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Western Civ Terms

Terms

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Interregnum
1649 166, period without a king, military dictatorship Oliver, theocracy, ignored what parliament said
Council of Blood
France right of clerics, pope income
Peace of Augsburg
Chucky finally recognizes Lutheranism in 1555, each prince could determine territories religion
Princely Courts
entourage of princes- Italian city states. Absolute power of city.
Peasant Revolt
revolts against nobles because they had taken common lands and imposed new rents, Luther's words out of context,
Administrative Monarchy
The French state in the 17th century became stronger in that it could achieve more of its goals, it was centralized from Paris and its administrative bureaucracy greatly expanded. AKA an absolute monarchy.
Society of Jesus
by Ignatius Loyola, resisted power of protestantism
John Knox
dominated movement for reform in Scotland, used Calvin's works, abolished mass
Navigation Act
English goods may not be transported except on English ships, mercantilism
Francesco Petrarch
Father of the Ren. poet, humanist, invented the term Ren. and Dark Ages
Sforza Family
Signori rulers of Milan
Protestant ethic
Calvinistic virtue of hard work and thrift
Pope Sixtus V
promised to pay 1 million ducats to Philip the moment Spanish troops landed in England
Jacques Marquette
Jesuit French missionary who accompanied Louis Joliet who sailed down the Mississippi River and took possession of the land on both sides as far south as present-day Arkansas.
Puritans
wanted to purify the English church of Catholic like elements, desire the elimination of Bishops
30 Years War
1618-1648
English Civil War
1642-1660, war between kind and parliament, Cavaliers, roundheads, 1649 execution of king
French Classicism
The style in seventeenth-century art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance-e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine.
Henry VIII
King of England, broke from Rome because pope refused annulment of Catherin of Aragon, formed Anglican Church- political
the Louvre
Palace commissioned by Francis I, had Pierre Lescot to rebuild it, contained the Mona Lisa, had one of Michaelangelo's star pupils decorate the wings
Huguenots
French Calvinists
The Paulette
An annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices. 1602-1604
Louis Joliet
The French merchant who sailed with Marquette down the Mississippi to get land for France.
Absolute monarchy
power invested in monarch
Elizabethan Settlement
required outward conformity to the church of England and uniformity in all ceremonies, everyone must attend, fined, service more protestant, but bishops were more traditional, pleased both
War of the Three Henrys
St. Barth day, civil conflict among factions led by catholic Henry of Guise, protestant henry of Naverre, and King Henry III-catholid
Commonwealth
another name for a republic
The Five Big City-States
Venice, Milan, Florence, Papal States, Kingdom of Naples
Lord's Supper
center of mass, Eucharist
Elizabeth
sought middle ground between catholic and protestant, dignity in church services, puritans
Versailles
palace of Louis XIV, a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
Famous commercial cities in Italy
Milan, Venice, Florence, Papal States, Naples, Genoa
Jules Mazarin
served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death, Mazarin helped Anne expand her power from the more limited power her husband had left her. Mazarin functioned essentially as the co-ruler of France along side the queen during the regency of Anne, and until his death. Mazarin effectively directed French policy along side the monarch.
James I
first Stuart king of England, divine right
Louis XIII
1610-1643 The king as a child after Henry IV's death. Marid de Medici headed gov. Ended Protestant Military and political independence in 1627.
Individualism
Attitude of Renaissance thinkers, believed in uniqueness of people, personality, development of talents
Phillip II of Spain
shifted toward Spain, king of Spain, son of Chucky
Predestination
elect, chosen who will be saved and damned
Hapsburg-Valois War
conflicts between Germany and France of Italy
Act of restraint of appeals
king is sovereign in England, established crown as highest authority
Calvin
French writings profoundly influenced the social thoughts and attitudes of Europeans City of Geneva- city, church, greater impact on future generations
Mercantilism
an economic theory that holds the prosperity of a nation dependent upon its supply of capital, and that the global volume of trade is "unchangeable." It is best increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations (exports minus imports). Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance these goals by playing a protectionist role in the economy; by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, especially through the use of tariffs.
Renaissance
renewals of Greek and Roman ideas, cultural achievements , 1350-1600, art, architecture, science, politics, literature, theology
Parliament
The legislative body of British government, combines both legislative and executive
benefices
church offices
Peace of Westphalia
turning point in European history politics and religion, social history, independence of German princes, no central gov, HRE down
Prince William of Orange
called the silent because of his remarkable discretion, founder of the United Provinces
Politiques
French group of moderates from both faiths, saved france, believed the only restoration of strong monarchy could reverse the trend toward collapse.
The Fronde
The French Civil Wars of 1648-1653. Means "slingshot"/ "catapult". It originated in provinces and term applies to anyone who opposed the policies of the government.
Nobility of the Robe
French aristocrats who owed their titles and rank to judicial or administrative posts—often bought outright for high sums. These positions were often hereditary and most nobles of the robe had inherited their title and position.
Servicios
Spanish national taxes of the 16th century under absolute monarchy.
Henry IV
strong, united France, knew majority Catholic, so was willing to sacrifice religious principles to political necessity to save france. Edict of Nantes.
Protectorate
Cromwell's government
Holy Office
Sacred congregation of the Holy Office, It was the sacred congregation of the papal court that deals with protection of faith and morals. The Holy Office was a powerful instrument of the Counter Reformation. (p.480-481)
Protestant
protest, small group of reforming Germans at Diet of Speyer, general term for all non-cathoics
Queen Margaret
regent of the Netherlands, tried to wipe out protestantism, resigned because of Alva's actions
The Prince
Nicolo Machiavelli, famous book of politics, end jusifies the means, practical, gain, maintain, increase power
Ursaline Order
Teaching young girls in Christianity how to be mothers, combat heresy, Angela Merici
year of Spanish Armada
1588, Phillip attack on England
Medici family
famous banking family in Florence
balance of power
a distribution of power among nations to prevent any one nation from becoming too powerful. Used with italian city-states, example Venice vs Milan- Florence, and Naples joined with Milan to go against venice.
Totalitarianism
A 20th century phenomenon. It seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture in the interests of the states. Absolutism gone to seed. Little emphasis is placed on God and religion. Elevated in importance (dosen't claim divine right) "might is right". Min is control is fair game and fatherland is very important.
Sully
The Duke aka Protestant Maximilien. De Bethune is the chief prime minister to Henry IV. Revenues increased because of revival of trade. Subsidized the company for trade with indies. Started a country- wide highway system.
Jesuits
reformation spiritual condition, help souls, special obedience,, Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
presbyters, government church, friends with puritans
War of Spanish Succession
several European powers combined to stop a member of the French royal House of Bourbon from ascending to the Spanish throne, which could potentially unite the powerful kingdoms of France and Spain under one monarch, upsetting the European balance of power.
Preacherships
jobs as preachers to give 100 sermons, 45 min each, superior education
Mary Tudor
married Phillip II, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine, wanted Catholicism, persecuted protestants
Luther
German Augustine friar, launched protestant reformation of 16th cen. 95 thesis, Oct. 31 1517, simpler religion bases on faith, wrote many works
Mary, Queen of Scots
plot against Elizabeth's life
House of Commons
similar to U.S. house of representatives, part of parliament
generalities
Divided France into 32 districts and after 1634- each had a royal intendant that held a commission to perform certain tasks transmitted info from local communities to Paris and delivered orders from capital to these districts.
Nicholas Poussin
french classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the greatest French painter of the 17th cent.
Pluralism
clerks own several offices at once
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvin's theology, absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God- Human weakness
Anabaptist
no infant baptism, inner light association of believers, religious tolerance- independent ministers and affairs, pacifism- poor and unemployed, persecuted because wanted separation of Church and State
Transubstantiation
consecration of priest's words in mass, bread and wine become actual bread and wine
Book of Common prayer
official prayer and liturgical of Anglicanism, Charles and Laud trie dto impose it on all protestants in england, many people resisted
indulgence
a temporary remission of sins, benefits of merits, swift passage to heaven, not only for themselves but also for relatives
Long Parliament
Parliament through Charles I and Cromwell, disapproved of King's taxation without representation
Peace of Westphalia
1648, end of medieval ideal, catholic vs protestant, end of 30 yr war
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss humanist and admirer of Erasmus, introduced reformation in Switzerland, refused church readings. NT by erasmus, believers baptism,
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV 1598, granted Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 150 towns
Oliver Cromwell
puritan leader of parliament and head of state upon death of Charles I, slaughtered catholics, esp, in ireland
Tuileries
Paris, Catherine De Medici
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury, Anglican church more catholic under James
The French Academy
Supported by Richelieu, Created a dictionary to standardize the French language.
Crammer
simplified liturgy, invited protestant theology to England
Signori
one man rulers, or princes. They manipulated the law to conceal their illegality.
Queen Maria Theresa
Louis XIV's wife whom remarried as a result of a diplomatic agreement with Spain- ruled without her political influence.
Louis XIV
absolute monarch of france, an absolute monarch that built up France's internal strength through finance and military, strengthened army and connected france through trades routes, catholic religiion and the capital versailes and foreign expansion during his reign
Oligarchies
groups of signori who ruled despotically. They were limited by constitutions and laws.
Gustavus Adolphus
swedish phase of 30 years war, arrived in Germany, helped oppressed protestants
Treaty of Utrecht
war finally concluded at Utrecht, Louis's grandson, Philip, remained the first Bourbon king of Spain on the understanding that the French and Spanish crowns could never be united. Represented balance of power- setting limits on the extent to which any one power could expand. Completed the decline of Spain as a great power.
House of Lords
similar to United States Senate, part of parliament
Edict of Restitution
1629, Jesuits, all catholic properties lost to protestant were restored, only catholic and Lutherans practice faith
Instrument of Government
Cromwell's constitution, triennial meetings of parliament and gave sole power to tax, tore up when did not fit purposes, gave parliament sole power to tax
Taille
tax on land, money for monarch to keep army
Louisiana Purchase
Large parcel of land bought from France in 1803 that doubled the size of the United States, named after Louis XIV.
Communes
Northern Italian cities which were politically and economically independent from local nobles by union of guilds. New urban nobility built on hard work
Popolo
disfranchised and heavily taxed people who were excluded. Wanted equal rights and fair taxation. Rebelled and established free republics with democratically elected officials-discriminated lower than them
A Republic
A political system where the power was in the people, had representative government cities. It failed in the Italian cities.
St Bartholomew's Day Massacre
A savage Catholic attack on Calvinists in Paris on August 24, 1572. Was a religious ceremony- wedding, intended to help reconcile Catholics and Huguenots. The night before the wedding, Catholic aristocrat, Henry of Guise, attacked Coligny. Riots and slaughter followed.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
signed by france and spain, ended the Hapsburg- Valois war
Consubstantiation
bread an wine undergo spiritual change, Christ present, Luther
Jean Baptiste Lully
French composer (born in Italy) who was the court composer to Louis XIV and founded the national French opera (1632-1687)
Charles V
holy roman emperor during reformation
Diet of Worms
Chucky V assembly of the estates of empire, Luther ordered to recant, did not, outlaw lulther was put under the protection of Duke Fredrick
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Humanism
belief that the revival of the ancient classics and a great emphasis on learning- man, man's nature, and science, first with Chrisitianity, then separated church and theological studies
Counter Reformation
opposite side of reformation, reasserted pope's authority, strengthened its own organization and had an inquisition that jailed protestants
Duke of Alva
was sent by Phillip to low countries, extermination of religious and political dissidents
Pope Alexander VI
head of papal states, father of Cesare Borgia- The Prince in Machiavelli.
Book of Common prayer
order of service in the church of England- protestant
Constitutionalism
limiting of government by law and a system of checks and balances between authority and civil rights, a consitiution may be written or unwritten
Bohemia
Czech and Germany, lutheran catholic, Hussite, Ferdinand of Styria king
King Francis I
1515-1547, governed through a small, efficient council. Issued an ordinance that placed France under the jurisdiction of royal courts, French language frivolous with spending
Tax Farmers
Agents who purchased from the crown the rights to collect taxes in a particular district.
Moliere and Racine
French Playwrights
Robert LaSalle
1684, a French explorer who continued down the Mississippi to it's mouth and claimed vast territories and the rich delta for Louis XIV- Louisiana.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy.
Imitation of Christ
Thomas a Kempis, monks and nuns take Christ as model and seek perfeciton in simple way of life
Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII chief minister in 1624
Sola Scriptura
only scripture, Luther's words
Low Countries
bugandian, netherlands, French netherlands, spanish, austrian, BENALUX

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