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ancient history


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Balancing and Bandwagoning Alliances
balancing alliances are when you join an alliance for resources. Bandwagoning Alliances is when you join a side foe protection.
was a Greek leader for Athens during the Peloponnesian War. He was a military strategist, and a political powerhouse. He was a favorite for Athens, but he was surrounded with controversy. He was convicted of stealing from the Delian League. He was quickly going down in his health until he finally died from the plague.
Delian League
was the a league created by the Greek City States to protect their selves from Sparta.
Megraian Decree
was an act that began slow demise of The Thirty Year Peace between Sparta and Athens. It was the diplomatic weapon used to punish Sparta’s allies.
was a War party leader for Athens during the Peloponnesian War. He ran against Pericles several times, after Pericles’s death he took over Athans. Cleon was for the men who fought in war and was more of a violent man.
he was a patient and loyal leader for Athens during the Peloponnesian War. He had a horrible position on the expedition to Sicily. He was for the aristocratic people (rich) and he was not exactly a military mastermind.
Sicilian Campaign
was campaign into Sicily. Alcibiades led the campaign and Nicias was dragged along with him into Sicily. The expedition was to cut off Sparta resources. The campaign turned into a complete disaster they lost many ships and troops.
Hoplite Phalanx
was the phalanx used by the Spartans during the Peloponnesian War.
was the king of Epirus during the Peloponnesian War. He engaged the Spartans in battle he won the battle but lost so many troops and resources and land. This is where the term “Phyric Victory” came from.
En Echelon Phalanx
was the phalanx that Alexander the Great used during his era. It was a normal phalanx but with different troops in certain spots, and more wide.
headed the ploy for peace, he was named the Boeotarch (leader of the Thebans or the Boeotians). He changes the phalanx to the En Echelon Phalanx so he could fight against the Spartans better. It was 50 rows deep with the Sacred Band and the cavalry. He defeats King Cleombrotus who marched against Boeotia in the Battle of Leuctra. He then declares his authority by marching to Laconia. He aids the Messenians and creates the city of Messene for them. Also led in the battle of Mantenia.
Battle of Leuctra
in 371 BC the Theban tactics and strength overcome the Spartans. King Cleombrotus falls.
Phillip II
was the king of Macedonia, and he was the father of Alexander III. He was a great leader for Macedonia. He fought along Alexander, he eventually died from a spear in the leg.
Battle of Charonea
338 Alexander the Great- was the son of Phillip II. He led his troops into war for a long time. He fought the Persians and conquered them. He was considered one of the best leaders ever. After he died all the leaders after him fell apart and so did the Army.
Battle of Granicus River
Cause: After Alexander’s father died Alexander pursued Philips conquest to Persia. His first goal was to free the Greek cities of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. To do this he needed to march towards the south along the East coast of the Aegean. Effect: Alexander does not accept their surrender. (wanted to set an example) When 2,000 of them were left Alexander ended the battle and sent them back to Macedonia as slaves to work in the mines. He split his army and marched deeper into Persia.
Battle of Issus
333 BC. Cause: .His army then regrouped at Gordium, marching into the Cicillic plains- very threatening to Persia. Darius takes action. To Darius’ fortune, Alexander contracted the flu, and his expedition would be halted in the Cicillic plains. With this pause of action, Darius marches his numerous army out to battle.He was able to march past Alexander’s halted army without them noticing him. Darius attacked Alexanders sick army and slaughtered them. Effect: Alexander captured Darius’s wife and children. He would then continue down the coastline. Before he could go to the heart of the empire he needed to defeat the port cities so that their navies could not launch attacks on Macedon. He then conquered Sidon and Byblos without opposition. After a rigorous conquering of Tyre, he continued his expedition south.
Battle of Gaugamela
Cause: Darius was determined not to make the same mistake as he did at Issus. Alexanders army encamped near Gaugamela. Alexander planned to attack at dawn. Alexander new how the Persian phalanx was setup so he set it up to fight against them. Effect: Alexanders army broke through and defeated the Persians and the Indians. Alexander followed Darius all the way to Arbela where he once again escaped.
Marriage of cultures
Alexander married different women from different cultures, to unify his empire to make it ultimately all one culture
1st Punic War
the first Punic war was caused by Carthage and Rome. After Carthage took over Sicily Rome took it back, and then Carthage went into Spain and this caused the war. Hamlicar and Hannibal and Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian forces and the Rome forces led by.
Hannibal Barca
Hamilcar was the father of Hannibal. Hannibal took Rome very quickly but could not take them in the end because Rome was a walled in city so in the end Hannibal was defeated by the Scipio brothers One of the greatest threats Rome had in Spain since Hannibal. He was a Marian who was a long time rebel. He overthrew Spain in 77 while a Roman praetor was in charge. He possessed the greatest alliance of opposition than any previous Marian, influence spanned from south of Spain and to Gaul. Pompey was sent to be the Proconsul in Spain because he did not disband his army. Sertorius defeats Pompey and proves to be the better general but he is later killed by his own people from the influence of another Marian named Vento Perpenna.
Scipio Brothers
brothers and consuls of Rome. Defeated Hannibal in Spain to end the Punic Wars at the battle of Zama.
Battle of Cannae
Battle between two Consuls of Rome and the great Hannibal. Roman army decided to make the army slower and put it back into the phalynx, this was a terrible idea by the Romans. Hannibal used the pincer formation
Hasdrubal Barca
Brother of Hannibal, killed in the battle of Baecula by Scipio
Carthago Nova
was Carthage’s new capital in Spain.
Publius Cornelius Scipi
he was the leader of the Roman forces in Span. The general that was appointed by the people, through the senate. He held no higher offences and was young and experienced. He wins Carthago Nova in 209 and fights Hasdrubal at Baecula, using Hasdrubal’s own tactics against him. Scipio does not pursue the defeated Hasdrubal, but takes over Spain for Rome. He is elected consul in 205, leads an attack on Carthage with 40,000 men, Numidian allies side with Rome instantly. He severs supplies from the capitol and faces Hannibal at the Battle of Zama. Scipio wins, Rome becomes greatest world power.
Battle at Umbrian River
The battle taking place North of the Umbrian River. This was between Carthage and Rome, and Hasdrubal dies in this battle.
3rd Punic War
Rome instigates 3rd Punic war. Scipio Aemilianus eradicates Carthage in 146 B.C. to ensure western Hemisphere.
source of profit the ousted farmers sold their votes for money.
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
he was the first revolutionary to want to start the agrarian bill. He was killed
Gaius Gracchus
brother of tiberius who wanted to reinstate the agrarian bill he was also killed
Gracchi Agrarian Bill
assembly of public lands parceled into farms for the landless.
Senatus Consultum Ultimatum
marshall law for the senate
Micipsa of Numidia
father of Jugurtha was king of Numidia before he died.
Jugurthinian Wars
king jugurtha gained power after the death of his father. He went into the city of Cirta and killed many Italian merchants. Rome took this as a sign of war and that is what was started.
Marius was a Roman leader during the Roman Republic era. He was constantly on and off the scene. He was always facing Sulla.
Marius’ Army reforms
Enlistment of volunteers (of all classes) changes fundamental make up of army. Poverty pushes those to the army. After disbandment comes reinlistment . Loyalty comes to the general of the army rather than the state. Soldiers served to their generals, their spoils were linked, therefore linking there loyalty. Soldiers become mercenaries. Armies served as states within the states. Power passes from government to General. This all caused civil war.
two bribed tribunes to Marius to get him back into consulship both murdered.
proposed “en bloc” which was the reformation of the senate. He propsed that the senate should increase from 300 to 600 to get the people (knights) involved, grain distribution to the urban poor, and enfranchise allies for loss of land (wars).
Social Wars
were when Drusas was killed the Italians asked for full citizenship, it gets turned down. The Senate appoints Sulla as the new general. As he is out fighting Mithridites, Marius and Cinna out an army together and march on Rome. They take it over and declare there selves counsels. They declare Sulla a outlaw. Soon Sulla finds out, but Cinna sends his army out, the generals die and the army joins Sulla. He then marches on Rome and takes it over.
was the leaderPontus at the time of the Roman Republic.he marches on Cappasdocia and kills 40,000- 50,000 italian merchants. Sulla then marches on him and kills him and his forces.
Cornelius Sulla
Sulla was a Senate chosen and supporter. He commanded Rome during the Roman Republic. He took out Mitridites and his army and he took Rome back from Marius.
The Roman port where Sulla reentered into rome after defeating mithradates.
Lepidus (78BC)
was a leader who ran after Sulla died. Sulla warned the Senate about him before he died, Lepidus wants to takeout the Senate and have all the power.
One of the greatest threats Rome had in Spain since Hannibal. He was a Marian who was a long time rebel. He overthrew Spain in 77 while a Roman praetor was in charge. He possessed the greatest alliance of opposition than any previous Marian, influence spanned from south of Spain and to Gaul. Pompey was sent to be the Proconsul in Spain because he did not disband his army. Sertorius defeats Pompey and proves to be the better general but he is later killed by his own people from the influence of another Marian named Vento Perpenna.
A very arrogant general some of the arrogance came from luck in some of his battles. He was named dictator of the sea during the age of the pirates and ultimately became one of the best consuls in Roman history. He Crassus and Caesar became the greatest consuls in Rome history also known as the Triumvirate. He quieted many revolts such as the gladiator revolt lead by Spatacus. He was one of the better generals Rome had but some say it was luck. Called himself Magnus which meant great. He said this before he had even won any battles so this showed Sulla how arrogant Pompey was. He was a great solider but a terrible politician.
Nicomedes IV
King of Bythnia gave it to Rome once he died
Thracian Gladiator Spartacus was one of the two gladiators to lead the revolt on Rome and the destruction of Italy along with Crixus. The training school was in Capua.
King of Armenia and hid Mithridates from Rome once and the second time he needed refuge he was not aloud in.
a very wealthy consul who disliked Pompey but in the end became consul with him a caesar. He crusified 4,000 of the Apian Way.

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