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Neuroscience 1


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Walter Dandy
US neurosurgeon 1886-1946 xray techniques used ventriculography
1968 first reading (noise was very loud) magnetically shielded room from the subway. Copper induction coil very low SNL
pyramidal cells
triangular cells that are the largest cells in the cortex perpendicular to the surface of the cortex
invented by Gall mapping of brain function onto scalp promience of specific areas of the scalp = increased capability for underlying brain area
Cerebral angiography
contains dye injected into blood enhanced visibilty of the bood vessels on xray early risks from painful toxic dye
sends info wrapped in mylin
Franz Joseph Gall
German neuroanatomist physiologist 1758-1828 came up with the idea differences in scalp mean differences in brain
Cingulate Cortex
involved in attention process (show up in fMRI)
brain stem- breathing and reflexes
relays senses or sensory information to cortex- lower and upper brain center
magnetic resonance image first human one 1977 Ogawa 1990 fMRI (measures brain activity) in rodents MRI (focuses on the structure) 1992 Kwong did first MRI on human- focuses on water content
Wernickes area
language area, if there is a lision you have trouble understanding or comprehending speech
in charge of eating, drinking, emotions, stresses
Lobes of the cortex
frontal, temporal, parietal, occiptal
Egas Monriz
neurologist 1874-1955 invented cerebral angiography
Cascade of events
active nuerons: psp's (electrical activity creates) --> metabolic demand--> more blood to replenish nutrients
James Zimmerann
MIT 1969 SQUID better shielded room similar quality to EEG
Cerebral Cortext
new part of the brain- extensive wrinkled outer layer of the brain governs higher brain functions like thinking, learning, and consciousness
Post synaptic potentials
chemical electrical activity of the nuerons
Kuhl and Edwards
1963 SPECT
outer folds on the cerebral cortex, gyrus first folds into those are sulcus
recieves the information
NIR monitors for neonatal ICU 1984
Neurons 3 parts
axons, dendrites, soma
frequency domain imaging of fast brain activity in 1994 NIRS
drill holes in the skull and pump air into the ventricles gave idea of what brain structure looked like
Hans Berger
German physiologist and psychiatrist created EEG
Parietal Lobe
body sensation (where your body is)
David Cohen
Canadian physicist invented MEG magnetoencephaography
Brocas area
language area, if there is a lision you have trouble producing speech
Frontal Lobe
cognition recent memory planning of movement and some aspects of motion
Temporal Lobe
hearing and advanced visual processing
cell body
thalamus and hypothalamus
first emission coherence tomography device Mark VI single gamma ray similar to PET measures output of radition but measures gamma rays
coordinates muscle movements
Masso's non invasive experienment
used a balance table whenever a person thought an emotional or cognitive task tipped the table toward the head
Godfrey Hounsfield
English electrical engineer 1919-2004 computed tomography CT 1972 allowed x-ray slices
Occipital Lobe
in control of vision
measures poistron isotopes/radition not great until CT algorithems were applied first commerical SPECT Tomamatic-32 camera
used human subjects in the 20's looks at ceisure activity measures frequency in hertzs alpha range (8-12 Hz) relaxed but awake state, spontaneous electrical activity, patterns of activity change over time
Gray vs White Matter
white is axons wrapped in fat gray is the dendrite and cell body
Angelo Masso
Italian physiologist 1846-1910 did invasive research with the churchbell- looked at the patients skull when the bell would ring and blood with flow (any cognitive process causes blood flow)
Measure of cascade events
postsynaptic potential - electrical currents and magnetic fields metabolic demand- oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism blood- blood volume and blood flow
Allan McLeod Cormack
in US invented similar process shared 1979 Nobel Peace Prize w/ Housfield
Frans Jobsis
invented NIRS neared infrared spectroscopy in 1977
Paul Lauterbur
US chemist 1929-2007 zuegmatography created magnetic resonance image MRI 1973
NIR light could be dectected through the head, changed with hypervenilation (blood oxygen levels)
CSF is drained and replaced with air so you can see brain structure- painful and dangerous with bad side effects. Used in surgery

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