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Adze blade
A woodworking tool used to cut and shape wood. It is a rectangular shaped blade that was attached to a wooden handle and used like a modern day axe
determining the presence of absence of various chemicals in a remain
chemical analysis
Projectile point
A triangular-shaped sharp-tipped flaked tool that was originally attached to a wooden shaft. Examples include arrowheads, harpoon heads, dart tips, and spear points. They range in size and shape.
The Italian Iceman
a 5300 year old frozen body that was found in the Italian Alps by hikers, the Simons. It's important because it gives us a lot of information about what life was like in italy 5300 years ago
Examing stratigraphy helps determine the order of different occupation periods of a site.
Why is it important not to disturb the stratigraphy of an archaeological site?
The _________was said to be our oldest ancestors and was found by Maeve leaky
Slate fish knife
specialized ground tool used for cutting. Consisted of a slate blade attached to a wooden handle.
primay and secondary records
The historic period. What was our main 2 resources used to figure out what life was like back then?
1. both found in same decade. 2. both male 3. both never lived passed 50 4. both bodies were found 90 percent complete 5. Both bodies were found be passers
5 similiraties of Iceman
the natural layering of cultural deposits and natural soil layers that build up on a site over a long period of time. These soil layers will often be different in color and texture from each other. The most recent artifacts and features are found closer to the surface, and the oldest deposits are at the bottom.
It can find big structures but if theres no light they cant use it.
Why is remote sensing helpful? why is it bad?
Because there organic and decompose quickly.
Why dont we find many faunal and floral remains?
They study and analysis the artifacts they got. Also washing and cataloging the artifacts. Dating charcoal samples, analyzing soil. Interoperating the site and writing your report
Archaeologists work in the labs.
Chemical analysis
This was used to find the iceman.
A sandstone rock with a rough texture used to sharpen, shape, and grind tools
An elongated stone that is used to knock flakes off a core in stone tool manufacture. It will be battered and worn on the ends.
a small curved stone tool with sharp circular edge for scraping fish scales, hides, etc.
Lucy and Laetoli footprints
Evidence that humans walked upright
moulds (used by Mary Leakey to make impressions of the Leatoli footprints)
Fish barb
a small bone tool pointed on both ends used like a hook for fishing
An excavation is a dig conducted by an archeologist to find evidence of past human activity that is buried in the ground
Can sometimes show cause of death, activities engaged in etc but Can lead to faulty conclusions as there can be other explanations for presence or absence of chemicals
Why is chemical analysis helpful? why is it bad?
1. found on diffrent sides of the world 2. one of the them was murderd and the other died in a snowstorm. 3.One was kept and the BC iceman was creamated. 4. One body had a head the other didint 5. ones More than 5000 years old when the other one is only 500
5 diffrences between iceman
very early humans ancestors
Screening and floating
methods you would use to find floral and faunal remains
Donald Johansen 1974
Who found Lucy? When?
In situ
The original location or position of artifacts and features in the archaeological site. Artifacts and features give archaeologists more information about ancient peoples when found in situ.
soft material that fills a bone cavity
The prehistoric period
that period of time prior to written records. (5000 years ago and longer for world history
A method of tool manufacturing that Coast Salish people began using around 2 000 years ago. Slate and bone were ground, sharpened, and shaped using an abrader. Examples include slate fish cutting knives, bone needles and fishing barbs
Harpoon head-
a specialized projectile point with a series of barbs along the edge for fishing.
40 percent
How much of lucy's body was found?
That in the area it is a village
If you find a stone bowl you automatically think?
Pottery shards
What are the most numerous artifacts?
Archaeological site
A place or location that contains evidence of past human activity. This evidence consists of artifacts and/or features. The type of artifacts and features found vary depending on the kind of site. The size of archaeological sites also varies.
Pebble tool
multi-purpose tool used for crushing, cracking, and scraping. It is made from a natural worn beach pebble that has a number of flakes removed from one end
satellites are used to measure light reflection on earths surface
Remote sensing
The scientists who collect and study the remains of past human activity
So they can recover any missed artifacts
Why archaeologists screen dirt.
Can give an age for an item if it was once a living thing but It only works on items that are less than 40 000 years old
Why is carbon 14 dating helpful? why is it bad?
human settlements
Something made by people that is a permanent part of a site and can't be removed without destroying it. Examples include post molds and fire pits.
So they can find artifacts in situ
why archaeologists dig in careful and controlled manner
Trowel, bucket, and sifter
Whats an Archaeologist main tools?
an early hominid skull that was found in Kenya and reassembled by Meave Leakey. It's important because it is our earliest known human ancestor, and it predates the previos earlies, Australopithecus afarenis
used in stone tool making. It is the chunk of preferred stone that is hit with a hammer stone to remove a large flake. This flake is then further flaked to create a tool
Isernia La Pineta
The earliest known human settlement in Europe dating to 700 000 years ago containing 14 habitations layers showing that people hunted, gathered, made stone tools, and ate marrow
Scraper, Projectile points, Hand maul, Adze blade stone bowl
List 5 coast salish artifacts
Hafted maul
a oval-shaped stone with a groove for attaching to a wooden handle and used like a modern-day hammer.
trained professionals who study human beings and human society
Fine sand
1. Formulate a research question 2. gather up equipment and tools and organize them 3. get provincial permit 4. permission from land owner. 5. cooperation from first nations
Steps for planning an excavation
An object made, used, or modified by humans. It is something that is portable and can be removed from the site.
Faunal remains
preserved animal remains recovered from an archaeological site. Faunal remains can provide information about past environment, climate, diet, hunting practices, and season of site usage. They include animal bone, teeth, antler, horn, and shells. Faunal remains are rare because they are organic and usually decompose rapidly. If present, faunal remains can be recovered by screening the soil or using a process called flotation where the soil sample is dissolved in water and the faunal remains float to the surface.
- long pointed tool used to punch holes so that sinew could then be threaded through by hand. Precursor to a needle.
Hand maul
a hand held hammer with big and small flat surfaces for pounding. Made using the grinding technique.
Bill hanlon and Mike roche
Who found the B.C iceman?
thin strips of muscle used by ancient peoples as string.
Historic period
In the last 5000 years of history. Beginging of writing
A method of stone tool manufacturing that was in use by the Coast Salish people for at least 6 000 years. Tools were shaped and formed by knocking flakes of stone from a core using a hammerstone. Examples of flake tools include projectile points and pebble tools
accurate counting of various types of artifacts/remains found at a site.
Statistical Analyisis
any object made, used , or modified purposefully by people. They are portable and can be removed from the site. Examples include tools, weapons, pttery, ect.
The BC Iceman
a 550 year old frozen body that was found in northen B.C. by hunters. It's important because it gives much information about what life was like for the local Native people prior to the arrival of Europeans. It is the oldest preserved body found in North America
Shovels, dust pans, Buckets, trowel, backhoe, dental picks
Tools archaeologists use
The most numerous artifacts are shards. Shards are pieces of broken pottery.
Because archeology is a destructive so you need to keep really exact notes otherwise you have nothing to go back to late
Why is it important to write excavation notes?
Because they would miss other artifacts and also features
why is it bad to just dig straight to the bottom
A flake is a piece of stone chipped off a core it has a bulb of percussion and a flat striking point
What is a flake?
1. Begin by surveying the site2. Excavate each layer carefully3. Measure record and preserver the artifacts as they are found4. Sift the soil 5. Clean and sweep the square 6. Map the location of all the site artifacts. 7. Analyze the site
Explain the steps in an Excavation
A place were archaeologists find a great deal of information
Primary records
are accounts (usually written) of an event by someone who saw it happen
Secondary records
are accounts (usually written) that are made after an event by someone who was not there
Floral remains
Preserved plant remains recovered from an archaeological site. Examples include seeds, leaves, nut shells, fruit, and plant fragments. Floral remains can provide information about past environment, climate, diet, and season of site usage. Faunal remains are rare because they are organic and usually decompose rapidly. If present, floral remains can be recovered by screening the soil or using a process called flotation where the soil sample is dissolved in water and the floral remains float to the surface.
Experimental archaeology
An experimental archaeologist makes a hypothesis and then recreates ancient conditions to test the hypothesis. They try to use the same tools, recreate the climate, ect... to see if their hypothesis works
Can indicate items a group was or was not using and the frequency but Not all items are evenly preserved so can create bias
Why is statistical analysis helpful? why is it bad?
1. Death, 2. Decomposure 3. transport 4.weathering and burial 5. Fossilization 6. Erosion and Discovery.
In order to become a fossil you must go through five steps. These are?
A chip of stone knocked off a core, using a hammerstone, in order to make a stone tool. Flakes have a striking platform and a bulb of percussion (bulge on opposite side from point of contact with hammerstone).
the hardend remains of plants or animals
1.define the question. 2.Collect evidence 3. Examine evidence 4.Make hypothesis. 5. test hypothesis.
What process does an archaeologist have to go through to analysis a artifact, List the 5 steps
Carbon 14Dating
measures the amount of carbon remaining in a once living thing

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