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Page three

Terms

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Charlemagne (742-814)
King of the Franks (768-814); emperor (800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Through illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.
caliphate
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of the empire.
Brazza, Savorgnan de (1852-1905)
Franco Italian explorer sent by the French government to claim part of equatorial Africa for France. Founded Brazzaville, capital of the French Congo, in 1880.
Chavin
The first major urban civilization in South America (900-250 B.C.). Its capital, Chavin de Huantar, was located high economically dominant in a densely populated region that included two distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian coastal plain and the Andean foothills.
Caste War
A rebellion of the Maya people against the government of Mexico in 1847. It nearly returned the Yucatan to Maya rule. Some Maya rebels retreated to unoccupied territories where they held out until 1901.
chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
capitalism
The economic system of large financial institutions--banks, stock exchanges, investment companies--that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy, is often distinguished from industrial capitalism, the sytem based on machine production.
Cold War (1945-1991)
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world infulence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. The Cold War came to an end when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
clipper ship
Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessal, often American built, of the mid-to-late century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts.
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunnisia, founded by Phoenicians 800 B.C. It became a major commerical center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.
Chang'an
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Qin and early and early Han empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han empire.
Cardenas, Lazaro (1895-1970)
President of Mexico (1934-1940) He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing represenatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of plitics, and nationalizing the oil industry.
chartered companies
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies.
Champa rice
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it wa later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state.
civilization
An ambigiuous term often used to denote more complex socities but sometimes used by anthropologists to describe any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits.
business cycles
Recurrent swings from economic hard times to recovery and growth, then back to hard times and a repitition of the sequence.
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
city-state
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic, and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy.
chiefdom
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commerical links.
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from "Byzantium," an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Cixi, Empress Dowager (1835-1908)
Empress of china and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces.
Brant, Joseph (1742-1807)
Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution.
British raj
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government.
Buddha (563-483 B.C.)
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social positian. After becoming "enlightened" (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. This doctrine evolved and spread throughout India and to Southeast, East, and Central Asia.
bubonic plague
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. Because of its very high mortality rate and the difficulty of preventing its spread, major outbreaks have created crises in many parts of the world.
Chiang Kai-Shek (1887-1975)
chinese military and political leader. Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang in 1925; headed the Chinese government from 1928 to 1948; fought against the chinese Communists and Japanese invaders. After 1949 he headed the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan.
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.

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