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Unit Five Review

Vocab words; People

Terms

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Voltaire
Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought
Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher who argued that man was sinful and needed to be controlled
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Isac Newton
Discovered Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, defined the laws of motion and gravity
William Harvey
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
Miguel de Cervantes
Considered the first novel. About a man who wanders through the countryside thinking that he's a knight.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Born in 1685 in Germany. From a musical family. Studied music all of his life. Traveled and brought new music ideas to the church-challenged tradition. Baroque style:complex, multilayered.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe
Eugene Delacroix
Born 1798 in France. Romantic:emotion not reason. Use of color. Historic themes.
Oliver Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosoper, ideas had great influence- Born in 1712, believed people should be guided by emotions, disagreed with other philosophers
Johannes Kepler
Father of modern astronomy. A german mathematician, confirmed the heliocentric theory with observations, He also showed that the planets moved in confirmed the heliocentric theory with observations. He also showed that the plants moved in elipses rather than pefect circles.
Louis XIV
King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
Nicolaus Copernicus
Published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543 (often seen as the start of the Scientific Revolution) He stated his heliocentric(sun-centered) theory of the universe, which was closer to accurate, but still flawed.
Peter the Great
Czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Galileo Galilei
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Born in 1756 in Austria. From a musical family. Musical prodigy. Traveled through Europe. Rebelled against church rules. Classical style. Piano concerto.
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
Charles I
King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor

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