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Science Bonuses

Science Bonuses for Quiz Bowl competitions collected from a lot of packets.


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J particle
(Particle) This is a combination of a charm quark and charm antiquark. It is also called a psi particle, but it was given this name, which resembles the Chinese character for Samuel Ting's last name.
(Element) A carcinogen and a toxin, this element is most famous for being used in batteries and is found in cigarettes.
Bromothymol Blue or BTB or Thymol Blue
This indicator is yellow in acids and blue in bases.
(Particle) They were first postulated by Wolfgang Pauli, and their current name was coined by Enrico Fermi. About 70 of them pass through a person in their lifetime.
Clay Mathematics Institute
(Millennium Problem) A prize of $1,000,000 will be awarded to the first person to solve each of the seven Millennium Prize Problems by this non-profit foundation based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
(Physics Term) Unlike vectors, these quantities have only size.
(Disease) This curable STD is caused by a spirochete, and victims include Paul Gauguin, Henry VIII, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
(Disease-Related) This type of lesion forms at the point of contact with a spirochete in primary syphilis, about 10-90 days after exposure.
(Asexual Reproduction) Hydras and many other cnidarians reproduce using this method, in which an identical child organism grows from the parent.
acetylcholine or ACh
(Neurotransmitter) This neurotransmitter has functions in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. In the PNS, it binds to receptors on skeletal muscle cells, allowing sodium ions to enter the cell and stimulate muscle contraction.
(Economic Good) Unlike complementary goods, the demand for these goods rises and falls inversely.
Linear Accelerator or linac
(Particle Accelerator) This kind of accelerator uses tubes of increasing length and alternating voltage as conductors to accelerate the particles. The largest one is at Stanford.
(Programing Language) The lack of string manipulation features makes this language primarily for mathematical and scientific applications; its third version was notably never implemented.
RPG (Report Program Generator)
(Programing Language) This precursor to modern database management languages focused on quickly producing the namesake data summaries.
(Pigment) This pigment is usually green, but also occurs in other colors such as golden, in diatoms. It is responsible for photosynthesis.
Identity Crisis
(Psychology) The conflict that must be overcome to progress from one stage of psycho-social development to another is known as this, a concept developed by but not unique to Erikson.
(Genetics Pioneers) This woman discovered transposons, or "jumping genes", in maize genes.
(Jupiter Moon) This moon is the largest satellite in the Solar System. Spacecrafts have discovered that it has a magnetic field and an underground ocean.
(Programing Language) This language, one of the oldest still in use, was developed by Rear Admiral Grace Hopper. It has over 400 reserved words, owing to its almost-natural-language syntax.
(Chemist) The invention of the periodic table is usually credited to this Russian chemist, who was able to predict the properties of some undiscovered elements with his table.
Poincaré conjecture
(Millennium Problem) This problem asks whether every simply connected compact 3-manifold is homeomorphic to a 3-sphere. Grigori Perelman proved it in 2003, making it the first Millennium Prize Problem to be solved.
(Layer of Earth's Atmosphere) The thermosphere contains this layer which has significant involvement in atmospheric electricity and is heavily affected by solar radiation.
(Section of Earth) Below the Earth's surface, these bodies of intrusive igneous rock, such as granite, form to expose surfaces larger than 40 square miles as in the Sierra Nevadas; their name comes from the Greek for "deep rock."
(Organic Chemistry) This class of organic compounds is characterized by a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and two R groups. The simplest of this class of compounds is a solvent used in nail polish remover. They are distinct from aldehydes, which only have one R group.
Parallel Axis Theorem
(Physics) This theorem allows the calculation of an object's moment of inertia for certain cases by adding the mass times distance squared.
(Hormone Secreted by Pancreas) Secreted by delta cells, this hormone plays an important role in the brain and gastrointestinal system, inhibiting the release of many gastrointestinal hormones, as well as insulin and glucagon.
("Center" of Triangle) This point is the center of the circle inscribed inside the triangle.
(Chromosome) This chromosome determines sex in humans by way of the SRY gene, which triggers testis development.
(Millennium Problem) The list of Millennium Prize Problems parallels the list of 23 influential problems compiled by this early 20th century German mathematician, even though the only problem they share is the Riemann Hypothesis, the 8th problem on his list. He is also known for his basis theorem and his axioms of geometry.
The 'No Hair' Theorem
(Black Hole Related) This theorem postulates that the only physical properties conserved in a black hole are mass, electric charge, and angular momentum.
(Diseases) The wet and dry varieties of this disease cause weakness in the limbs and impaired heart and nerve function. Sometimes seen in alcoholics in the form of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, it is caused by a deficiency of vitamin B1, thiamine.
Hawking Radiation
(Black Hole Related) Black holes may emit this type of radiation named after the physicist and author of "A Brief History of Time."
(Mineral) It is called ruby when red and sapphire when any other color.
(Neurotransmitter) This neurotransmitter produced in the basal ganglia can act on the sympathetic nervous system, causing increased heart rate and blood pressure. Patients with Parkinson's disease are given a precursor to it, since it can cross the blood-brain barrier while this neurotransmitter itself cannot.
(Symbiotic Relationship) Phoresy, the use of an animal for transportation, is an example of this relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped.
(Layer of Earth's Atmosphere) The ionosphere forms the inner boundary of this field which is not technically a layer of the atmosphere. Its shape is largely determined by solar winds.
(Particle Accelerator) Ernest Lawrence created this small device, which uses two D-shaped containers with a gap in between to accelerate particles in an ever-expanding circle.
(Mollusks) This class has over 30,000 species, which include scallops, clams, and oysters. All of the members of this class have two part shells.
The Seven Bridges of 'Königsberg'
(Math) In graph theory, an Eulerian circuit in an undirected graph is a cycle that uses each edge exactly once, and starts and ends at the same vertex. Euler proved that such a cycle is possible if and only if every node of the graph is of an even degree in his solution to this famous problem inspired by a Prussian city.
(Economic Curve) This curve, which relates tax rate and government revenue, shows zero revenue at the extremes of 0% and 100%, and a maximum revenue somewhere in the middle. It assumes that at 100% taxation, taxpayers will either avoid taxes or have no incentive to work, thus the government collects 100% of nothing.
(Noble Gas) This was the first of its group to be synthesized into a compound.
(Chromosome) This chromosome was the first chromosome to be completely sequenced by the Human Genome Project in 1999. Deletion or mutation of the tip of this chromosome is related to autism, developmental delays, and mental retardation.
Malphigian Tubule
(Animal) These tubes named for an Italian scientist serve as an excretory system for arthropods.
(Formal Math Systems) Also called "postulates" or "assumptions", these are the basic statements of formal systems which do not have to be proven, but are instead taken as self-evident truths. An example is that of equality, which states that x = x.
van der Waals (forces)
(Intermolecular Forces) These weak intermolecular forces include dipole-dipole forces and London dispersion forces. They are named after a Dutchman who is also famous for an equation providing a correction to the ideal gas law.
DNA 'Helicase'
(DNA Enzyme) This enzyme unwinds DNA during replication.
(Organelle) These organelles break down lipids via a series of oxidation reactions.
photoelectric effect
(Light Wave/Particle) One significant piece of evidence for the particle theory of light was this effect extensively studied by Hertz and Einstein. It is the emission of electrons excited by radiation energy that exceeds the work function.
(Particle) They get their name from Finnegan's Wake, and is one of the basic constituents of matter.
(Programing Language) This dynamic language created by Larry Wall inspired Python and Ruby. The O'Reilly book on this language has a camel on its cover. Many "one-liners" are scripted in it
(Organelle) These basal bodies are the base structure of flagella and cilia.
DNA 'Ligase'
(DNA Enzyme) This enzyme links Okazaki fragments during DNA replication.
(Psychologist) This man is known for "psyscho-biographies" such as Young Man Luther as well as his stages of psycho-social development.
(Digestive Enzyme) Discovered by Theodor Schwann, this first animal enzyme to be discovered.
(Math) The Euler line for any non-equilateral triangle passes through its orthocenter, circumcenter, the center of the nine-point circle, and this other center, defined as the point of intersection of the triangle's medians, the lines joining each vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side. If the triangle is made from a uniform sheet of material, this point is also its center of mass.
(Mollusks) Members of this class can live on dry land or in water, and there are over 80,000 species of them. Members include slugs and snails.
(Nephrology) This knot of capillaries found within the Bowman's capsule acts as the filter within a nephron to leave the capsule as urine.
(VSEPR Theory) Molecular geometry predicted by VSEPR theory of sulfur hexachloride.
(Chemical Substance) This colorless indicator turns pink in basic solutions.
(Poly-saccharides - Biology) This mesh-like polymer is composed of sugars linked to cross-linked poly·peptide chains. It forms a layer outside the plasma membrane in bacteria, which distinguish them from archaea, most of which do not have this polymer in their cell walls.
(Electric Component) This semiconductor component can be used as an electronic switch or a current amplifier. The bipolar junction variety has three terminals, while the field-effect variety has four terminals, two of which are usually connected together inside the component.
rolling friction
(Friction) Tires and ball bearings are able to change sliding friction into this kind of friction, so that a vehicle will experience less deceleration.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA
(Neurotransmitter) This amino acid acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain. Drugs acting as agonists of it, such as alcohol and barbiturates, can cause anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
Gödel('s first) incompleteness theorem
(Formal Math Systems) This theorem killed Hilbert's attempt at a universal formal system based on Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica. It states that no formal system can be both consistent and complete.
Mauna Loa
(Active Volcano) This "long mountain" to the south of "white mountain", erupted several times in the 1970s but few lava flows left the pit crater, Mokuaweoweo.
(Disaccharide) This milk sugar is a synthesis of glucose and galactose.
(Poly-saccharides - Biology) This structural poly·saccharide found in the cell walls of plants consists of many beta-1,4 linked glucose units. The main component of paper and cardboard, it can also be used to manufacture rayon.
transcendental numbers
(Math) Euler's number e, discovered by Jacob Bernoulli, is the unique real number such that the derivative of f(x)=ex [f of x equals e to the x] at the point x=0 is exactly one. e is an element of this uncountably infinite set of numbers whose elements cannot be expressed as the solution of a polynomial equation with rational coefficients.
carbonyl group
(Organic Chemistry)This is the functional group contained in aldehyes, ketones, and quinones. It consists of a carbon double bonded to an oxygen.
(Euclid's) fifth (postulate)
(Formal Math Systems) Euclidean geometry is based on axioms, including this last axiom, which states that if a line segment intersects two lines and forms interior angles which sum to less than 180 degrees, then the two lines will eventually intersect. Similar to Playfair's axiom, it distinguishes Euclidean from non-Euclidean geometries.
(Pigment) These pigments, which are usually red or orange, are found in carrots and the diets of flamingos.
(Economic Good) The demand for these goods rises and falls in a direct relationship. For example, hot dogs and hot dog buns.
binary fission
(Asexual Reproduction) In this process, an organism duplicates its DNA and splits itself into two parts.
(Noble Gas) Almost three-fourths of Mercury's atmosphere consists of this most terrestrially abundant gas.
Sodium Chloride or NaCl
(Ionic Compound) This compound is frequently used in cooking and as a condiment on many foods. It takes the form of a white crystalline solid.
'Reducing' Sugars
(Disaccharide) Both lactose and maltose are members of this class of sugars which contain an aldehyde or ketone group and participate in certain reactions.
(Electric Component) This component produces a voltage drop between its two terminals according to Ohm's law, and is usually symbolized in the U.S. by a zig-zag line in circuit diagrams.
(Work of Mathematics) This other work of Euclid is the oldest surviving Greek text on perspective.
(Symbiotic Relationship) Exemplified by clownfish and anemones, in this type of relationship both organisms benefit.
(Animal) This is the most numerous phylum on Earth.
(Nephrology) Sometimes called carbamide, this liver-produced compound is stored as a safer alternative to ammonia in the kidneys and was first isolated in 1773 by a French chemist from urine.
Nitric Acid or HNO3
(Acid) This colorless liquid can be manufactured through the heating of sulfuric acid with Chile saltpeter, or in the oxidation of ammonia; added to glycerine it forms a common explosive.
(Programming Language) This language, formulated by a CODASYL committee to be a readable data-processing language for business applications, had "-60" and "-61" revised editions named for the years.
Loop of Henle
(Nephrology) In the descending limb of this U-shaped structure in a nephron, a mixture of salt, urea and water becomes more concentrated while its ascending limb removes some of the salt.
Square Planar
(VSEPR Theory) Molecular geometry predicted by VSEPR theory of Xenon tetrafluoride.
(Physics Term) This is a quantity with both size and direction. Velocity is an example.
(Physics) Moment of inertia is the rotational analog of this property.
(Math Fundamental Theorem) Every non-constant polynomial of a single variable with complex coefficients has at least one complex root.
Tollen's reagent
(Organic Chemistry) Containing di·ammine·silver(I), this reagent is used to test for aldehydes. Added to an aldehyde solution, it will produce a precipitate or a "silver mirror" on the test tube, but will not produce any change in an ketone.
Weak Interacting Massive Particles or WIMP
(Particle) These hypothetical particles similar to neutrinos are used to explain the existence of dark matter.
(Magnet-Related) This is a coil of wire made up of numerous wire loops, and acts as a magnet whose field is the sum of the field of each loop in the coil. They are combined with iron rods to form electromagnets.
(Ionic Compound) Sodium Chloride is this type of compound, which consists of a metal ionically bonded to a halogen. Some examples are Silver Chloride, Potassium Iodide, and Lodoform
Sulfuric Acid or H2SO4
(Acid) Produced by roasting pyrite, this acid, originally known as vitriol, may also be produced by the contact process with vanadium oxide catalyst but more recently by the lead-chamber process with nitric oxide and steam.
(Disease-Related) This unethical syphilis experiment in Alabama was performed on a group of 600 blacks, who were left untreated so that the course of the disease could be followed.
surface tension
(Intermolecular Forces) This property of liquids is caused by attractions between neighboring liquid molecules. Molecules at the surface are pulled inwards, causing such phenomena as tears of wine and the formation of spherical drops of liquid.
(Bacteria) Members of this domain are sometimes considered to be bacteria, and they only occupy environments with extreme conditions.
Giffen Good
(Economic Good) This specific type of inferior good's demand rises directly with its price.
(Disaccharide) This disaccharide is composed of two glucose units and has approximately the same sweetness as galactose.
(Jupiter Moon) This moon orbits alone, and it is the innermost irregular moon.
(Genetics Pioneers) This founder of the Institute for Genomic Research is the former president of Celera Genomics, which used shotgun sequencing to run a parallel version of the Human Genome Project. His own genome was one of the five used by Celera. He is seeking to patent Mycoplasma laboratorium, the first man-made lifeform.
(Magnet-Related) This is a magnet created when current is sent through soft iron, and can be turned on or off.
(Asexual Reproduction) Some lizards are among those who can reproduce using this crazy process, in which females develop female gametes without male fertilization.
DNA 'Topoisomerase'
(DNA Enzyme) This enzyme used to regulate supercoiling untangles DNA strands and then reconnects them.
air resistance
(Friction) Deceleration caused by friction between an object and air molecules is called this.
(Psychology) Erikson believed in this many stages of psycho-social development, which did not have set length. Their transitions came from overcoming a major conflict.
Event Horizon
(Black Hole Related) This is the name given to a boundary surrounding a black hole beyond which the escape velocity exceeds the speed of light.
(Astronomy) From earth it always appears close to the sun because it is an inferior planet, and is the brightest natural object in the night sky aside from the moon.
(Work of Mathematics) This is the number of postulates set down in the first book of Elements.
(Symbiotic Relationship) Occurring among animals, plants, and fungi, in this relationship, one organism benefits while the other is harmed.
(Mollusks) Members of this class have bilateral symmetry, a prominent head, and arms or tentacles. Teuthology is the study of this class, whose members include Octopi and Squids.
(Work of Mathematics) This thirteen-book work is one of the most significant treatises on geometry, and sets forth a collection of axioms, theorems, constructions, and proofs.
(VSEPR Theory) Molecular geometry predicted by VSEPR theory of Carbon Dioxide.
(Genetics Pioneers) This Austrian monk, called the "father of genetics", worked with pea plants, discovering the laws of segregation and independent assortment. After plants in his F2 generation exhibited a 3:1 phenotype ratio, he posited the law of dominance.
(Diseases) This disease, characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, or the three D's, is caused by a deficiency of niacin, vitamin B3. Other symptoms are sensitivity to light and skin lesions.
(Particle Accelerator) This site in Geneva is the location of the Large Hadron Collider, as well as the gigantic decommissioned Large Electron-Positron Collider.
Mantle Plumes or Hot Spots
(Section of Earth) North American geophysicists Wilson and Morgan discovered areas just below the crust with higher than average temperature and posited they existed over stationary magma bursts. Name either the areas or the bursts.
(Digestive Enzyme) This water-soluble enzyme serves as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of ester bonds in lipids. It cleaves 44 amino acids from its zymogen to form more of itself. It works in acidic environments with pH 1.5 to 2.
(Layer of Earth's Atmosphere) This layer is the first in which temperature increases with elevation.
(Bacteria-Related) A chief difference between Archaea and Bacteria is the presence of this polymer in their cell walls. Archaea have a pseudo- type.
(Bacteria) The domain called Bacteria, which contains most commonly found and classified bacteria, was previously and sometimes still known by this name.
Milky Way Galaxy
(Astronomy) It appears brighter in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, where its center is located.
de Broglie
(Light Wave/Particle) Wave-particle duality was hypothesized by this French scientist, who thought that even particles have wavelength.
(Hormone Secreted by Pancreas) Secreted by beta cells, this hormone causes the removal of glucose from the blood and its subsequent storage as glycogen. It is used as a medical treatment of some forms of diabetes.
(Electric Component) This component allows current to flow in one direction but not the other, and comes in many different varieties, such as Zener, Schottsky, and light-emitting.
(Poly-saccharides - Biology) Sometimes called "animal starch", this poly·saccharide is the main form in which carbohydrates are stored in animals. Stored in the liver, it is composed of glucose units linked by alpha acetal linkages.
(Intermolecular Forces) This process occurs when gas or liquid molecules accumulate on the surface of a solid or liquid. Described by the Langmuir isotherm, it usually occurs in substances with a distinct pore structure, such as zeolites and activated carbon.
(Noble Gas) Like methane, this element can form clathrate compounds with water.
(Active Volcano) Like Mount Mayon, this volcano which erupted in 1991 is located on Luzon Island in the Philippines.
(Mineral) This group of phosphate minerals can be found in tooth enamel and bone material.
(Organelle) These organelles digest cellular waste. They contain acidic hydrolases.
(Math Fundamental Theorem) Taking the derivative of the indefinite integral of a function results in the original function.
normal force
(Friction) The amount of kinetic energy that is converted to heat is given by the constant of kinetic friction times the integral of this force
(Animal) All arthropods have exoskeletons composed of this derivative of glucose.
Grignard Reagents
(Organelle) Organometallic aryl-halides are known as these, which help in the formation of Carbon-Carbon bonds from polar organic compounds.
(Chemist) This English chemist came up with the law of octaves, which proposed that when placed in order of increasing atomic weight, elements with similar properties recurred at intervals of eight.
(Section of Earth) Hot spots are located in the upper mantle, which is grouped with the crust into this layer of the Earth located above the asthenosphere.
(Jupiter Moon) This second largest moon does not exhibit the orbital resonance that the other Galilean moons do.
(Light Wave/Particle) In the Davisson-Germer experiment, which supported the wave theory of light, electrons were fired into this metal with atomic number 28, which, like iron and cobalt, is ferromagnetic.
(Pigment) Either dark or yellow, this pigment is responsible for human skin color.
(Chromosome) Down syndrome is usually caused by trisomy, or having three copies of, this chromosome, which has also been linked to early-onset Alzheimer's disease.
(Magnet-Related) This is the name for the aligning of the domains of a magnet. On a hysteresis curve, this is mostly accomplished by the upper-right point.
(Chemist) This German chemist proposed the Law of Triads, which involved triplets of elements that have similar properties, such as chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
(Programing Language) This mid-level language was developed by Bjarne Soustroup at Bell Labs based on another language with a similar name. It inspired the "sharp" version of the language on which it was based. Most code written in this language features many curly braces.
(Active Volcano) This mountain of "everlasting life" has been technically dormant for three centuries, but geologists often still classify this three-part cone volcano, in a National Park named for it, Hakone and Izu, active.
(Chemical Bonding) This type of bonding can be likened to Communism because many atoms share a "sea of electrons".
(Element) Although this element and its compounds are sweet, if you eat them, they will kill you. It is also atomic number 4 in the periodic table of elements.
'Universal' Indicator
(Chemical Substances) This pH indicator takes its name from the fact that its many color changes allow it to be used over a broad range of pHs, usually 3 through 12.
(Hormone Secreted by Pancreas) Secreted by alpha cells, this hormone does the opposite of insulin, causing the liver to convert glycogen to glucose and release it into the bloodstream.
(Particle) This class of fundamental particles which comes in six flavors takes its name from a line in Finnegan's Wake.
Hydrochloric Acid or HCl
(Acid) Comprising three-quarters of a solution with nitric acid, aqua regia, this acid was originally formed in a mixture of sulfuric acid and common salt.
Moment of Inertia
(Physics) This quantity is a measure of an object's resistance to change in rotation rate.
(Physics Term) These quantities have neither size nor direction.
North Star
(Astronomy) It was used by explorers to determine their latitude, and Polaris currently holds this title.
(Element) This element will also kill you if you eat it, and it is theorized to have killed Mozart. Its main mineral is Stibnite.
(Economic Curve) This curve always begins at (0,0) and ends at (1,1). It shows income distribution for a given economy, with each point representing a statement like "The bottom X% of households have Y% of the total income." The Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality in a society, is twice the area between this curve and the line of perfect equality.
(Chemical Bonding) This type of bonding can be likened to Communism because many atoms share a "sea of electrons".
(Economic Curve) This downward-sloping curve, proposed by a New Zealand-born economist in 1958, posits a relationship between low unemployment and high inflation, and vice versa, until stagflation in the 1970's, with both high unemployment and high inflation, disproved it.
("Center" of a Triangle) This point is the intersection of the three altitudes of the triangle.
(Particle) Muons and tauons are part of this class of fundamental particles.
(Diseases) This disease causes spongy gums, bleeding mucus membranes, and stiff joints, because of the body's inability to synthesize collagen. The British Royal Navy prevented it using limes, and its Latin name gives rise to the chemical name for vitamin C, ascorbic acid.
("Center" of Triangle) This point is the intersection of the three line segments that connect the vertices to the center on their opposite sides.
(Mineral) This soft mineral is found in products like baby powder.
(Chemical Bonding) This special type of dipole-dipole bone usually involves fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen, which are very electronegative atoms.
(Math Fundamental Theorem) Every natural number greater than one can be written as a unique product of prime numbers.
(Digestive Enzyme) These enzymes break down starch into maltose, and can be found in saliva and the pancreas.

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