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Johannes Gutenberg
William Caxton
starts first English printing press. Greater availability of books, swifter dissemination of knowledge and ideas, increase of literacy.
investigates human anatomy
Francis Bacon
propounds "scientific method," empirical research
1450-1650, literally means "re-birth"
The writers and thinkers of Renaissance who are associated with unearthing/translating/analyzing literature of antiquity, rediscovered and/or explicated and/or popularized culture & learning of ancient Greece & Rome.
refers to a particular set of intellectual pursuits and is not by definition separated from religion--not necessarily secular. Focus tends to be upon rediscovery of lost ORIGINS
Sir Thomas More
famous humanist scholar. executed for defying his king on religious grounds–nothing very “secular” about him!
returned to the original Greek text of the New Testament and made a new Latin translation (1511), Dutch humanist scholar
St. Jerome's Latin translation of the Gospels, used by the Catholic Church since the 5th century
new scientific empiricism
the interest in reconstructing the workings of the universe from the ground up evident in physics, astronomy and medicine.
litterae humaniores
King Henry VIII
monarch of the house of TUDOR--wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne Boleyn. (Catherine had not given him a male heir, only a daughter.) When the Pope refused Henry a divorce (under Catholicism ONLY the Pope could declare a marriage void), the king eventually renounced Rome’s authority: the Act of Supremacy made the king head of the English church
Anne Boleyn
gave Henry a daughter, eventually accused of adultery and executed.
returned the country to Protestantism (Elizabeth was illegitimate from a Catholic perspective). reign produced such writers as Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, John Donne. never married
Queen Elizabeth I. courtiership and courtship became almost interchangeable during her reign.
STUART monarchy
King James VI of Scotland succeeds Elizabeth
First complete sonnet sequence written in English
Philip Sidney's Astrophil and Stella
Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich
embodied by stella
only one of three creators of lyric sequences who definitely oversaw the publication of his own sonnets
Edmund Spenser
"little tokens of love"
long hymn in celebration of his wedding. written for bride.
performative sonnets
the sonnets stage the self in a series of short scenes or mini-spectacles in which a speaker reorganizes the world around his own subjectivity
poetic logic
the reader must be sure to trace the linear unfolding of meaning through the poem, paying attention to the movement of thought and the rules of syntax
fixed form
e.g. sonnet. in the love sonnet, the most extreme emotions of the speaker are ordered and controlled by the strict limits of form; the result is a particular kind of poetic economy. Condensation, compression, concision.
room (italian)
Rime Sparse
Petrarch’s 14th century lyric sequence
Translators of Petrarch's poetry
Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard
Earl of Surrey
Petrarch’s love poetry really becomes popular in the early 16th century in the translations and adaptations of his poetry
used by petrarch, contradicting terms
highly developed and extended figures of speech (sometimes unfolded across several lines of a poem) e.g. oxymorons
Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe
Christian mystics
Christian mystics
To cultivate a direct and subjective communion with God, the mystic chooses to withdraw his or her senses and mind from worldly matters, redirecting them to knowing God
in classical mythology was the Muse of Astronomy but whom Milton has transformed into a heavenly or Christian inspiration. Also title of wroth collection of poems
the first person mask, invites comparisons between the practices of Wroth and Sidney (his "Astrophil-persona"
Edward Denny
critic of wroth
The "problem" of women going public
long-standing tendency to connect public female speech/writing and unchastity
Juan Vives
humanist educator, encouraged women to stick to scripture
Giovanna dAragona
Basis for duchess of Malfi (Webster) Spanish-Italian noblewoman. her marriage to her steward and her mysterious death
per verba de praesenti
In order to make such marriages effective, there must be a present intention to make the contract and it must be expressed accordingly
From duchess of malfi. the malcontent courtier and unwilling spy; the disappointed underling who viciously criticizes the court but who also wants a position there himself
literally means transcending the physical; refers in particular to the use of surprising, even shocking, metaphors to make connections between microcosmos and macrocosmos
John Dryden
poet-critic, speaks (somewhat disapprovingly) of these poets’ “metaphysics” in the later 17th century
"Metaphysical" poetry
-concentrated, closely woven arguments moving by way of complicated analogies, quantum leaps of metaphor-driven logic
-the use of extremely elaborate metaphors or conceits
-a poetic idiom which borrows the vocabularies of science, map-making, astronomy, medicine.
-a tendency to make the most personal experience cosmic and representative, to insist upon its almost limitless significance. The microcosmos becomes the macrocosmos. The speaker tells the rising sun
-a dramatic deployment of poetic voice; Donne's poems, for example, offer a shaping intelligence and voice which is slippery, equivocal, driven, passionate-often colloquial or outrageously witty.
"Shine here to us and thou art everywhere, / This bed thy centre is, these walls thy sphere."
example of metaphysical poetry, "The Sun Rising,"
poetry of meditation
a more useful description for the poetry of the so-called "Metaphysicals"
"The Temple"
Herbert's collection of religious lyrics
a long narrative poem celebrating the great deeds of one or more legendary heroes in an elevated & ceremonious style
The unholy trinity
Satan, Sin and Death
"It was necessary that something should be forbidden or commanded as a test of fidelity, and that an act in its own nature indifferent [= arbitrary, immaterial], in order that man's obedience might be therefore tested
Milton--theological treatise On Christian Doctrine
line of poetic meter, 12 syllables. falls into halves-one question one reply
balnk verse
iambic five beat unrhymed lines
audible pause that breaks up a line of verse
breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses.
the syntactic unit (phrase, clause, or sentence) corresponds in length to the line.
the repetition of vowel sounds within a short passage of verse or prose
eight lines
six lines
a turn in the middle of poem-octave to sestet
duchess of malfi at end of webster's play
Donne, "the flea"
"The Canonization"
by Donne. (a poem in which the relationship between poet and beloved is only the starting point for a complex meditation which ends up encompassing the rest of the universe).
imperative mode
The Coller
George Herbert poem. the punning in the title "The Collar" [check out the meaning of “choler”]
"adventurous song":
the poet as a kind of epic hero-note his ambitious flight over the seat of pagan inspiration, his insistence on his own heroic originality
First Causes
prehistory of the fall of humanity is the fall of Satan.
meeting place of satan and rebels in Paradise Lost
Archangel tricked by satan
the golden scales of justice
sign god makes in the sky to scare satan away
angel who demonstrates repentance in Paradise lost
Michael and Gabriel
Chiefs of archangels
Nimrod and the Tower of Babe
story explains the perversion of pure language into the many languages that are spoken on Earth today.
One of the principal devils in Hell. Belial argues against further war with Heaven, but he does so because he is an embodiment of sloth and inactivity
devil known in the Bible as the epitome of wealth. always walks hunched over, argues against war b/c no profit
devil who builds Pandemonium,
A rash, irrational, and murderous devil. Moloch argues in Pandemonium that the devils should engage in another full war against God and his servant angels.
Satan’s daughter, who sprang full-formed from Satan’s head when he was still in Heaven. Sin has the shape of a woman above the waist, that of a serpent below, and her middle is ringed about with Hell Hounds, guards the gates of hell
Satan’s son by his daughter, Sin. Death in turn rapes his mother, begetting the mass of beasts that torment her lower half. compare to holy trinity
archangel, acts as one of God’s messengers. Raphael informs Adam of Satan’s plot to seduce them into sin, and narrates the story of the fallen angels, as well as the fall of Satan.
felix culpa
happy fault: eating the fruit
made by adam. it represents his love for her and his attraction to her.
Milton's muse
the holy spirit
paradise lost. ruler of the abyss.
Mount Niphates
satan's landing point. north of paradise
tallest tree in paradise
tree of life
courtier, who tries to woo Julia. A friend of Antonio. His name means I delete.
Daniel de Bosola
Sent by Ferdinand to spy on the Duchess.
The Cardinal
Brother of the Duchess.
The Duke of Calabria, and twin brother of the Duchess.
Duchess of Malfi. An old lord. His name is a play on the word "castrated", suggesting impotence.
# Roderigo.
# Grisolan.
# Silvio.
courtiers in Duchess of Malfi
Duchess of Malfi's waiting-woman
Duchess of Malfi. Castruchio's wife
annoying character in duchess of malfi
Object of Petrarch;s affection
object of Pamphilia's affection. Wroth
object of Astrophil's affection. Sidney
duchess of malfi. represent life, humanity
Elizabeth Boyle
woman addressed by spenser, ultimately marries him. strays from petrarchan love
sublunary lovers

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