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Praxis 2: PLT 7-12


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Bandura, Albert
Social(Observational) Learning Theory
Social(Observational) Learning Theory
Children learn by observing others
Bruner, Jerome
Discovery Learning and constructivism
Learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences
Discovery Learning
features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves
Dewey, John
Learning through experience The Father of Progressive education Students should be active decision makers Teachers have rights and need autonomy
Progressive Education (John Dewey)
promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experiences
Erikson, Erik
Eight Stages of Human Development
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 1
Infancy: 0-1 Trust v. mistrust Feeding
Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care: Preconventional
Individual Survival
Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care: Conventional
Moved from selfishness to responsibility of others; Self sacrifice is goodness
Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care: Postconventional
transition from goodness to truth that she is a person too; Principle of non violence
Kohlberg, Lawrence
Theory of Moral Development
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 2
Toddler: 1-2 Autonomy v. doubt Toilet Training
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 3
Early Childhood: 2-6 Initiative v. guilt Independence
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 4
Elementary and middle school: 6-12 Competence v. inferiority School
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 5
Adolescence: 12-18 Identity v. role confusion Sense of identity
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 6
Young Adulthood: 19-40 Intimacy v. isolation Intimate relationships
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 7
Middle Adulthood: 40-65 Generativity v. stagnation Supporting the Next Generation
Eight Stages of Human Development: Stage 8
Late Adulthood: 65-death integrity v. despair Reflection and acceptance
Unoccupied play
the child is relatively stationary and appears to be performing random movements with no apparent purpose. A relatively infrequent style of play.
Solitary Play
the child is are completely engrossed in playing and does not seem to notice other children. Most often seen in children between 2 and 3 years-old.
Associative Play
now more interested in each other than the toys they are using. This is the first category that involves strong social interaction between the children while they play.
is the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
locus of control
internal and external
Social Cognition Theorists
Believe children model what they see and hear others do.
Early Readers
Understand the difference between letters and words.
Detects beginning sounds in spoken words.
Knows that print communicates information.

Emergent Readers
Self corrects recognized errors when reading aloud.
Background Knowledge
stage usually occurs during the period between toddlerhood (18-24months) and early childhood (7 years). During this stage children begin to use language; memory and imagination also develop. In the preoperational stage, children engage in make believe and can understand and express relationships between the past and the future. More complex concepts, such as cause and effect relationships, have not been learned. Intelligence is egocentric and intuitive, not logical.

Concrete Operational
stage typically develops between the ages of 7-11 years. Intellectual development in this stage is demonstrated through the use of logical and systematic manipulation of symbols, which are related to concrete objects. Thinking becomes less egocentric with increased awareness of external events, and involves concrete references.
Formal Operational
Adolescents and adults use symbols related to abstract concepts. Adolescents can think about multiple variables in systematic ways, can formulate hypotheses, and think about abstract relationships and concepts.
focusing on more than one aspect of the picture
Unvoiced Letters
no vibration from vocal cords
Children scribble, form letters, and string letters together but
with no awareness that letters represent phonemes or speech sounds. Children can, however, create meaningful messages through their exploration. Prephonemic spelling is typical of preschoolers and beginning kindergartners.
Early Phonemic Spelling
There is a limited attempt to represent phonemes with letters (i.e., using one or two letters for a word—"m" for "my" or "nt" for "night"). This stage is typical of many kindergartners and beginning first-grade children.
Phonetic Spelling
The child uses letters for phonemes (i.e., "lik" for "like" or “brthr" for "brother"). The child represents most phonemes, understands the concept of a word, but may not quite be reading fluently yet. Many ending kindergartners and beginning first-graders are at this stage.
Transitional Spelling
In this stage, children are internalizing information about
spelling patterns. The words they write look like English words. For example, the child may write "skool" for "school" and "happe" for "happy." Rules are not always employed correctly. With continued reading and writing practice, children integrate more spelling rules and patterns. This stage usually includes first through third-grade children.
Standard Spelling
At this stage, children spell most words correctly. This stage
usually occurs by the middle to the end of third grade or in fourth grade. Children are ready to learn to spell homonyms, contractions, and irregular spellings and to internalize the rules that govern spelling.
Guided Reading
enables students to predict

increases time spent reading

Promotes fluency

Transductive Reasoning
is the primary form of reasoning used during the preoperational stage of development. This stage occurs approximately from the ages of 2-7. "If A causes B today, then A always causes B." As such it based on a generalization from instance to instance, so it is neither deductive or inductive in logical terms

horizontal decalage
An operational knowledge of conservation does not develop simutltaneously for all properties of material, coservsation of some properties develops before others, this is drawn by Piaget
the incomplete differentiation of the self and the world, including other people and
the tendency to perceive, understand and interpret the world in terms of the self.
Animistic Thinking
preoperational period- Children believe that innate objects because they move or appear to move are alive.
Lazy Eye- Cover stronger eye with patch. This makes the brain use the weaker eye.
Reggio Emilia
Children must have some control over the direction of their learning;
Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, moving, listening, seeing, and hearing;
Children have a relationship with other children and with material items in the world that children must be allowed to explore and
Children must have endless ways and opportunities to express themselves

Zone of Proximal development- What a child can do to, from indpendent activities to those that require a caregivers support


The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.
kohlberg- preconventional Morality
Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment

Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange

Kohlberg- Conventional Morality
Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships

Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order

Level 3. Postconventional Morality- Kohlberg
Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights

Stage 6 - Universal Principles

Kindergarten Creator
Friedrich Froebel changed the way we think about early childhood education. He designed balls, wooden blocks, tiles, sticks and rings to demonstrate that children learn by playing. Known around the world as the Froebel Gifts or Gaben, these objects were an important part of his Kindergarten. The Froebel Gifts have been widely imitated and adapted by educators and toys makers.

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