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History Chapter 18


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Silk Road
a trade route from Asia to Europe
stated that the sun and the planets move around the earth in circular paths
Arab geographer- showed the geography of east Africa/ Indian Ocean
Henry the Navigator
set up and academy in Portugal, research and cartography and navigation he funded other explorers
Bartolomeu Dias
Portugese explorer who reached the southern tip of Africa
Vasco de Gama
rounded the tip of Africa raced across the Indian oecean and landed on India's west coast
Christopher Columbus
Italian Sea Captain funded by rulers of Spain, crossed the Atlantic ocean- 1492 he arriveed in the Caribbean thinking he was in India
Ferdinand Magellan
spainard that went around the tip of Africa, discovered the Strait of Magellan, goes to Phillipines during a civil war, he was killed there
Strait of Megellan
the passage that Magellan found along the tip of South America
to sail around the world
John Cabot
he traveled south from Newfoundland along the coast of present-day Canada, didn't frind a pathe to Asia
Giovanni da Varrazano
mapped from what is today Norht Carolilna north to Newfoundland
Jacques Cartier
sailed past Newfoundland and entered the St. Lawrence River
Hernan Cortes
conquered the Aztec
Fransisco Pizarro
conquered the Inca
King Henry VIII
broke from the Catholic church and made his kingdom Protestant
Queen Elizabeth I
let English privateers attack Spain
sea dogs
English Privateers
Phillip II
king of Spain, sent a huge fleet of ships called the Spanish Armada to invade England
Spanish Armada
a huge fleet of ships sent to invade England
Pedro Alvares Cabral
led 13 ships to India
the idea that a country gains power by building up its supply of gold and silver
joint-stock companies
a business that people can invest in buying a share of the company
the buying and selling of goods of large amounts over long distance
Commercial Revolution
to increase trade, Europeans set up colonies and created joint-stock companies
they invest in things in order to make more $$$$$money$$$$$
invest in buying a share of a company
cottager industry
when merchants asked peasants to make things for them
Scientific Revolution
The thinkers of the ancient world developed early forms of science and passed this knowledge to later civilizations
and ancient Greek philosopher that observed nature, collected information
earth-centered universe
Thomas Aquinas
Christian thinker that tried to show that Christianity and reason could go together
the study of the tars and heavenly bodies
wrote s book and stated that the sun was the center of the universe
supported Copernicus' theroy but added to it, he stated that the planets move in ellipses
sun-centered universe
oval paths reather than circular ones
an Italian scientist that new knowledge could come from experiments that were carefully carried out
Isaac Newton
Englidh mathematician, developed the theroy of gravity
a book that Newton opublished about his theories
Greek physician, studied the human body
a Flemish doctor that dissected human bodies for research
English doctor proved that blood flowed through the human body
English scientist discovered and named cells
Irish scientist, proved that all substances are made up of basic elements
French scientist, proved that all materials need oxygen to burn
French scientist, wrote a book, studied morality
Scientific method
an orderly way of collecting analyzing evidence
explanation of the facts
natural law
a law that applied to eveyone and could be understood by reason
Thomas Hobbes
wrote about the English government and society
John Locke
English thinker, used natural law to affirm citizen's rights
a book written by Thomas Hobbes, it argued that natural law made monarch the best form of government
social contract
an agreement between rulers and the people
a French thinker, published a book called the Spirit of Laws
Seperation of Powers
stated that power should be equally divided among the four branches of government (1 executive
(2 legislative
(3 judicial
The Spirit of Laws
a book written by Baron MOntesquieu
-philosopher- writers, teachers, journalists, and observers of society
great thinker, wrote many novels, plays, letters, and essays
religious beliefs based on reason
Denis Diderot
French philosopher, published the first encyclopedia (28-volume)
a strong supporter of Women's rights
cclaimed that supporters of the Enlightenment relied too much on reason, instead people should pay more attention to their feelings
in this system monarchs held total power
enlightened despots
rulers that want better government but didn't want to lose any power or control
Louis XIV
a.k.a. sun king, monarch
Frederick the Great
most famous Prussian ruler, strenthened the armies and gained more territory for Prussia
Maria Theresa
a young Hapsburg princess improved serfs, tried to make government work better
Joseph II
maria theresa's son ruler, freed the serfs, made land taxes equal for nobles and farmers
Peter the Great
tried to make Russia into a strong and up-to-date power, founded St. Petersburg
the first town of a new colony called Virginia
John Rolfe
discovered that tobacco sould grow in Virginia's soil
decided to go to America so they could worship freely
a group of them were Pilgrims
John Winthrop
led a group of Puritans that landed in America and formed the colony of Massachusetts
English Catholics that founded Maryland
House of Burgesses
sort of like the English Parliament except for its in Virginia
written plans of government
Navigation Acts
regualted trade, said that you can trade with Britain only!
Stamp Act
Parliament started to tax newspapers and other printed materials
Boston Tea Party
the colonists were angry with Britain and they dressed up as Indians and dumped the tea into the Boston Harbor
Tea Act
it allowed a British trading company to ship to the colonies without paying the regular taxes
Intolerable Acts
To pinish the colonists Parliament passed laws that closed down the Boston Harbor and out the government of Massachusetts under military rule. It also said that British troops should be given a place to live in colonists homes free of charge
First Continental Congress
met in Philadelphia
Lexington and Concord
British found out that the colonists had a store of weapons there. British troops went to take the weapons and fighting breaks out. the first battle of the Revoltionary war
Second Continental Congress
met in Philadelphia
George Washington
when the 2nd Continentak Congress met he was elected head of the colonial army
Thomas Paine
wrote Common Sense, surged colonists to break away from the Britain and condem the king
Thomas Jefferson
popular sovereignty
the idea that a government recieves its powers from the people
limited government
the idea that a government may use only its powers given to it by the people
Articles of Confederation
created a national government but the states held most powers
checks and balances
enabled each branch to limit the powers of the other branches
Bill of Rights
set out certain rights that the government could not violate
stuffed image of someone, gets destroyed
Crispus Attucks
free black man 1st casualty in Boston Massacre

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