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Language Development


undefined, object
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Bound Morpheme
A morpheme that cannot stand alone, but rather is attached to a word stem (such as -ed to indicate past tense; -s to indicate plural)
Browns 14 morphemes
present progressive Auxillary + ing
Browns 14 Morphemes
The prepostion "in"
Browns 14 Morphemes
The preposition "on"
Browns 14 Morphemes
Plural inflections is "s", "es"
Browns 14 morphemes
Past inflections on irregular verbs
Browns 14 morphemes
Possessive inflections ie: the dog's ball
Browns 14 morphemes
uncontractible copula (is, am and are)
A be verb when it stands alone as a main ver and does not require an object (ie., "I am happy")
a set of rules which allows us put words together in certain way but which do not allow others.Have to know the rules other wise they would not be able to put words together in a meaningful way.
smalles grammatical and lexical unit: the minimal unit of meanint ie: dog, cat horse to, the.
Bound morpheme:
the sound denothing the plural it can not exist by it's self and have meaning for example "ing", "ed"
free morpheme
a morpheme that stands alone as a word cat, dog, cat
an overapplication of rules to irregular parts of the language suchas pluralizing foot as foots.
means bounded in time and specifed as to the person and number of the subject norun phrase
prescrivpive rules
rules of grammar that define howlanguage should be used, as taught in writing classes and specified in style manuals. For example, the rules that prohibit splitting infinitives and ending sentences with prepositions and prescriptive rules
grammatical morphemes
found in telecgraphic speech. Missing elements are determiners, prepostions, auxillary verbs, and the bound morphemes that go on the ends of nouns and verbs. these missing forms are grammatical morhplemes.
grammatical morpholgy
the structure of words that results from combining word roots with endings that mark grammatical relations, such as the -s at the end of verbs to mark agreement with a third person subject (he run's) or the -ed at the end of verbs to mark the pass tense. Grammatical morphology is also known as inflectional mophology.
Lexical categories
the term in Chomskey's government and binding theory for categories of words, such as noun, verb, that carry thematic content
open-class words
you can make new words noun, verbs, and adjective ie: the gud lived on a different planet. "Gud" is a new noun.
closed class words
function words. Can not make up new words ie: that, who, can , will, in. ussually preposition, auxilliaries. determiners like the and a
a set of grammatical features spelled out in the form of a set of grammatical morphemes
Mean length of Utterance
a common measure of grammatical development. It is the average lenth of the utterances in a sample spontaneous speech usually counted in terms of the number of morphemes.
a system of rules for building phrases out of words (which belong to particular grammatical categories such as noun and verb) and for building sentances out of these constituent phrases. Is not taught but rather children intuit the syntax of the language they are acquiring.
telegraphic speech
affirmative, declarative statements, as opposed to negations or questions

certain types of words and morphemes makes children's utterances sound like the sentences adults produce when writing telegrams
Descriptive Rules
Rules that describe speakers linguistic knowledge (contrast to prescribptive rules)
Linguists take whatever people do as correct and try to describe the patterns in it.
Normal Distribution
a symmetrical distribution of values around the mean. Variables that are normally distributed have a rnge of values, but have difinite central tendency called a mean normal distribution. is usually describved as a bell like curve.

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