exam 3


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General Causes of World War I
1. Alliance System (2 alliances: 1. Britain, France, Russia, 2. Germany, Austria, Hungary
2. Militarism and the Arms Race (Both alliances were armed to the hilt)
3. Imperialism (colonization)
4. Nationalism
Bismarck's System
Goals: peace, to isolate France so they had no allies, to prevent war with the Balkans.
-Congress of Berlin 1878
-Alliance System
-Dual Alliance
-Triple Alliance
-Reinsurance Treaty
Congress of Berlin 1878
War was threatening between Austria, England, Russia, and Italy. Bismarck called them to Berlin to "talk", established peace.
3 Emperors' League
One of Bismarck's alliance systems; Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia. Said if one member went to war with a non-member, the other members would stay neutral.
Dual Alliance
One of Bismarck's alliances. Germany, Austria-Hungary.Said if any member was attacked, the others would come to their aid.
Triple Alliance
Bismarck's alliance. Dual alliance, plus Italy. (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy)
Reinsurance Treaty
Bismarck's agreement with Russia
Imperialism Causes
1. Economics
2. Strategic
3. Psychological
4. Public Opinion
5. Morality
China 1840s-1890s
a. They opened one port to the rest of the world, and Britain dominated China's trade.

b. China had a lot that Britain wanted, but China didn't want anything from Britain.

c. Britain wants to make up for the financial differences with gold, but they don't want to do that too much right now.

d. So, Britain decides they need a cash crop. The East India Trading Company needs one, too.

e. Opium is the solution. But China says 'no' to drugs, and they burn the British ships without paying for them.

f. In 1840, they go to war...the Opium War. The British kicked butt on land and sea. As a result, China had to pay for the opium they burned, and they had to open more ports.

g. Mid-90's, Europe descends on the China again.

h. Japan realizes they need a modern navy, and they turn to GB for help.

i. China gets upset with Japan doing this. (?)
Open Door Notes
a. By the turn of the century, GB own 80% of all trade with China.

b. GB wants to issue a declaration (they ask for help from the U.S., but we're not interested).

c. In 1899, we become intrigued with an Open Door Policy with China.

d. U.S. sends out a note to all of Europe asking about a free trade policy with China.

e. John Hay publicly announces that all the great powers have agreed to free trade with China (even though Russia didn't really agree).

f. Boxer Rebellion in China wanted 'China for China' which would get rid of foreign people in China, and they would kill you if you didn't leave. They also did this with Chinese Christians (b/c they were diluted with Western thought).

g. The embassies hold off the Boxers for 55 days.

h. But then after a bunch of nationals have been killed, John Hay sends a 2nd Open Door Note to the great powers saying that everyone will respect China's territorial integrity. (?)
Russo-Japanese War
a. 1904-1905

b. Russia has entered the area of Manchuria (the mineral heartland of China).

c. Russia & Japan both want Korea.

d. 1902, Japan signs a contract with GB stating that if either of them goes to war with a country in the Far East, the other one stays neutral; but if the other one goes to war with two countries, the other one will help out.

e. There is a sneak torpedo attack on a naval fleet in Russia.

f. Teddy Roosevelt is happy b/c it makes Russia look stupid.

g. But Russia has another fleet near GB, and they bring them around the 38 Russian war ships to fight the Japanese one-on-one at the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905. This would outnumber the Japanese warships, but Japan won b/c they knew what they were doing.

h. The only thing Russia had going for them - peasants to fight (but it never developed this far).

i. Both of the countries come to the U.S. to sign a treaty (with neither one of them being that happy about the treaty).

j. Results

(1) This stops Russian expansion in the Far East, and they return to the Balkans (where WWI would start).

(2) It also results in the first time that a non-white power has beat a white power in a major war.
a. Napoleon III wants to connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea.

b. De Lesseps is the engineer for this new waterway.

c. Once it's open, the English want it.

d. De Lesseps is also the one who starts building the Panama Canal.
a. The British have an interesting idea...let's connect South Africa with Egypt using a railroad.

b. But there are some Dutch settlers, African countries, and the "Ghosts in the Darkness" lying in the way.

c. The Zulu's are a warrior people who are going to attempt to stop GB.

d. They are a very athletic people.

e. They attack using a bull-horn strategy (encounter head-on and then surround and crush).

f. 1800 troops (mainly British) armed with rifles and a few pieces of artillery.

g. The Zulu's were armed with thrusting spears and throwing spears.

h. Very few of the British made it out alive.

i. But the British really won (since they are white & therefore, superior).
Boer War
a. Cecil Rhodes - wants to be build a railroad from Cape Town to Cairo

b. 1895, gold & diamonds are discovered in the area controlled by the Boer's.

c. The Boer's are agrarian, and they don't care too much about their gold & diamonds.

d. So, Rhodes decides he wants these resources, and he sends in a small group of men, but the Boers won.

e. Kruger Telegram - the king congratulates Kruger (the leader of the Boers) on a battle won

f. A war between the British and the Boers erupts a few years later.

g. It takes over 3 years to subdue the Boers.

h. Lack of medical & sanitation facilities caused approx. 20,000 women & children to die. (?)

i. The British eventually win.

j. 1910, the union of South Africa is born, and Rhodes is happy.
The Great Rapprochment
1. Rapprochement - friendship

2. The 2 countries involved - U.S. & GB

3. What brings us together? Almost a war.

4. Venezuela was divided into British, Dutch, and French territories. Venezuela hires a Madison Ave. PR Firm in NYC, and they bring up the Monroe Doctrine. (Venezuela was smart.)

5. President Grover Cleveland wasn't happy about GB violating the Monroe Doctrine.

6. GB says, "That doesn't carry any weight."

7. Cleveland asks Congress to send a survey down to Venezuela to see where the territorial lines are.

8. GB doesn't want to go to war with the U.S. b/c they have no allies.

9. So, GB resolves the issue with Venezuela, and they go one step further, and US/GB relations begin to improve. How?

10. GB does a lot of things to help the US fight Spain (ex. letting us use their telegram).

11. The US also helps GB out during the Boer war by giving them supplies.

12. Something about SPAM (?)

13. 1915, the friendship is so good, a Trans-Atlantic celebration is planned but never occurs (the whole war thing).
Anglo-German Tensions
1. GB & Germany are becoming enemies as the Germans are building a big navy & b/c they are building a huge colonial empire. Both of these would rival GB.

2. William II is responsible for doing these things starting in 1898.

3. Admiral Tirpitz is responsible for running this fleet.

4. He wants a fleet that is 2/3 the size of the royal navy. This was part of the Risk Theory. The royal navy would be bigger, but Germany thought they could still beat GB.

5. Germany wants to be equal to or better than #2 and #3 best navies in the world.

6. 1906, the Dreadnaught is launched. 17,000 ton battleship. Revolutionized warfare.

7. The Dreadnaught had 10 big guns (but no medium guns and very few small guns), and it's the fastest battleship in the world.

8. The Risk Theory worked, but it forced GB to become friends with other countries (not Germany like Tirpitz had wanted).

9. BTW...The Dreadnaught never took down a ship in any war.

10. William II just never knows when to shut up.

11. 1908, he gives an exclusive interview to the Daily Telegraph, an English daily publication. He says, "I'm England's best friend in the world. Do you know why you won the Boer war? It's b/c I personally planned your strategy."

12. But GB is smart enough to the know the truth, and they are furious at William II.
Triple Entente
1. The alliance that will go against Germany.

2. Composed of GB, France, and Russia (?)

3. 1894, the Russians jump into bed with the French and sign a military alliance.

4. Within a decade, GB & France become friends.

5. GB & Russia in 1907, resolve all differences and become friends.

D. The Balkans

1. The hot-spot of Southeastern Europe
Immediate Causes of World War I
A. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne.

B. Occurred on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo.

C. The assassins were from Bosnia (was controlled by Austria, but they wanted to be a part of Serbia, and Serbia helped them execute this assassination).

D. The Archduke wasn't killed in the street, but he went to visit his security who was in the hospital. While traveling to the hospital, an assassin who was still there shot him and his wife.

E. The assassin blames it on Serbia.

F. Austria asks the Germans for help in going to war with Serbia, and Germany agrees with a blank check.

G. July 23, there was ultimatum, and Serbia rejects some of it.

H. Within 7 days, the whole world is at war.
World War I Fighting
A. The Schlieffen Plan

1. Napoleon began a campaign, but he only planned the first move. He never had a lot of strategy.

2. Motlke only planned the first move and where he wanted the initial battle to take place.

3. The German government did not survive WWI because they were fighting a war on two fronts (they had to divide their army).

4. The Germans had planned out the whole campaign (they wanted to defeat the French first and then Russia since Russia took a long time to mobilize).

5. This campaign was on a strict time-table, and there was no time for diplomacy.

6. The Schlieffen Plan was a miserable failure b/c everything didn't go as was expected.

7. Germany had left their flank open to a counter-attack by the French.

8. There was one battle, and neither side could win.

9. But the Schlieffen Plan ultimately didn't work b/c the troops were too tired after traveling so far before a battle. (?)
Treaty of Verdun
(1) Feb. 21 was the launch of the attack.

(2) It was preceded by a 12 hour canon bombardment.

(3) There was a huge amount of artillery fired.

(4) The Germans ran into a French brick wall until July.

(5) The Germans only need to break through Verdun in order to infiltrate and win the war (or at least, that's what they thought).

(6) By July, the Germans are starting to give up the offense, and the French initiate a counter-attack until the middle of December. But they have run into a German brick wall.

(7) British Commander Douglas Hade launches an offensive in July.

(8) They want to pull Germans away and do something...I can't follow him...urggghhhh (?)
Battle of Tannenberg
(1) It was actually 2 battles.

(2) General Hindenburg & his right-hand man Ludendorff - the dynamic duo of the German army and eventually the nation.

(3) By the end of WWI, Germany has a military dictatorship.

(4) They hate each other's guts.

(5) They discuss their tactics over the radio without code.

(6) So, anybody could hear them and learn their strategy.

(7) Mid-Sept, the Russians will leave Germany super-fast and not return until the end of WWII. (?)
Easter Rebellion of 1916
German Intelligence operation.
a. Big Irish Rebellion (?)

b. Poorly organized.

c. The Rebellion lasts about 5 days.

d. Centered in Dublin.
Russian Revolution (November)
a. There were actually 2 in 1917 (Mar & Nov).

b. This one takes place after the one in March.

c. There is a lot of instability in the country.

d. The Germans want to send another revolutionary to Russia and bring down the whole stack of cards.

e. The Germans use Lenin to bring the revolution. But they didn't expect him to become become ruler and eventually enemies with Germany.

f. Lenin later created the Red Army.
Zimmerman Telegram
a. Was a great idea.

b. U.S. and Germany are on the verge of war.

c. Germany knows that Mexico hates the U.S.

d. The Zimmermann Telegram offers Mexico an alliance to where Mexico can go to war against U.S. if the U.S. and Germany go to war.

e. They offered Mexico their land back if Germany won against the U.S.

f. Mexico never really responds b/c GB intercepted it. They held it until U.S. was seriously debating whether or not to go to war.
Russian Revolution (March)
a. Mar 1917, Nicholas is overthrown.

b. A provisional government is put into place, and it wants to continue the war.

c. In November, Lenin comes to power.

d. And the first thing he wants to do is sign a treaty with the Germans - Brest-Litousk.

e. It would give a bunch of European Russia to the Germans.

f. GB & France liked this treaty b/c everyone had originally stated that this was a war about defense...not about territory.
American Entrance to WWI
When the war started, Woodrow Wilson declared America owuld be neutral in deed and thought. British were confiscating US cargo ships. Germans were blowing up US cargo ships and killing the crews. Lusitania was blown up. Sussex was torpedoed. Americans were killed. Germany apologized, said it wouldn't happen again. William 2 didn't want Americans on German soil, unrestrained submarine warfare began. America entered the war. American force was called American Expedition Force, under the command of John Pershing I.
Paris Peace Conference
Ludendorf and Hindenberg tell William 2 that its over, to try to cut a deal. Wiliam goes to Doorow Wilson; Wilson refuses to speak to him, said he didn't represent the German people. William resigned. A socialist provisional government was set up. The socialists had been against the war since the beginning. But they had to sign the armistice and were blamed for all the mistakes of the war. With the Armistice, Germans were forced to disarm themselves.
Paris Peace Conference (14 Point Peace)
A. Great Britain--David Lloyd George. Said, "hang the kaiser".
B. France--Clemenceau. Said, "do whatever it takes to prevent German wars in the future."
C. Italy--Orlando. Only wanted land. Realized hwe wouldn't get it, left.
D. United States--Woodrow Wilson. Didn't force his 14 points of peace. Said Democrats had won the war.
Treaty of Versailles
32 nations showed up to decide the Treaty. The big 3 wrote it: England, France, and America. Almost every nation was invited to join the League of Nations. Article 10 was the league covenant: if an atack on one, every other will come to its aid. US senators said they did't like the league of nations, it needed to be changed. Wilson went back to change it, no one else wanted to. 14 points quicky died. 14th point--league of nations--was the only point that lasted.
Treaty of Versailles (Provisions)
1. The Rhineland: France wanted to annex the territory on their border (German) up to the Rhineland. Surrounding nations went ballistic, saying it would make Germany an implacable army. They decided to make it a new nation, a neutral, unarmed nation. U.S. signed a military alliance with France; it was never voted on in America.
2. Territorial Changes: Alsace-Lorraine went back to France. All German colonies were taken under the treaty. Chekleslovakia received German territory.
3. Military Changes: German military was severely cut back. All German artillery/tanks/battleships were taken away. Wilson said that German disarmament was the first step towad world disarament.
4. Reparations: Germany was fined 33 billion dollars. John Maynard Keynes--Americcan economist. wrote "Economic Consequences of the Peace". Said Germany could not pay.
5. War Guilt. Said Germany was 100% responsible for the war (false)
6. German acceptance. Germany was forced to sign under threat of another war.
Results of World War I
Austro-Hungarian empire ceased to exist. Ottoman Turkish empire ceased to exist. Prussia, Germany, and Austria declined. London ceased to be the financial capital of the world. A generation was lost. WWI set the stage for WWI. French commander, Foch, said the treaty would do nothing but delay a second war for 20 years.
Russian Revolution (with Lenin)
Sparked by the war. Many Russians believed Rasputin was the root of evil, murdered him. Problems did not disappear. People took to the streets, had engagements with the army. Army was made up of peasants like the people they were killing, didn't like it. Arrested their officers and joined the people. Formed a Soviet government. Lenin, Trosky, and Stalin important in the revolution. In November, Lenin and the Bolsheviks took power in Moscow. Kerensky fled.
Joined the Soviet revolutionists. Wanted immediate revolution. Named his party "bolsheviks". Took power, forced Kerensky to flee Moscow. Hoped the revolution would spread through the world. Gained back all the land he'd given Germans after WWI. Wanted Trotsky to be next ruler, wrote a speech announcing this and saying Stalin should be exiled from the communist party. Had a stroke and died before giving it. Stalin stole power, exiled Trotsky.
Joined Lenin, created the Red Army. Later exiled from Russia and assassinated by Stalin.
Parents wanted him to be a priest, kicked out of seminary for spreading Marxist ideas. Joined the Bolsheviks, supposed the party by robbery. Expertise was politial manipulation.
Russia under Lenin
Organization of the Soviet Union. An elite group, not the masses. Created the Secret Police to handle counter-revolutionaries. Red Army--not wholly controlled by Communists.
War Communism and NEP
with Lenin. War Comunism: state controlled factories, peasants were told to give a certain amount of their crops to the state, to feed city eople. War Communism was a failure.
NEP: Added a little capitalism--economic incentive was given. Extremely successful.
Stalin's rule
Lenin died, Stalin joined with 2 other men to rule. Hated each other, but hated Trotsky more. Dismissed Trotsky from leading the Red Army. Kicked him out of Russia. Eventually Stalin had him assassinated. Stalin arrested his 2 fellow leaders and all old Bolshevik leaders.Wanted to build up Russia, make it unconquerable.
Stalin's 5 Year Plan
Economic plan, said agriculture needed to produce 2-400% more. Stalin took land from peasants and joined farms together. If villages revolted, the secret police were sent to destroy the entire village and kill all the people within. 30-40 million people were killed. Informants infiltrated the factories. Anyone who spoke against the party was destroyed, with their families. Russia was purified.
The Great Purges
Under Stalin. Stalin wanted to purify the Red Army and the communist party. Had a member of the Secret Police assassinate a Red Army leader so he could say there was a counter-revolution growing. Turned the Secret Police loose in the army and the party. It took years to rebuild the army.
Weimar Government
German reich. Reichstag: legislative assembly, any adult could vote. Had a president. Equality before the law. Government controlled the schools. 2 weaknesses: 1. Proportional representation. 2. Article 48: Emergency powers. Said president could suspend the constitution and use martial law in case of emergency.
Attacks on the Weimar Government
The Sparticists: Wanted world revolution, world socialism. Former German units (called free corp)put back together to fight the sparticisits. Sparticists revolted and took over Berlin. German free corp completely devestated them, communist threat ended. Kapp Putsch: revolution. Kap led the revolutionists, the free corp units. Stormed Berlin, overthrew the government. President turned to the army. Army said, "troops will not fire on troops". Free Corp took Berlin, socialist party was overthrown. Only lasted a week--whole economy shut down. Socialist (weimar) government was reinstated.
Ruhr Crisis of 1923
Germans failed to make their payments to France. French occupied the Ruhr valley, said they would not leave until Germans pay. Germany told workers in the Ruhr valley to go on strike. Government began to print money to pay them. Major inflation occured. A new Chancellor, Stresemann, camen. Stopped inflation, made payments to France. Economic crisis was over. German economy boomed.
Geerman Depression of 1929
Germany stopped paying war debts because America stopped loaning them money. Was devestated like no other country during depression. Every party failed to fix the crisis and was kicked out of power. Hitler and the Nazi party were brought in. They thought they could control him.
Austrian by birth. Joined the Germany army in Munich, wounded twice, given the Iron Cross. After war, joined a political party, decided to take over Germany. Thrown in prison for 6 months. Wrote Mein Kampf. Decided to take power legally, through the ballot box. Formed an army. Had a personal bodyguard, the SS, led by Himmler. Had a propoganda organization led by Goebbels. Hitler's party went nowhere in the 20s. Didn't take off until the Depression. Hitler was excellent at manipulation, said Germany needed a "fuhrer". Played up hatred against Jews. 1933, got a chance to rule. Reichstag was burned down by a Dutch Communist, gave Hitler an opportunity to put his men in power. Controlled the streets, media, etc., but couldn't get a majority vote.
Enabling Act
passed to give Hitler legislative power. How he came to rule Germany
Smashing, smothering. Hitler outlawed all political parties except his. Created the gestapo and the SD. Controlled film, media, and education. Eliminated the Brown Shirts. Eliminated 2 heads of the army. Made the entire German army swear allegiance to him.
Hitler's Economy
Economy recovered from depression quickly. Women were taken out of the workplace to create more jobs for men.
Locarno Treaty
Pre-WWII. Germany, France, Belgium. All 3 countries would respect each other's borders.
The Washington Conference
PRE-WWII. There was a naval arms race with Japan, US, and England. England wanted out of the treaty made with US and Japan. Led to the Washington Conference. Hughes led the conference. Signed the 4 power treaty, 5 power treaty, and 9 power treaty.
4 Power Treaty
Signed during the Washington Conference. England, Japan, US,and France would respect each other's borders.
5 Power Treaty
4 power treaty (England, Japan, US, and France) plus Italy. For 10 years, no one would build battleships over a certain tonnage.
9 Power Treaty
The 5 powers, plus the 4 powers. International open doors. Would respect Chinese borders.
Kellog-Briand Pact
Briand--French foreign minister. Wanted to tie America to their alliance system. Asks America to sign a treaty saying they will not declare war on each other. Kellogg (foreign minister, US) opened it up to the world. Briand was furious. 55 other nations joined, including Germany. Said they would not use war, disagreements would be solved peacefully. Immediately after signing,US began to build navy.
German Rearmament
Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles and re-armed his country, because "world disarmament" had not happened. England signed an agreement with them.
Mussolini wanted to re-establish the Holy Roman Empire. Invaded Abyssinia, in Ethiopia. League of Nations made a list of sanctioned items that could not be sold to Italy. England was afraid of the Italian navy. Italy used poison gas on the Ethiopians. The rest of the world did nothing. Proved Article 10 of the League of Nations didn't work.
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Hitler reoccupied the Rhineland (formerly declared neutral territory). Britain and France ignored it.
Spanish Civil War
Spanish republic took power away from the Roman Catholics. Large land owners were forced to give land to peasants. Catholics/landowners revolted against the Republic. War broke out.l Hitler and Mussolini send aid to Franco, the revolutionary leader. Soviet Union sent aid to the Republic. franco and revolutionaries won, took over power. Hitler and Mussolini became friends.
Sudatenland--in Checklslovakia. Bordered Germany. Hitler was angered by the way Germans were being treated in Checklslovakia. Demanded Germans be given rights, then demanded Sudatenland be given to Germany. British Prime Minister Chamberlain flew to Germany 3 times to discuss the matter with Hitler. Signed an agreement saying Checklslovakia belonged to Germany. Thought it would bring peace. Hitler invaded Checklslovakia, called the Rape of Prague.
Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact
Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Germany. Says when Germany takes over Poland, they'll give half of it to Russia. Non-aggression pact made war in Europe inevitable. Shocked the world. WWII began 8 days later.

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