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Chapter 13: The Enlightenment


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The Age of Enlightenment is also known as?
The Age of Reason
What is Humanism?
More interest in the lower and middle class, fellow man.
What are 5 concerns of Humanism?
Natural Law, human rights/progress, freedom from tyranny and superstition, secular thought is more common, "laissez-faire"/particularly tax and business
What is "laissez-faire"?
An economic doctrine that opposes governmental interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary
Who is Francois Marie Arouet?
"Voltaire", 1694-1778, French, philosopher, historian, writer
Francois Marie Arouet wrote what?
Candide, 1758 (Voltaire)
Who is Immanuel Kant?
philosopher, 1724-1804, German, Sought to sythesize Rationalism and Empiricism
What is Rationalism?
reason is the prime source of knowledge and truth
What is Empiricism?
experience is the only source of knowledge
Who is James Watt?
1736-1819, Scot, inventor of the steam engine
Who is Matthew Boulton?
built a 600 worker factory, made advancements in medicine (instruments), engineering (hydraulics), inventions inclue : flush toilet, bicycle, hot air balloon
What is the Rococo Style?
elegant, decorative, organic, complex composition, associated more with architecture and interior design
Who is Jean-Antoine Watteau?
french-rococo painter, interested in theater and ballet, soft color, hazy cquality, subject usually upper-class
What did Watteau paint?
Embarkation for Cythera
Who is William Hogarth?
humanitarian painter,series of paintings, VERY BUSY/DETAILED
What did William Hogarth paint?
The Rakes Progress: The Tavern, and The Rakes Progress: Arrested
Who is Thomas Gainsborough?
delicate detail, soft color, interest in lighting, considered a master of landscapes and portraits, known for full bodied portraiture
What did Thomas Gainsborough paint?
The Market Cart and John Eld of Seighford Hall, Stafford
Who is Jean-Baptiste Chardin?
Still life painter, interested in INANIMATE OBJECTS, self taught, influenced by Vermeer, very detailed, thick layered brushstroke, later paintings are pastels
What did Jean-Baptiste Chardin paint?
The Fast Day Meal
Who is Jacques-Louis David?
Neoclassical Style (Rome and Greek influence), later French Revolution works are considered Realistic style, influenced by Poussin, very detailed, bold colors and contrast, paintings often dramatic, was a political figure during "Reign of Terror"
What did Jacques-Louis David paint?
The Death of Socrates
Who is Claude Michel "Clodion"?
sculptor, elements of Baroque ,Rococo, and Neoclassical, utilized terracotta meduium, works are often smaLL for decorative purposes, flesh texture important, dramatic
What did Claude Michel "Clodion" paint?
SCULPTOR, sculpted Satyr and Bacchante, (its a Nymph and Satyr Carousing)
Who is Antonio Canova?
Neoclassical sculptor, painter/architect, works are like 2D paintings, detail is fuzzy, front view is important
What did Antonio Canova paint?
Not sure, its a SCULPTURE of some naked woman on a bed with her hips toward you
Who is Francois de Cuvillies?
architect, decorator, engraver, helped introduce Rococo outside France, INTERIOR VERY IMPORTANT
What did Francois de Cuvillies build?
The Pagodenburg (Munic Germany)
Who is Thomas Jefferson>?
3rd president, early pioneer of American architecture, Neoclassical influence mixed w contrast of materials, "Colonial Style", designed Virginia State Capitol and rotunda at University of Virginia
What did Thomas Jefferson do?
Monticello (Virginia)
What are the 1st 3 special things about Classical Music?
very ornamented (turns, trills and mordents), interpretive, heavy patronage
What is the Music-City Central? (not austin)
Vienna, Austria
What ais special about Classical Music?
Form is greater than architecture, complex rhythms, lots of homophonic texture, MELODY IMPORTANT (memorabel melodies),PIANOFORTE
What is Pianoforte?
its a smackin piano dude.
Who is Franz Josef Haydn?
Austrian, good humored caring individual, excelled in all genres, FATHER OF THE SYMPHONY
What is a Symphony?
Large instrumental work, usually consisting 4 movements
What are the 4 Movements of a Symphony?
Minuet and Trio (Dance in 3)
What did Haydn do?
MUSIC: "Surprise", Symphony No. 94
Who is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart?
child prodigy, most influential Classical composer, clean w/meticulous detail, wrote several operas
What is an Opera?
large vocal work (2-3 acts), instruemtnal accompaniment, plot acting costumes, sets, and libretto is Italian or German
What is "libretto"?
the words of an opera or musical play. also contains Arias, Recitatives, Overture
What did Mozart do?
The Marriage of Figaro: "Non Piu Andrai" and "Ah, son perduto"

Symphony No. 40 in G Minor MVT 1

Piano Sonata in D Major MVT 3
Who is Ludwig van Beethoven?
child prodigy, transition figure between Classical Music and Romantic Music, tried to be free of the patronage systme, music is emotional dramate and at times dark, interest in thems and motifs, began going deaf in 1801-1802, wrote 9 symphonies, concertos, chamber music, sonatas (piano)
What did Beethoven write?
MUSIC: Symphony No. 5 in C minor MVT 1

"Moonlight" Sonata for Piano No. 14

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