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Earth Science vocab ch. 17, 21

UCLA ESS1 vocab ch. 17, 21

Terms

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hydrothermal water
Hot water in the crust.
striation
A scratch or groove left on bedrock and boulders by overriding ice, showing the direction of glacial motion.
continental glacier
A thick, extremely slow moving sheet of ice that covers a large part of the continent.
drift
All material of glacial origin found anywhere on land or at sea.
kettle
A hollow or undrained depression that often has steep sides and may be occupied by ponds or lakes; formed in glacial deposits when outwash was deposited around a residual block of ice that later melted.
ablation
The total amount of ice that a glacier loses each year.
discharge
1) the volume of groundwater leaving an aquifer in a given time. 2)The volume of water that passes a given point in a given time as it flows through a channel of a certain width and depth.
permafrost
A permanently frozen aggregate of ice and soil occuring in very cold regions. Any rock or soil remaining at or below 0 C for two or more years.
Darcy's law
A summary of the relationsips among the volume of water flowing through an aquifer in a certain time, the vertical drop of the flow, the flow distance, and the permeability of the aquifer.
varve
A pair of alternating coars and fine layers formed in one year by the seasonal freezing of a lake surface.
unsaturated zone
The level in the groundwater table in which the pores of the soil or rock are not completely filled with water.
meteoric water
Rain, snow, or other forms of water derived from the atmosphere.
reservoir
1) A place in which water is stored, including the oceans; glaciers and polar ice; groundwater; lakes and rivers; the atmosphere; and the biosphere. 2) A geochemical reservoir: a place of residence for elements in a geochemical cycle.
karst topography
An irregular hilly terrain characterized by sink holes, caverns, and a lack of surface streams; formed in regions of high rainfall with extensively jointed limestone formations and an appreciable hydraulic gradient.
aquiclude
A relatively impermeable bed that bounds an aquifer above or below and acts as a barrier to the flow of groundwater.
cirque
An amphitheater-like hollow, usually shaped like half of an inverted cone, formed at the head of a glacial valley by the plucking and tearing action of ice.
hydraulic gradient
The ratio between the difference in elevation of the groundwater table at two points and the flow distance that the water travels between those two points.
basal slip
The sliding of a glacier along its base.
drumlin
A large streamlined hill of till and bedrock that parallels the direction if ice movement in a continental glacier terrain.
relative humidity
The amount of water vapor in the air, expressed as a percentage of the total amount of water the air could hold at that temperature if saturated. Whe nteh relative humidity is 50 percent and the temperature is 15 C, for example, the amount of moistrue in the air is one-half the maximum amount the air could hold at 15 C.
valley glacier
A river of ice that forms in the cold heights of mountain ranges where snow accumulates, usually in preexisting valleys, and flows down the bedrock valleys.
groundwater
The mass of water stored beneath Earth's surface.
saturated zone
The level in the groundwater table in which the pores of the soil or rock are completely filled with water.
moraine
An accumulation of rocky, sandy, and clayey material carried by glacial ice and deposited as till.
outwash
Drift that has been caught up and modified, sorted, and distributed by meltwater streams.
hydrology
The science that studies the movements and characteristics of water on and under Earth's surface.
ice shelf
Sheets of ice floating on hte ocean that are attached to a continental glacier on land; common on the periphery of Antarctica.
rain shadow
An area of low rainfall on the leeward slope of a mountain range.
hydrologoic cycle
The cyclyical movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere by evaporation, to the surface through rain, to strams through runoff and groundwater, and back to the ocean.
iceberg calving
The process by which pieces of ice break off and from icebergs when a glacier reaches a shoreline.
esker
A long, narrow, winding ridge of sand and gravel found in the middle of a ground moraine.
tillite
Ancient lithified till.
runoff
The sum of all rainwater that flows over the surface, including the fraction that may temporarily infiltrate near-surface formations and then flow back to the surface.
permeability
The ability of a solid to allow fluids to pass through it.
ice stream
A current of ice in a continental glacier that flows faster than the surrounding ice.
sinkhole
A small, steep depression in the land surface above a cavernous limestone formation.
artesian flow
A water flow produced by the greater pressure of groundwater in a confined aquifer than in an unconfined aquifer.
infiltration
The movement of groundwater or hydrothermal water into rock or soil through pores and joints.
potable water
Water that tastes agreeable and is not dangerous to health.
till
An unstratified and poorly sorted sediment contianing all sizes of fragments from clay to boulders and deposited by glacial action.
U-shaped valley
A deep valley with steep upper walls that grade into a flat floor; the typical shape of a valley eroded by a glacier.
accumulation
The amount of snow added to a glacier annually.
glacier
A large mass of ice on land that shows evidence of being in motion or of once having moved.
crevasse
A large vertical crack in the surface of a glacier caused by the movement of brittle surface ice as it is dragged along by the plastic flow of the ice below.
recharge
The infiltration of water into any subsurface formation, often by rain or snow meltwater form the surface.
surge
A sudden period of fast movement of a valley glacier, sometimes occurring after a long period of little movement and lasting several years.
hanging valley
A valley left by a melted tributary glacier that enters a larger glacial valley above its base, high up on the valley wall.
plastic flow
The total of all the small movements of the ice crystals that make up a glacier, resulting in a large movement of the whole mass of ice.
groundwater table
The boundary between the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone.
aquifer
A bed that stores and transmits groundwater in sufficient quantity to supply wells.
fjord
A former glacial valley with steep walls and a U-shaped profile, now occupied by the sea.

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