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UNIT 1

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restoration Colonies
was one of a number of land grants in North America given by King Charles II of England in the latter half of the 17th century, ostensibly as a reward to his supporters in the Stuart Restoration. The grants marked the resumption of English colonization of the Americas after a 30-year hiatus. The two major restoration colonies were the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of Carolina.
Gorge Calvert
was an English politician and coloniser. He achieved domestic political success as a Member of Parliament and later Secretary of State under King James I, though he lost much of his political power after his support for a failed marriage alliance between Prince Charles and the Spanish royal family
Separatists
Group of believers; Thought that the Church of England was not being true to the Bible; wanted to separate from the Church of England
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Glorious Revolution
turn england into a constitusional monarchy; agreed to rule with consent of parliment; assigned a bill of right; signed the toloration act; ended the dominon of new england
encomienda system
priviledge given by Spain to Spanish settlers in the Americas which allowed to control the lands and people of a certain territory
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Townshend Acts
indirect taxes, or duties levied on imported materials--glass, lead, paint, and paper--as they came to the colonies from Britain.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Sir Edmund Andros
English military man affiliation with Church of England laid heavy restrictons on the courts the press, and the schools, and revoked all land titles he tried to escape wearing women clothing when boston mob tries to catch him he was sent back to england
Loyalists
Americans that feared revolution & supported the british
JOHN BARTRAM
an early American botanist and horticulturalist. Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world."
James Oglethorpe
founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his intrest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
Roger Williams
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
proprietary colony
a colony in which the owner, or proprietor, owned all the land and controlled the government
Great Puritan Migration
Winthrop Fleet of 1630, wherein eleven ships delivered 1,000 passengers migrating from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It may refer more generally to the Puritan migration of approximately 40,000 English refugees to what is now the Northeastern United States, the Chesapeake Bay area, and the Caribbean during the 1630s.
treaty of tordesillas
gave the portuguese everything east of south america, save brazil and spain everything to the west. spain becomes a power and portuguese got the shorter end of the stick, it seems
Treaty of Paris 1783
1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Fundamental Orders
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the firdst constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Battle of Saratoga 1777
1777 Oct. 17 Turning Point Burgoyne(B) surrenders go Gates (A) Decisive victory brings French aid; Spain Holland help later
Quartering Act
1765; required colonists to provied food and supplies to British troops stationed in the colonies
Father Junipero Serra
A major Canadian Franciscan friar that founded the mission chain in California. He was a great promoter of the spread of Christianity because of his missions.
John Winthrop
Leader of the Massachusetts Bay Company, later becoming Governor of the colony. Purtitan. Believed they were to be an example to Great Britain
John Davenport
a puritan clergyman and co-founder of the American colony of New Haven,In 1637 he acquired the patent for a colony in Massachusetts and sailed with much of his congregation for Boston. In March of 1638 he co-founded the Colony of New Haven, As a burgess, he was an important figure in the colony up until his departure to Boston in 1669
Samuel Adams
A New Englander from Boston, Puritan, firebrand, started Sons of Liberty, committee of correspondence, the Boston Tea Party, fought against the Stamp Act, a busybody, went to Harvard. A delegate of the Continental Congress.
Corporate Colonialism
extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment of either settler or exploitation colonies in which indigenous populations are directly ruled, displaced, or exterminated
indentured servants
Europeans paid for their passage to New World working for the company that sent them for 7 years, wanted land after their work time so they were more "dangerous" than the slaves who were never free
Poor Richards Almanac
1732-1758 containing many sayings called from thinkers of the ages emphasizing such home spun virtues as thrift industry morality and common sense Frankin wrote it
Declaratory Act
an act passed by British Parliament that said Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the American colonies "in all cases."
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
French and Indian War
war fought between France and England in the 1750s over territorial claims in North America
Thomas Hooker
In 1639 he formed the Fundament Orders of Connecticut which was a type of government. The document's main concern was to keep the community's welfare at its best. It stated that everyone should be ready to step up and help the community in the time of need.
Christopher Columbus
Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization. (p. 430)
Bacons Rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
Writs of Assistance
British officials could search any home, building, or ship without the owner's permission
antinomianism
the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)
Boston Massacre 1770
1770 March 5; 4 wounded 5 die soldier begin firing at colonist because they threw snowballs and rocks
Patriots
Those Americans who supported the war of independence against Great Britain
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Francisco Pizarro
another conquistador, he conquered the Incas in Peru, and opened the way for other advances into South America.
Halfway Covenant
People no longer had to have a religious epiphany to become a member of the church. If you were the son or daughter of a member of the church you could automatically become a member. Those who had not experienced God's grace could not vote though.
John Dickinson
Wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania in 1767 in response to the Revenue Act prior to the American Revolution.
Olive Branch Petition
Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George 3 didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion
George Whitefield
succeeded John Wesley as leader of Calvinist Methodists in Oxford, England, major force in revivalism in England and America, journey to colonies sparked Great Awakening
John Smith
was an English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas.
Proclamation of 1763
issued by King goege III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. organize Britain's vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. forbade Americans from settling or buying land west of the Appalachians.
Inca
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. The Inca ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
committees of correspondence
A network of communicaiton set up in Massachusetts and Virginia to inform other colonies of ways that Britain threatened colonial rights
Cotton Mather
Son of Increase, grandson of Richard. He provided news for the colonies' first attempt at a newspaper (Publick Occurrences) and was at the center of the debate of the smallpox inoculation controversy.
Columbian Exchange
A global exchange of people, plants, animals, technology, and disease form Americas to Europe. Began by Christopher Columbus. brought a commercial revolution and mercantilism.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
Declaration of Rights and Grievances 1776
1776 Richard Henry Lee + Thomas Jefferson (The Declaration of Independence) 1st: Declared Rights "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness 2nd: Grievances 27 causes for seperation 3rd: Declaration of Independence
Albany Plan of Union
American Congress: carry out diplomacy with Native Americans; control public territory; raise an army; tax colonial citizens; colonists were concerned with their own interest, didn't accept plan
Battle of Yorktown 1781
1781 Oct 19 Final Battle Cornwallis surrenders to Washington
Mayflower Compact
An agreement by those on the Mayflower to make and obey laws for their colony. This is the first example of self-rule by American colonists. (p. 175)
Virginia Company
Joint stock company received charter from King James I; Promises of Gold-passage through Americas to Indies/ Guaranteed English would have same rights in New world as in England.
Hernando Cortes
• Hernando Cortes was a Spanish conquistador who went to the West Indies in 1504. In 1519, Cortes established Veracruz, the first Spanish colony in Mexico. By 1521, he had conquered the Aztec empire using horses, gunpowder, and steel weapons.
James Otis
a young lawyer in Boston, argued that colonists should not be taxed by Parliament because they could not vote for members of Parliament. "no taxation without colonist representation"
John Locke
English philosopher. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) he set out the principles of empiricism, and his Two Treatises on Government (1690) influenced the Declaration of Independence.
Johnathan Edwards
an american theologian and congregational clergyman whose sermons stirred the religious revival called the GREAT AWAKENING known for siners in the hands of an angry god sermon
Stamp Act
Greenville proposed tax that everything paper had to have a stamp, tax was to raise revenue and raise money for peace time army, people didn't like it because it was like "taxation without representation"
confederation
a political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms
A declaration by the representatives of the united colonies of North America, now met in Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms." Our cause is just, our union is perfect"
astrolabe
An instrument that helped exploration by helping sailors find latitude and longitude
John Rolfe
Husband of Pocahontas; sealed peace settlement of Anglo-Powahatn war; father of tobacco ind. economic, savior of VA colony
Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
William Bradford
He was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. He was the second signer and primary architect of the Mayflower Compact. He is credited as the first to proclaim the first "Thanksgiving."
Aztec
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Cecil Calvert
an English coloniser who was the first proprietor of the Maryland colony. He received the proprietorship that was intended for his father, George Calvert, the 1st Lord Baltimore, who died shortly before it was granted.
Anne Hutchinson
dissenter in Mass, claimed that all the spiritual and /or political leders in the colony were not part of the "elect" and had no right to their authority, the leaders attempted to control other activites that she supported and restricted the role of women, founded Portsmouth, RI
Join stock company
a company in which investors share profits from colonies with out sharing liabilities
Lexington and Concord
General Gage sends 700 armed troops to Concord to gather all fire arms. So Paul Revere and others sound the alarm. Then a small amount of minute men interrcept British and Lexington. A stand off occurs until "the shot heard around the world". After succeeding at Lexington, the British continue to Concord. But at Concord there is no arsenal. The colonists suprise them on thier way back, causing a defecit to the British.
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Pontiacs Rebellion 1763
1763 Ottowa chief Pontiac led several tribes aided by a handful of French traders in a violent campaign to drive the British out of Ohio country
The 4 Coercive Acts
1.Port Act- closed the port of Boston, prohibiting trade in and out of the harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for. (2. Mass. gov't. Act reduced the power of the Mass. legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor. (3. The administration of Justice Act allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of in the colonies. (4. expanded Quartering Act to enable British troops to be quartered in private homes.(all colonies)
headright system
established by Virginia Company, each settler received a single headright (50 acres) of land , encouraged family groups to migrate together because it meant larger landholdings for the family, any settler who paid passage for another immigrant would get an additional headright for each new arrival - the rich began importing laborers
John Peter Zenger
a newpaper printer in the eighteenth century using powe of the press he protested the royoal governor in 1734 he was put on trial for this act of treason the jury went againt the royal governor and ruled him innnocent this set the standards for democracy and most imortantly for the freedom of the press
Royal or Crown colonies
Colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Second Continetal Congress
May 10, 1775, decision for war with Britain; needed commander of continual army; southern with experience (George Washington)
New_England
a region of northeastern United States comprising Maine and New Hampshire and Vermont and Massachusetts and Rhode Island and Connecticut
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
salutary neglect
british colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
Thomas Paine
Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain.
King Philips War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Amerigo Vespucci
The italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him
Gaspee Incident 1772
1772 June 10 The burning of the British naval cutter, the Gaspée by the citizens of Rhode Island was an outstanding example of colonial opposition to the enforcement of the Trade and Navigation Acts in the events that led up to the American War of Independence.
Mercantilism
A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country.
Quebec Act
designed to facilitate the incorporation of French Canadians into British America; Colonists feared a precedent had been established in the nonrepresentative government in Quebec; they resented the expansion of Quebec's territory, which they had been denied access by the Proclamation of 1763; they were offended by the Crown's recognition of Catholicism, since most Americans were Protestants
Conquistadors
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Peace of Paris
Britian received Canada and territory south of Canada, east of Mississippi river; France and Spain lost Indian colonies; Britain received Florida from Spain; Spain received from France territory west of the Mississippi and New Orleans from losing Florida
Sons and Daughter of Libery
1765; Samuel Adams and others terrorized stamp collectors and rioted; 1765: Colonist demanded stamp act be repealed and boycotted English goods; 1766: Parliament repeals; Declaratory act- parliament had right to make laws w/o colonial consent.
Intolerable Act
King George Parliament to set these up. 1) shut down Boston Harbor 2)Quartering Act 3)Martial Law
William Berkeley
a Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
Philis Wheatley
1753-1784 poet that was a slave (female) she was brought to Boston at the age 8 never had no education she published a book of verses +subsequently wrote other polished poems that revealed the influence of Alexander pope
Holy Experiment
Designed to keep in Quaker principals. This government guaranteed religious freedom and popular participation in politics
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

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