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Science Exam with Elements

Terms

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vapor
matter that exists in the gas state but is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature
malleable
can be bent and pounded into various shapes
drop
Liquids on the periodic table are marked with a _______.
1869
When was the periodic table first constructed?
amorphous examples
rubber, plastic, and glass
Milli
(m) 0.001 (thousandth)
freezing
the change from the liquid to the solid
activation energy
minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
d X v
m= _____
Centi
(c) 0.01 (hundredth)
Hecto
(h) 100 (hundred)
crystal examples
table salt
Kilo
1,000
vaporization
the change from liquid to gas
C
Carbon
acetic
______ acid is found in vinegar.
metalloids
shiny and many are conductors (not as good as metals)
sublimation
change from a solid directly to a gas
Deca
(da) 10 (ten)
W
Tungsten
fruit salad, trail mix
heterogeneous example
Li
Lithium
(f-32)/1.8
formula for Celsius
liquid
matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape
H
Hydrogen
atomic number
What is the periodic table organized by today?
atomic mass
How did Mendeleev arrange the elements in his periodic table?
constantly
particles are ________ moving
rate of reaction
measure of how fast a chemical reaction occurs
Au
Gold
Dmitri Mendeleev
who is the Russian chemist who published the FIRST VERSION of the periodic table in 1869 of the Journal of the Russian Chemical Society
Ar
Argon
Cu
Copper
properties
elements with similar ________ fell into groups on the table
evaporation
surface only
carbonic
______ acid plays a key role in the formation of caves and of stalactites and stalagmites.
S
Sulfur
crystal
particles arranged in a repeating, three-dimensional pattern
Deci
(d) 0.1 (tenth)
90
How many elements on the periodic table occur naturally on Earth?
aluminum, gold
element example
Zn
Zinc
97
more than ______% of your body is made up of various nonmetals
Charles' Law
the physical law that the volume of a fixed mass of gas held at a constant pressure varies directly with the absolute temperature
metalloids
elements that have characteristics of metals and nonmetals
Dependent Variable
the factor that changes as a result of manipulated variable
pure
elements and compounds are considered __________ substances
deposition example
snow
hydronium ion
hydrogen ion combines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O(+)
Liters
A measure of capacity - one quart equals 0.9L.
Mg
Magnesium
determine a material's state of matter
motion of particles and strength of attraction
As
Arsenic
Independent Variable
the variable you purposely change
evaporation
vaporization that takes place at the surface of a liquid
brittle
cannot change shape easily w/out breaking
gallium, scandium, germanium
What are the 3 elements discovered after Mendeleev made his periodic table?
Na
sodium
element
made up of one kind of atom, pure, on the periodic table, and separated in NUCLEAR REACTIONS
2
How many types of mixtures are there?
Ca
calcium
same
every atom of the same element has the ______ number of protons
physical property
characteristic that you can observe without changing or trying to change to composition of the substance
Ag
Silver
formula for volume
lengthXwidthXheight
liquid to solid
freezing
F
Fluorine
1000mg=_g
1
1 km=_m
1000 m
the number of protons in the nucleus
What is the atomic number?
Al
Aluminum
Constants
conditions that stay the same in the experiment
balloon
Gases on the periodic table are marked with a ______.
3
How many categories do elements fall into?
solid
matter with a definite shape and volume
periods
What are the rows called?
temperature
the average kinetic energy of the individual particles
O
Oxygen
160 cm_mm
1600
endothermic
energy absorbed; cold
7
How many periods are there?
1 m=_cm
100 cm
SI Units
International System of Units
logos
The element keys have _____ for the elements that are naturally occurring on Earth. (solid, liquid, or gas)
sublimation
solid to a gas
citric
______ acid is found in lemons, limes, and oranges for their sour taste.
soaps
most _____ are bases.
112
How many elements are on the periodic table?
amorphous
large particles that are not arranged in a repeating pattern
thermal energy
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.
precipitate
a solid that separates out of a solution during a chemical change
solid
matter with a definite shape and volume
Ba
Barium
key
Each element is represented on the periodic table by a box called the element _____.
Grams
Metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a kilogram
1 cm=_mm
10 mm
physical, chemical
A group contains elements that have similar ________or ________ properties.
Length
Measured in meters
grams
unit for mass
crystalline solid
solids in which the particles are arranged in a repeating, 3-D pattern, has a specific melting point
metals
have a shiny or metallic luster, good conductors of heat and electricity
condensation
the change from a gas to a liquid
formula for density
density=mass/volume
Boyle's Law
describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed container
Cd
Cadmium
indicator
compound that changes color at different pH values when it reacts with acidic or basic solutions
opposite
inversely
dry ice
sublimation example
Br
Bromine
solid to gas
sublimation
B
Boron
NaCl
salt
plasma examples
stars, lightning, and neon lights
P
Phosphorus
italian dressing
mixture example
Charles' Law
volume of a fixed mass of a gas held at a constant pressure varies directly with the absolute temperature
Rn
Radon
to organize the elements by their properties
Why was the periodic table constructed?
Se
Selenium
catalyst
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
Meters
Metric unit of length measurement equal to 39.37 inches.
Si
Silicon
pH
measure of how acidic or basic a solutions, ranging in a scale from 0 to 14
neutralization
reaction in which an acid reacts with a base and forms water and a salt
law of conservation of mass
total mass of the matter is the same before and after a physical or chemical change; Antoine Lavoisier
solids
metals are all _______, (except mercury), with high melting points.
groups
the columns in the periodic table are called ___________
mixture
2 or more elements or compounds physically together, not pure, separated in PHYSICAL REACTIONS
Pt
Platinum
Iron Triad
Cobalt Iron Nickel
If...Then
the independent on the dependent
mercury
What is the one metal that is a liquid at room temperature?
Mn
Manganese
metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
list the 3 element categories
liquid particles motion
move freely, but not far apart
Pb
Lead
length
distance between 2 objects
kilo-
1000
good, malleable
A metal is an element that has luster, is a ______ conductor of heat and electricity, is ________ and is ductile.
base
substance that accepts H(+) ions and produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
condensation
gas to a liquid
solid
ALL metalloids are ______ at room temperature
4 states of matter
solid, liquid, gas and plasma
2
___ elements are liquids at room temperature on the periodic table.
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
3
Mendeleev left ___ blanks empty for missing elements
heat
the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature
Ni
Nickel
gas to solid
deposition
specific heat
amount of heat required to increase the temperature of water
Al
Aluminum
cube
Solids on the periodic table are marked with a _______.
transition
the elements in groups 3-12 are _______ elements. (they all are metals)
N
Nitrogen
sublimation example
dry ice
Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
0
At ____ (#) degrees Celsius is the freezing point.
Ca
Calcium
chemical properties
characteristic that cannot be observed without altering the substance
h2o
water
chemical change
substances are changed into different substances.
Henry Moseley
Who is the 20th century, English physicist that realized Mendeleev's periodic table needed improvements?
signs of chemical changes
color change, energy released or gained, odor change, gas or solid formation
mercury
All metals, except ________ are solids at room temperature
Au
Gold
gas particles motion
farther apart than liquid and solid, high speed in directions and spread out evenly
vapor
gas state of water
Catalysts
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
Ne
Neon
15
____ years after Mendeleev made his periodic table the 3 empty blanks were discovered.
K
Potassium
O
oxygen
Sn
Tin
heterogeneous mixture
least mixed, does not appear to be same throughout, particles easy to see
I
Iodine
boiling
vaporization that takes place below the surface of a liquid
exothermic
energy given off; hot
C
carbon
18
How many columns are on the periodic table?
physical change
one in which the form or appearance of matter changes, but not its composition
Cl
Chlorine
deposition
change from gas to solid
ductile
drawn into wires without breaking
Hypothesis
An educated guess about the experiment in an If-then statement
Mass
Amount of matter in an object (g)
silicon
metalloid example
Cr
Chromium
vibrate in place
solid particles motion
Charles law varies
directly
temperature up
volume up
physical properties
state, appearance, size, solubility, density, melting/boiling point, magnetic properties
Hg
Mercury
meniscus
what is the curve in the water line called?
solution
1 substance dissolved in another- "BEST MIXED" mixture
enzyme
catalysts that are large protein molecules which speed up reactions need for your cells to work properly
water, salt
compound
solid to liquid
melting
particles in matter
atoms, molecules, or ions
mass number
the number of protons plus the number of neutrons it contains
homogeneous mixture
well mixed, same throughout, cannot see particles
boiling
inside liquid and on the surface
colder
viscosity increases as a liquid becomes ______
signs of chemical changes
color change, energy released or gained, odor change, gas or solid formation
amorphous solid
a solid that is not arranged in a repeating pattern-random
basic
slippery feeling, taste bitter, corrosive, conduct electricity, and react with metals are all properties of __________ solutions.
KHDODCM
Kilo Heco Deca Basic Unit Deci Centi Mili
bull's eye
Elements that are not naturally occurring on the periodic table are marked with a ____ ____.
viscosity
a liquid's resistance to flow
atomic number
Henry changed Mendeleev's periodic table from atomic mass to ________ _____.
inhibitor
substance that slows down a chemical reaction, making the formation of a certain amount of product take longer
U
Uranium
concentration
describes how much solute is present in a solution compared to the amount of solvent
N
nitrogen
temperature
the average kinetic energy of the individual particles
lanthanide, actinide
What are the two names for the two series below the periodic table?
Meniscus
Curve of the liquid (read the bottom of the curve)
kool aid, lemonade
homogeneous example
hydrogen
All gases except ______ are on the right side of the table.
symbol, atomic mass
The element key tells you the name of the element, its atomic number, its _________ and its average _____ _____.
Na
Sodium
Co
Cobalt
surface tension
the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid; as if a thin film was stretch across the surface
solute
substance dissolved
properties
A period is a row of elements in the periodic table whose _______ change gradually and predictably.
liters
uniProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0 for volume
Kilo
(k) 1,000 (thousand)
Density
Amount of mass in a definite volume. (g/mL or g/cm3)
gas to liquid
condensation
acidic
sour taste, can conduct electricity, are corrosive, and some of these react strongly with certain metals, are all properties of a(n) ___________ solution
Control Experiment
all conditions for the same for the experimental and control group.
melting point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
compound
2 or more kinds of atoms CHEMICALLY bonded, pure, separated in CHEMICAL REACTIONS
chemical change example
vinegar on baking soda;rotten egg, odor;fireworks;cement/ limestone
gas
matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
periods
the rows in the periodic table are called ______
melting
change from solid to liquid
He
Helium
meters
unit for length
temperature down
volume down
Cl
chlorine
m / d
v= _
Fe
Iron
nonmetals
elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature
liquid to gas
vaporization
(cX1.8)+32
formula for Fahrenheit
acid
substance that releases hydrogen(+) ions and produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water
inner
Some of the transition elements are called the _______ transition elements- and are placed below the main table
solvent
substance solute is dissolved in
Kr
Krypton

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