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History of Prints Midterm at the University of Iowa


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St. Dorothy?
Unknwon Bavarian artist, c. 1410. Woodcut. This described the "loop" style of woodcutting in its first phase, along with the Gothic International Style.

The story behind the image is St. Dorothy on her way to be a martyr. Theophilus, a scribe, mocked her with the Garden of Paradise and requested her to bring him apples and roses. The Christ child brings presents her and Theophilus the basket of apples and the rose bush blooms.
The Buxheim St. Christopher
Unknown South German artist, 1423. Hand-colored woodcut. The lines are thinner and less "loop" cut with more angles and variety.

St. Christopher literally means Christ-bearer. He would carry people over a treacherous river. The Christ-child was carried and Chris thought the burden was as heavy as the world (thus the orb the child holds). Christ reveals himself by having Christpher's staff turn into a date palm (the tree of life). Those who look at the image supposedly do not die of sudden death for that day.
Panorama of Venice from the Liber Chronicarum
Michael Wolgemut Shop. Hartmann Schedel. Nuremberg: Anton Koberger, 1493. Woodcut.
The Flagellation of Christ
Master of 1446. 1446. Engraving. Short, choppy flicks of the burin for the interior modeling and strong ornamental lines probably implies at least a decade of engraving prior.
The Madonna of Einsiedeln
Master ES. 1466. Engraving.
The Temptation of St. Anthony
Martin Schongauer. c. 1470-75. Engraving.

The story is that St. Anthony was an Egyptian hermit and became secluded and meditated to be closer to Christ. During his fare with staying in the Egyptian desert, evil harrasses and abuses him with clubs and claws.
The Bearing of the Cross
Martin Schongauer. c. 1475. Engraving.
The Holy Family
Housebook Master. c. 1490. Drypoint.

Takes the opposite approach to Schongauer's seriousness and makes a playful religious piece. Symbolism is abound. The tower, seaport, roses, and apples show the original sin the Christ child will face later in life.
The Four Hosemen from the Apocalypse
Albrecht Durer. 1497-98. Woodcut.

King being devoured by hell. The lights and darks of the agitated line convey the terror of an imminent crisis. This print may have possible implications for social betterment.
The Fall of Man (Adam and Eve)
Albrecht Durer. 1504. Engraving.

Adam and Eve's appearance come from Apollo Delvedere and Medici Venus respectively. Durer integrates Italian Idealism with his own background, concerning himself with the vitality of individual organisms.

The use of the burin shows more versatility with choppy and short strokes, as displayed in the snake, the peeling bark, and fur.

Temperaments with the animals: elk, melancholic; ox, phlegmatic; cat, choleric; rabbit, sanguine. The cat and mouse show the imperfections of the world.
Knight, Death, and the Devil
Albrecht Durer, 1513, engraving.

Great contrast within the piece. To be contemplated upon.
Melencolia I
Albrecht Durer, 1514, Engraving.

Its title is written on the piece itself.
St. Christopher
Lucas Cranach the Elder. ca. 1509. Chiaroscuro woodcut.
The Witches
Hans Balden Grien. 1510. Chiaroscuro woodcut.

He studied under Durer.
The Sleeping Groom and the Witch
Hans Balden Grien. 1544. Woodcut.

The animal/horse study is similar to Durer's, but with a more Northern state of mind than classical.
The Virgin and the Child by the Window
Barthel Beham. ca. 1529. Engraving.

The figures are classically imposed (Italian influence).
The Milkmaid
Lucas Van Leyden. 1510. Engraving.
Large Ecce Homo
Lucas Van Leyden. 1510. Engraving.
The Battle of the Nudes
Antonio del Pollaiuolo. ca.1465. Engraving.

The figures are masculine with classical proportions and mirrored poses.
The Entombment
Andrea Montegna. 1465-70. Engraving.

Classical style. Very flat and shallow.
Bacchanal (and Silenus)
Andrea Montegna. ca.1475-80. Engraving.

More silvery ink color with a shallow plane.
Madonna and Child
Andrea Montegna. ca. 1485-91. Engraving with Drypoint.
Judgement of Paris
Marcantonio Raimondi after Raphael. ca. 1517-20. Engraving.

Based on Classical Mythology. Form and content. Prolific.
Venus Reclining in Landscape
Guilio Campagnola after Giorgiore. ca. 1517-20. Engraving.

Stipled style. Artist is from Venice and the piece reflects Classical Mythology.
The Entombment of Christ
Parmigianino. second verseion ca. 1530. Etching with drypoint.

Elongated figures.
Drunken Silenus
Juseppe de Ribera. 1628. Etching.

This Spanish painter used counterfernation and had an influence with naturalism.
Seated Beggar from Bowl
Jacque Callot. ca 1622. Etching.

Invented an etching tool to emulate engraving. He was also an influence on Rembrandt.
Death and Hanging - Distribution of Honors
Jacques Callot. 1633. Etching.

He was an influence on Goya.
Mountain Gorge Bordered by a Road, Seen through the Ship's Rigging
Hercules Seghers. 1612-35. Etching.

Netherlands local. He uses provacative techniques.
The Three Trees
Rembrandt. 1643. Etching and Drypoint.

The use of three repetitive objects have a religious significance (the three crosses, etc.) He took upon experimenting after Seghers.
Self-Portrait Leaning on a Stone Sill.
Rembrandt. 1639. Etching.

Integrates Renaissance elements and received early success at the time.
Self-Portrait Drawing at a Window
Rembrandt. 1648. Etching.

At this time, his wife has died and he has gone bankrupt. A gloomy picture.
Hundred Gilder Print
Rembrandt. ca.1639-49. Etching with drypoint burin combination of methods to get ranges of marks.
Ecce Homo
Rembrandt. Reworked many times.
La Piera del Bando (The Piazzetta)
Canaletto. 1740-43. Etching.
Death Giving Audience from Capricci
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. ca. 1740. Etching.

Part of the Capricci series. Odd comedic humor of the senses.
The Drawbridge
Piranesi. Second edition issued between
1761 and 1778. Etching and engraving.

Worked with Dark and Light in the piece to help emphasize space. He liked the antiquities of Rome.
Carceri, Wide Hall with Low Roof
Piranesi. Plate issued between 1761 to 1778. Etching and engraving and sulphur tint or open bite.
The Closet
Fragonard. 1778. Etching.

The style is in the French Rococo style.
Albion Rose (The Dance of Albion or Glad Days)
William Blake. first state ca. 1794-96. Color print with pen and watercolor additions of line engraving.

His message across this piece was to go against the Age of Reason which was gaining popular footing at the time.
Infant Joy from Songs of Innocence
William Blake. 1979. Relief etching with watercolor.

The written poetry he created were taking from when he dreamt about his dead brother.
The Sick Rose from Songs of Experience
William Blake. 1784-94. Relief etching with watercolor.

He tried to emulate medieval typography with this.

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