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Tissues Chapter 4

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Keratinized
form keratin(tough protection that protects skin from microbes, heat and chemicals)-
Dense Connective Tissue 3types
Dense regular, Dense irregular, Elastic
Mast Cells
part of the reaction to injury-histamine---------> Kill Bacteria
Mucous Membranes
secrete mucous to prevent drying out, also traps particles in respiration tract& lubricates& absorbs food in GI tract
Simple Epithelium
Important for filtration(kidneys) or diffusion (lungs & capillaries)
2 types of epithelial
Covering/Lining & Glandular
3 types of fibers
Collagen(strong and flexible)-->tendons, ligaments, bone, cartilage--------Elastic (smaller&stretch and return to original length--->skin, lungs, blood vessel walls-------------reticular(provides support and strength)---->basement and organ support
Reticular Function
Framework of Liver/Spleen/Lymph nodes/ red bone marrow----helps bind smooth muscle cells--filters worn out blood cells(spleen)-----filters bacteria (lymph nodes)
Loose Connective Tissue (3types)
Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
Unstretched Cuboidal
looks like stratified cubodial
Connective Tissue
protects and supports body and organs--bind organs together--stores energy (fat)---helps with immunity
platelets
involved in clotting
stroma
scar tissue and functional loss
Dense Irregular
Collagen fibers are irregularly arranged--found in part of body where oulling forces are in different directions
RBC's
carry O2, CO2--- brings O2 to cells......Removes CO2 from cells
Adipocytes
store triglycerides
Arrangement of epithelial
cells close together & arranged in continuous sheets
Microvilli
increase the surface Area--> for absorption
Dense RegularCT
collagen fibers arranged regularly in parallel patterns =>Great Strength-----found in tendons ligaments aponeuroses
Nervous
Starts and transmits nerve impulses
ECM
fluid, gel, or solid plus protein fibers
Function of Bone
store calcium&phosphorus...supports soft tissue...protects structures....works with skeletal muscle to move....stores red bone marrow-- produce RBC's...stores yellow bone marrow storage for triglycerides
Stretched Cuboidal
cells become flatter and look like stratified squamous epith.
Muscular
Gives us the ability to move
Types of Cartilage 3types
Hyaline- Fibrocartilage--Elastic
Hyaline
most common but weakest, lots of chondrocytes, Ground Substance is a gel consistency--found in the ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, nose--allows flexabliity&support
Endothelium
Simple Epithelium---call this when lining heart, blood, and lymphatic vessels
Mesothelium
Simple Epithelium--called this when in serous membranes (lines cavities of body)
Endocrine Gland
ductless, secrete hormones diredtly into blood stream, produce hormones
the 4 types of tissues
connective, epithelial,muscular, nervous
Elastic CT
many elastic fibers--able to recoil to to origional shape--in lungs, arteries, vocal cords suspensory ligaments--allows stretching
Stratified Squamous
Cells inthe basal layer divide and move upward toward apical surface---as cells move upward they dehydrate bc they move from the blood supply--shrinkage
ECM
secreted by CT cells
Neuroglia
do not generate nerve impulses or conduct nerve impulses
Neurons (nerve cells)
convert stimuli into nerve impulses and conduct them (to other nerves, muscles, or glands)
Apical Surface
Top surface
Connective Tissue (4things)
most abundant--small cells far apart--Large amount of ECM--often good blood supply
Blood
connective tissue with a liquid ECM= blood plasma
Goblet Cells
secrete mucus onto surface
Parenchymal cells
do repair= nearly perfect
Pseudostratified Columnar
can have or not have Goblet cells and/or cillia
4 type of body membranes
Mucous Membranes, serous membranes, synovial membranes, Cutaneous Membranes
CT (2 main Parts)
Cells & Extracellular Matrix
Connective Tissue Function (7 things)
binds body tissues--supports&strengthens body tissues--protects & insulates organs--separates structures--transports fluid&substances--Stored energy--site for immune responses
Exocrine Gland
secrete products into ducts that empty on surface or lumen
Fibroblasts
most abundant cells
Cartilage
not stronger than dense or loose CT, no blood supply or nerves, collagen fibers give strength, Chondrotin Sulfate gives cartilage resilence cells=chondrocytes--found in lacunae
Keratinized placement
found in the superficial layer of skin
macrophages
Engulf Bacteria & cell debris by phagocytes
Stratified Epithelium
more than one layer of cells--Function--> protection (found where lots of wear/tear)
WBC
immunity & allergic reactions
Pseudostratified Epithelium
False-- Some cells will not reach the apical surface--could have cilia or secrete mucus--all cells reach basement layer
Elastic
has more elastic fibers in ECM--found in epiglottis, external ear
fibrocartilage
has visible bundles of collagen fibers--pubic symphsis, intervertebral discs, menisc--strength and support and rigidityi
stratified Squamous function
protection

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