This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Chapters 1, 2, and 3


undefined, object
copy deck
- were in Rio Grande valley; constructed intricate irrigation systems; they lived in villages of multistoried buildings in the 1500s; means village in Spanish.
Salutary neglect
period when the resented Navigation Laws were only weakly enforced
- were in Peru; primarily cultivated maize; built elaborate cities and carried on commerce; they were good mathematicians and made good astronomical observations.
- Founded by London Company in 1607. Was a part of the 1606, 1609, 1612 Charter and was made royal in 1624. It was huge in tobacco and black slaves took over most of the population. 1619 representative self-government was born.
Ponce de Leon
- Spanish explorer who sailed to the New World in 1513 and in 1521. He explored Florida, thinking it was an island. He established Florida as territory for the Spanish. He was killed by an Indian's arrow
What Old World got from New World
- gold, silver, corn, bean, tomatoes, tobacco, potatoes, pineapples, vanilla, chocolate, manioc, and syphilis
- formed 350 million years ago; before the Rockies, the Sierra Nevada, the Cascades, and the Costal Ranges
Sir Frances Drake
- most famous seadog in 1580 had a secret promoter who was Queen Elizabeth and she knighted him on the deck of his ship against Spain's wishes
Walter Raleigh
founded Roanoke Island of the coast of North Carolina in 1585, Was inspired by half-brother of Humphrey Gilbert, this settlement just vanished
Anne Hutchinson
- carried to logical extremes the Puritan doctrine of predestination, trial in 1638 ended in her being banished.
British-Indian relationship
- Attempted peace but it never stuck; tried to convert the Indians
- Founded by Lord Baltimore in 1634. Part of the 1632 Charter and was a Propriety( controlled by proprietors). It blossomed in tobacco and towards end of the century had imported black slaves. 1649 the Act of Toleration was passed guaranteeing toleration to all Christians.
Treaty of Tordesillas
- in 1494, Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the New World, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain received the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east
New Jersey
- Founded by Berkeley and Carteret in 1664. Was made royal in 1702. It was also extremely rich and land and was called a "Bread Colony".
Carolina .
- Founded by eight nobles in 1670. It was part of the 1663 Charter and was made royal in 1729. It remained royal and was separated from North Carolina in 1712.
King Phillip's War
series of coordinated assults on English villages led by Metacom (King Phillip) from 1675 to 1676 when Metacom was beheaded, drawn & quartered; (52 towns attached, 12 destroyed)
- 1598 a expeditionary with 83 wagons and hundreds of men, going through the Sonora desert fr. Mexico to Rio Grande; led by Don Juan de Onate
- plantation system that allows the government to "commend," or give, Indians to certain colonists for the promise to try to Christianize them; this was just a disguise for slavery
- African Muslim Moors or the "Dark Ones"
- the traits and culture of the Dutch being imprinted into the young minds of the English Separatists
- daughter of the Powhatan chief; she saved John Smith from death; became informediary between the Indians a and settlers helping to preserve peace and get foodstuffs
- were in Central America; primarily cultivated maize; built elaborate cities and carried on commerce; they were good mathematicians and made good astronomical observations.
Indian Slave Trade
- vigorous in Carolina; w/ aid of Savannah Indians manacled Indians became one of Carolina's major exports; Lord's Proprietor in London protested but to no avail; Indians sent to life long labor in West Indies cane fields and sugar mills; others were sent to New England
Causes of exploration/colonization -England
- religious conflict, political freedom, markets, need for more farmland, adventure, and they believed they were overpopulated
Irish/English problem
- rivalry between them because of religious conflict (catholic vs. protestant) they tried to join with Spain but England crushed uprising and overtook their lands
Dominion of New England
plan designed to promote efficiency in the administration of the English Navigation Laws
Lord de la Warr
- in 1610 came to Jamestown as new governor imposing a harsh military regime and took an aggressive military actions towards the Indians
John Rolfe
- Husband of Pocahontas and was the Father of Tobacco because he perfected the methods of raising and curing tobacco also was an economic savior for Virginia
Rhode Island
- Founded by Roger Williams in 1636. Part of the 1644 and 1663 Charter. It was proclaimed self- governed. It was the most liberal English settlement and in 1664 was allowed to establish land.
Rhode Island
- founded by Roger William, this colony was planted by exiles and dissenters, est. rights to soil in 1644 from a secured charter from Parliament.
La Salle
- Robert de La Salle had an expedition down the Mississippi river in 1680's
New Hampshire
- Founded by John Mason and others in 1623. Part of the 1679 Charter and was made royal that same year. It was absorbed by Massachusetts in 1641-1679.
- were in the northeastern woodlands; inspired by a legendary leader named Hiawatha, in the 1500s, to create the Iroquois Confederacy.
Varying Viewpoints: recent colonial scholarship
the overall view of new research says that col. "America" was a unique and diverse society from the very beginning and that is was not just "Europe transplanted."
- an intense, identifiable personal experience in which revealed to the elect their heavenly destiny.
- of the Southern Piedmont region; formed form the remnants of several different groups that had been uprooted by the shock of European arrival
sailed oceans and seized Spanish treasures and raided there settlements even though England at peace with Spain, they sought to promote the Protestantism
Sir Edmond Andros
English military man who held dominion of New England and revoked land titles and placed heavy restrictions on the courts, press and schools until he was forced to flee Massachusetts in womens clothing.
Why sugar plantations moved north?
- sugar crowded out other Carribean agriculture causing West Indies to become dependent on mainland of North America for basic supplies and foodstuffs; smaller English farmers were squeezed out by sugar barons so they migrated to the southern colonies
Iroquois Confederacy
- was a group of tribes that joined together to create a great army of strong military men; the tribes included: Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscaroras.
Indian view of land/ownership
- Native Americans believed that they had the right to use the land.
Black Legend
- false conception held that the conquerors tortured and butchered the Indians (killing for Christ), stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left misery behind; The Spanish invaders did kill, enslave, and infect but they also erected an empire, crafted culture, laws, religion, and language
Causes of exploration/colonization -France
- they came seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean and wealth; also, to export products such as fish, sugar, and furs
North Carolina
- Founded by Virginia in 1653. Was part of the 1663 Charter and was made royal in 1729. It separated from South Carolina in 1691. It was a sanctuary for poor whites and religious descanters from Carolina and Virginia.
John Winthrop
- governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, believing he had a "calling" from God. He feared and distrusted the "commoners" and abhorred democracy.
- Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored the California coast in 1542 but failed to find San Francisco Bay or anything else of importance
Second Anglo/Powhatan war
- in 1614 Indians tried to dislodge the Virginians and lost again in the peace treaty written in 1646 it banished them from their ancestral lands and from white areas of settlements
Causes of exploration/colonization -Spain
- came to take over and set up colonies; also, in search of gold and silver
Life in Plymouth
- where the Pilgrims and squatters settled, had grisly winters and bountiful autumns. Economically inclined to fur, fish, and lumber; the beaver and Bible being their mainstays.
Great Plains Indians
- Indians that migrated onto the Great Plains b/c of the Europeans bringing horses; Lakotas (Sioux) who had been forest dwellers migrated and adopted life as nomadic hunters and thrived
French-Indian relationship
- treated the Indians the best; tried to convert the Indians with more zeal
European view of land/ownership
- They believed that humans had the right to own and manipulate and affect the land; that they have ownership and dominion.
Life in Carolina
- run by the Lord's proprietors, it was an area of swampy wilderness crossing to the Pacific, exported enslaved Indians and rice as cash crops employing thousands of African slaves to work the rice crops. Many English families, French, and protestants settled in Carolina giving it a colorful rich aristocratic feel
- After failed attempt at colonization in 1623, this colony was, in 1677, purchased by the Gorges heirs. It's known for its enterprising fishermen, fur traders, lakes, and forests.
- Indian tribe that liven near Great Lakes; became a regional power by absorbing surrounding bands; forced the English to conform to Indian ways which created a zone where both Europeans and Native Americans were compelled ot accommodate one another
Early Jamestown Problems
- when first arriving settlers died in dozens because of disease, malnutrition, and starvation; ppl not accustomed to fending for themselves and only wanted to find gold; had a "starving time" and lost tons, throughout years disease continued to kill many b/c of poor harvests
- Religious belief that God decided fate of people beforehand of who went to heaven and who went to hell
- Founded by William Penn in 168. Part of the 1681 Charter and was a Propriety. It was filled with Quakers who wanted Peace and no slavery.
- a series of military assaults in attempt to get the Holy Land from Muslim control from the 11th to the 14th century. The Christian Crusaders acquired a taste for Eastern goods. Europe craved these goods and longed to find a cheaper trading route. Their desire for a quicker, inexpensive route eventually led to the discovery of the New World
New Haven
- Est. in 1638, this was a prosperous colony founded by Puritans w/ ideas of church-gov't alliances. In 1662 was given sea-to-sea charter grant by Charles II. Colony was also part of New England Confederation.
famous col. historians
Richard White, William Cronon, Ramon Gutierrez, Edmund Morgan, Bernard Bailyn
Virginia Charter
- established around 1606; gave men same rights as in England; foundation for liberties; leads to the American Revolution; the reason for British colonization failure; revoked by James I in 1624 b/c he didn't like tobacoo making VA a royal colony
Chesapeake Life
- full of disease; shorter life spans by 10 yrs; half of people died before turned 20; made up of mostly young single men; women in high demand; eventually became successful b/c more women were brought over and immunities were developed
- 1519 Hernan Cortes sailed to Mexico in search of gold; with several hundred men, and 11 ships; landed near Vera Cruz; chieftan sent ambassadors bearing gifts to welcome the Spaniards; cortes said he suffered a disease of the heart with the only cure being gold; Chieftan thought cortes was a god and gave him anything he asked for; eventually cortes wore out their welcome; on June 30, 1520 the Aztecs attacked and drove out the Spaniards; He brought crops, animals, language, laws, and religion; he intermarried with surviving Indians creating the Mestizos.
Pope's Rebellion
- 1680; Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic church in the province and killed a source of priest and Spanish settlers; the Indians rebuilt a kiva, ceremonial religious chamber; took nearly ½ a century for Spanish to gain full control over indains again
First Anglo/Powhatan war
- when Lord de la Warr introduced Irish tactics against Indians (raiding villages, burned houses, took provisions, and torched fields) ended in 1614 and sealed peace by the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas
Act of Toleration
- made by Catholics of MD in 1649 out of fear of Protestant overthrow; said all Christian were accepted but those who denied divinity of Jesus faced death
Barbados Slave Code
- codes made by English in 1661 to control the black slaves in West Indies b/c they outnumbered white settlers 4 to 1; defined slave's legal status and master's prerogatives; gave owner's complete control over slaves and rights to vicious punishment
Restoration Period/ Charles II
- Charles II restored to throne in 1660; now in Restoration period; empire building resumed with great intensity and royal involvement; Carolina created and named for Charles II on 1670
Mayflower Compact
- a written agreement made between the pilgrims to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon.
Fundamental Orders
document drafted by the settlers of the new Connecticut River colony; was a modern constitution which established a regime democratically controlled by "substantial" citizens.
Life in Georgia
- pine forested with the harbor of Savannah, it served as a buffer to protect the Carolinas from attack and exported wine and silk, founded by philanthropists (James Oglethorpe) least populous of colonies; haven for poor, German Lutherans, and Scots; didn't have slavery originally and colonists had religious toleration
Three-Sister Farming
- is the cultivation of maize, beans, squash; where beans grow on the trellis on the cornstalks and the squash covering the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil; this provided a rich diet for the crops.
Connecticut River
- fertile expanse attracting Dutch and English settlers. Founded in 1635, it's gov't was controlled by citizens. This is also where New Haven was est.
New Hampshire
founded in 1623 by John Mason and others; based on fishing and trading activities. In 1641 it was absorbed by Massachusetts Bay only to be separated again by Charles II in 1677.
Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee
- the three-sister farming produced some of the highest population densities on the continent; they practiced a democratic government.
Humphrey Gilbert
- was the promoter of going out and settling the settlement New Foundland but never happened cause he died on voyage in 1583
Myles Standish
- a non separatist captain aboard the mayflower, who rendered indispensable service as an Indian fighter and negotiator
William Penn
- an English Quaker, in 1681 received a grant of land in the New World from the king who named it Pennsylvania after Penn, he created a peaceful colony for the Quakers and "squatters" even Indians.
Puritan social/religious problems
- problems such as commoners being degraded(only puritans could be freemen), and in a limited way, ideas of separation of church and state.
William Bradford
- self-taught scholar/governor of the Pilgrim community. Fear that independent, non-Puritan settlers might corrupt his godly experiment in the wilderness.
Visible saints
- those who had God's gift of saving grace and demonstrated it by their holy behavior
Spanish- Indian relationship
- The worst towards the Indians;
House of Burgesses
- established in 1619 in VA by London Company; representative self- government; 1st colonial parliament; representatives were property owners; created to attract more settlers to VA
- English religious reformers who undertook a purification of English Christianity, followed a strict religious code
Scandinavian exploring
- Blond-bearded Norse seafarers from Scandinavia chanced upon the northeastern shoulder of North America about 1000 A.D. They landed near present day Newfoundland and called it Vinland because of all the grapes. No strong nation-state, wanting to expand, supported these explorations. Their settlements were abandoned and their discovery was forgotten, except in Scandinavian saga and song
- 1769 Spanish missionaries led by Father Junipero Serra founded San Diego; 1st of 21 missions; Serra's brown-robed Franciscan friars toiled with Christianizing the 300,000 Californians; they gathered the Indians and taught them horticulture and basic crafts; they adopted Christianity but also lost contact with their native cultures
- were in Mexico; primarily cultivated maize; built elaborate cities and carried on commerce; they were good mathematicians and made good astronomical observations; Aztecs sought favor of the gods by offering human sacrifices, cutting the hearts out of the chests of living victims, who were often captives conquered in battle.
Spanish Armada
- King Phillip II sent a fleet of 130 ships to England to defeat them but lost and gave England naval domination
Joint-stock Company
- provided financial means for charters to the New World Ex. The Virginia Company
- Founded by Massachusetts emigrants in 1635. Was part of the 1662 Charter. It was self- governed under local control.
Massachusetts Bay gov't
- gov't guided by only puritan men and property holders. Gov't was not a democracy, but was based on enforcing God's laws.
Lord Baltimore
- of prominent English family; founded MD in 1634; given charter by Charles I ; embarked upon venture for profit and to create a Catholic haven; allowed freedom of worship; had feudal system where Catholic landowners surrounded by Protestant farmers
- Founded by Swedes in 1638. It was a Propriety. In 1638 it merged with Pennsylvania and kept its governor but had different assembly. It was named after Lord De La Warr.
Massachusetts (Plymouth & Maine)
- Mass. was founded by Puritans in 1628 and was part of the 1629 Charter and was made royal in 1691. Plymouth was founded by Separatist in 1620. It emerged with Massachusetts in 1691. Maine was founded by F. George in 1623 was part of the 1639 Charter. Later it was bought by Massachusetts in 1677.
- near present day St. Louis; was at one point home to 25 thousand people.
Wampanoag chieftan who signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate the first Thanksgiving that year (father of Metacom)
Glorious Revolution
1688 to 1689 the people of England engineered the revolution dethroning James II and enthroning William III and his English wife Mary (daughter of James II)
Navigations Laws
laws made to stitch overseas possessions more tightly the the motherland by throttling American trade with countries not ruled by the English crown
Metacom/King Phillip
formed a Pan-Indian Alliance against the English settlements in 1675 starting King Phillip''s war (Massasoit's son)
- born 1451, he was an Italian navigator who led an expedition to find a route to the Indies. His expedition was funded by Spanish monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand. The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492. He is credited with discovering the New World even though he still believed he had made it to India when he died in 1503
Roger Williams
- extreme Seperatist who challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's charter. In 1635, he was banished and fled to Rhode Island where he endorsed religious tolerance and made R.I. more liberal.
James I
- king who was head of both church and state in 1603 to 1625: thought if his subjects who defy him as a spiritual leader they would defy him as a political leader
- West Indies crop; rich-man's crop b/c had to be planted extensively, required land clearing, had elaborate refining process, and was a capital intense business
- from 1540 to 152 he searched for the 'city of gold' which turned out to be adobe pueblos. He explored the Southwest United States and discovered the Grand Canyon and enormous herds of buffalo (bison)
- laws the decree that only the eldest sons were eligible to inherit land estates, younger sons were forced to seek fortunes other places
John Smith
saved Virginia from collapse because started making the settlers work and not just be gold hungry; was kidnapped in December 1607 by Powhatan's and was to be executed but saved by Pocahontas
- Founded by James Oglethorpe and others in 1733. It was part of the 1732 Charter and was made royal in 1752. It was a haven for debtors and the last colony established.
- People of mixed Indian and Mexican heritage
- a strict religious group of puritans that vowed to break away entirely from the church of England
John Calvin
- published a doctrine in 1536 based after Martin Luther's ideas and his own creating the dominate religious credo of the Puritans called Calvinism, which stated that God was all powerful and all knowing and humans were wicked.
New Haven
- Founded by Massachusetts emigrants in 1638. It merged with Conneticut.
What New World got from Old World
- wheat, sugar, rice, coffee, horses, cows, pigs, smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, and scarlet fever
New York
- Founded by the Dutch in 1613. Also founded by Duke of York in 1613 and was part of the 1664 charter. It was made royal in 1685. The soil was extremely fertile and was known as one of the " Bread Colonies".
Pequot War
war between Pequot tribe and English settlers in 1637 resulting in the anilation of the Pequot tribe trought the aliance of the Narragansett and the English militiamen
- crop perfected by John Rolfe in 1612; VA colony staple that put colony on firm economic foundation; ruined soil; demanded fresh labor; chained VA to only 1 crop
Life in N. Carolina
- northern Carolina that bordered Virginia isolated by Cape Hatteras sheltered the impovished outcasts, who resisted authority ,created tobacco crops, was democratic, and had disputes with Indians
Mound Builders
- were in the Ohio River valley, the Mississippian culture, and desert-dwelling Anasazi peoples; they did have some large settlements.
New England Confederation
formed when the Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven and the valley settlement banded together to defend itself against foes or potential foes like the Indians, French, Dutch; they dealt with intercolonial problems such as runaway servants or criminals fleeing to another colony. Each colony held 2 votes
Thomas Hooker
leader of a group of Boston Puritans that moved into the Hartford area.
- about 1450 they developed the caravel and discovered that they could return to Europe by sailing northwesterly from the African coast. They set up trading posts (slaves and gold) along the African shore. Portuguese adventures in Africa were the origins of the modern plantation system and helped shape the plantation economy in the New World

Deck Info