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Health Final


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emotional component that involves feelings of closeness
Passionate love
state of high arousal filled with the ecstasy of being loved and the agony of being rejected. Tends to be preoccupied with her partner and to perceive the love object as perfect. Occurs if 1. culture in which concept of falling in love is idealized; 2. a suitable love object must be present; 3. some type of physiological arousal that occurs when in presence (sexual excitement)
increase heart rate (factors)
1. body temp; 2. anxiety; 3. pain; 4. exercise; 5. hyperthyroidism; 6. anemia; 7. medications
Difficulties that hinder sexual functioning
impotence, premature ejaculation, sexual performance anxiety, dyspareunia, vaginismus, rohypnol
Primary aggression
goal-directed, hostile self-assertion that is destructive in nature
experiencing attraction to and preference for sexual activity with people of both sexes
Heart S4
low-pitched, occurs when either right or left ventricle is stiff and resistant to incoming flow of blood
Acute battering in cycle of violence
Can't control or predict abuse, pleasing the man doesn't help; he is trying to "teach her a lesson"
predict partner's behavior
Lunelle and Norplant
currently off the market
Lung Palpitation
doctor will place hand on patient's back, feeling to make sure the diaphragm is not paralyzed, to make sure there are no broken ribs, to hear the fremitus
Remorse/ reconciliation
the batterer may be kind, loving, apologetic, violence may stop for several weeks/months, woman may question if she overreacted
split S1 or S2
if one of valves opens or closes early or late
Gender identity
personal sense or awareness of being masculine or feminine, or male or female
feel certain about your partner's intentions and behavior
Indirect Inguinal Hernia
lie up inside the inguinal canal- doctors insert finger into path of inguinal canal, patient asked to turn his head and cough- hernias felt as a mass of tissue meeting the finger then withdrawing
Marital rape
any unwanted intercourse obtained by force, threat of force, or when the wife is unable to consent- prevalent form of sexual violence
Families: 7 types
single-parent families, communal families (unrelated people living together), and extended families
social history
patient's profession, marital status, living arrangements, smoking and drinking habits, whether they drink coffee, drug habits, risk factors for diseases like Hepatitis, HIV, STDS
Exam for Prostate Cancer
weak or interrupted urine flow, inability to urinate, blood in urine; persistant lower back pain or pain in upper thighs or pelvis
actions often based on bias and prejudice that deny equal treatments of opportunities to a group
Heart S3
low-pitched sound, heard in young adults when there is a fluid overload on either side of the heart
Male attitudes
a greater tolerance of rape among men who accept the myth that rape is something women secretly desire
Purpose of a Gynecological exam
focus on the evaluation of a woman's reproductive organs, also to detect cancer
degree of confidence partners feel in a relationship
Aggravated rape
rape that involves multiple attackers, strangers, weapons, or physical beating
history of present illness
chronological order of patient's symptoms and complaints
Heart Snap
can be heard in the resting part of the heart cycle, and are usually due to the opening of an abnormal mitral valve
labia minora and majora
inner and outer folds
difficulty in achieving or maintaining a penile erection sufficient for intercourse
simple rape
rape by one person usually known to the victim that doesn't involve physical beating or weapon
Your sexual identity
acknowledgment of oneself as a sexual being, a composite of biological sex, gender roles, gender identity, and sexual orientation
Options for sexual expression
celibacy, masturbation, cunnilingus, fellatio, autoerotic behaviors
pupils move
get larger and smaller in order to control the amount of light entering the eye
in Doctor's bag:
opthalmoscope, otoscope, stethoscope, reflex hammer, blood pressure cuff, thermometer, tongue depressor, tuning fork
blood pressure cuff
used along with stethoscope to measure patient's blood pressure (allows doctor to hear blood passing through arteries)
Men as victims
12% men reported that wives hurt them in past year- almnost same # as women; but, women are injured 2 to 3 times more than men and injuries more severe; also, women generally intimidated by men, men not afraid of wives
Socialization processes that may lead men to engage in sexual harassment
1. Male socialization; 2. male attitudes; 3. male sexual history; 4. male misperceptions; 5. situational factors
veins in the neck
neck veins drain blood from brain to right side of heart, and are normally collapsed- but when heart is strained, the nect veins pop out- the doctor will make the patient sit and lay in various positions to estimate the pressure in the right side of the heart (jugular venous pressure) to determine if the right side of the heart is weak
Abdominal Palpation
feeling-- one hand on top of the other or one hand in front, one hand in back of patient; one-handed method most widely used, good for examining stomach, liver, spleen, intestines; 2 handed method is good for deep organs like kidneys
Differences in communication styles
women are more expressive, relationship oriented, concerned with creating/maintaining intimacy; men are more instrumental, task oriented, concerned with gathering info or establishing and maintaining social status or power
External female genitals
Mons pubis, labia minora and majora, clitoris, urethral opening, hymen, perineum
rely on partner to give support
average menstrual cycle
28 days, consists of menstrual phase and luteal phase
Grief work
process of accepting the reality of a person's death and coping with the memories of the deceased
Need fulfillment
we fulfill our needs for intimacy, social integration, being nurturing, assistance, and affirmation
an instrument made up of a system of lenses and mirrors used to look inside the eyes
combination of traditional masculine and feminine traits in a single person
Pubic lice
treat by washing clothing, furniture, linens that may harbor eggs
the vibration of the patient's voice, which can be felt through their back- a decreased resonance can mean disease or fluid-filled lungs
causes: exchanging body fluids, injecting drugs; symptoms: may experience a large number of infections, colds, sore throats, fever, tiredness, nausea, night sweats, and other generally non-life threatening conditions; treatments: AZT- longer survival for people with HIV- no cure
Rinne test
place base of tuning fork against mastoid bone of the patient's ear; once vibration stops, the sound should still be heard when the vibrating ends are placed 1-2 inches away from the head
permanent ending of all vital functions
Conductive loss
Problems with conducting sound through the outer and middle ear into the inner ear where the nerve endings are located; most common in people below the age of 40
autoerotic behaviors
involve sexual self-stimulations: sexual fantasy and masturbation
Resolution phase
muscle tension and congested blood subside as the genital organs return to their pre-arousal states; feelings of well-being and profound relaxations; men experience a refractory period: their systems are incapable of subsequent arousal
Physical part of gynecological exam
exam of breasts, mammogram, external pelvic exam, internal pelvic exam, pap test, bimanual exam, rectovaginal exam
sexual orientation
a person's enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectionate attraction to others
physical exam is important because
doctor examines patient and can easily tell how sick a patient is, what is normal, abnormal, detailed and systematic
Male sexual history and hostility
Most rapists don't look abnormal or appear to be psychologically disturbed; many feel hostility toward women
What to do if rape occurs
Call 911, do not bathe, clean up, or touch anything the attacker may have touched, do not throw away or clean the clothes you were wearing- evidence, bring a clean change of clothes to the hospital or clinic, contact the rape assistance hotline, ask for advice on therapists if you need additional help
optic disc and cup
located at the center of the retina in the back of the eye; where the optic nerve (the main nerve for vision) comes into the back of the eyeball; disc is a circle of reddish-brown and the cup is a smaller circle inside the disc, usually yellowish and pink; if the cup is larger than the disk, signifies glaucoma
culturally prescribed behavior patterns for expression of grief
Sexually transmitted infections
more than 20 known types; if left untreated, some can have grave consequences, like sterility, blindness, central nervous system destruction, disfigurement, death
Mouth and throat exams
open mouth and say ah to give clear view to back of throat and tonsils; examined with tongue depressor, light, possibly fingers- examines tongue, teeth, gums, roof, floor of mouth, then tonsils and throat
thin membrane covering vaginal opening
Things to do to reduce anxiety and harm about terrorist attacks
1. be aware of reactions to stress, anxiety, fear; 2. be conscious of surroundings; 3. stay informed; 4. seek understanding/info; 5. Know what to do in an emergency
located at the top of labia minora; only for sexual pleasure
characteristics that make a good friendship
enjoyment, acceptance, mutual trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, spontaneity
Movements of the eyes
eyeballs move around to allow people to look at different things without moving heads
our evolutionary patterns, genetic pre-dispositions, past experiences trigger romantic reactions
reflex hammer
used to gently strike various points on the body in order to examine the nervous system
Vital signs
heart rate (pulse), rate of breathing (respiration), blood pressure, and body temperature- important because indicate whether or not a patient is stable or needs immediate life-saving care, shows how ill someone is
right side of the heart
receives blood and pumps it to the lungs to be oxygenated before it is returned to the heart
Chief complaint
main concern that is troubling a patient
violence directed randomly at persons affiliated with a particular group
Companionate love
a secure, trusting attachment, similar to what we may feel for family members or close friends; two people are attracted, have much in common, care about each others' well-being, express reciprocal liking and respect
Snellen Eye Chart
top number is distance you are from the chart, bottom number is distance at which the normal eye is able to read the letters on a given line in the chart
Bimanual exam
doctor uses both hands to examine the cervix, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder- entire region felt for masses and tenderness
Heard when the 2 surfaces of the lung are inflamed and rub against one another
Behavioral interdependence
the mutual impact that people have on each other as their lives and daily activities intertwine- what one person does influences what the other person wants to and can do
use of x-rays to examine the breasts- can detect tumor before any clinical signs or symptoms arise- after age of 40
Genital HPV
many people have no symptoms, but some are a series of itchy bumps on genitals that range in size; if precancerous cases are left untreated, 70% will result in cancer; treated with topical meds
Tonsils red with yellow spots
strep or mono
increased estrogen levels assist in the development of female secondary sex characteristics and it regulates the menstrual cycle
prostate gland
gland that secretes nutrients and neutralizing fluids into the semen
Sores in throat
can be canker sores, herpes, cancer
Cowper's glands
glands that secrete a fluid that lubricates the urethra and reutralizes any acid remaining in the urethra after urination
sac of tissue behind the penis that encloses the testes
Human sexual responses
1. excitement/arousal; 2. plateau phase; 3. orgasmic phase; 4. resolution phase
not having made a will
coital standard
penile/vaginal intercourse is viewed as the ultimate sex act
in order for us to stay alive,
oxygen and carbon dioxide must be exchanged every minute
Child abuse
systematic harm of a child by a caregiver, generally a parent; increases likelihood of arrest as a juvenile by 53% and of a arrest for a violent crime as an adult by 38%
high pitched sound that comes from the throat when air is being drawn into the lungs without the vocal chords being fully open; happens when tissues of the throat are swollen, indicating respiratory failure
diseases diagnosed by ear exam
swimmer's ear (otitis externa), otitis media, mastoiditis, an effusion (extraneous fliuid)
Internal Pelvic Exam
speculum used to spread the walls of the vagina, then the cervix (entrance to vagina) is inspected for ulcerations, cysts, bleeding, enlargements, menstrual discharge
Taking a pulse
can take pulse on wrist, temples, nexk, under arm, in groin, behind elbow or knee, on top of feet, inside of ankle- press with pads of index and middle fingers, count number of beats in one minute
Palpation (feeling)
especially used in examining head, neck, heart, chest, lungs, abdomen, arms, legs, sex organs, mouth, rectum; can feel for consistency of abnormal looking items, i.e. tumors; check whether it is soft, firm, or very hard, solid, fluid-filled, hollow, attached, free-moving
Sexual assault is still viewed as a jocular matter
term describing change in sound that happens when lung tissue is no longer filled with air, but with fluid- doctor will ask patient to make the sound "eee" which, when the lungs are filled with fluid, will sound like "aaa"
a complete evaluation of the heartq
taking detailed history, physical exam, chest x-ray, electrocardiogram
manufacture sperm and produce hormonesq
parts of gynecological exam
two main parts: history and physical exam
Exam for Testicular Cancer
self-exams once a month; best right after warm shower or bath so scrotal skin relaxed; gently roll each testicle between thumb and fingers to detect any lumps or changes from previous exams
Single most important interaction between doctor and patient
taking a history
involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles, which makes penile insertion painful or impossible
the Ramstad Act
gives victims the right to call in off-campus authorities to investigate serious campus crimes; Universities must set up educational programs and notify students of available counseling
Sexual harassment
un-welcomed sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical contact of a sexual nature; any form of unwanted sexual attention
Black eye
the soft tissues (eyelids) around the eye become damaged- small blodd vessels break and cause a brown appearance on the eye
left side of the heart
pumps blood to most of the body under high pressure
Weber test
place base of tuning fork in middle of patient's head; the sound should be equal in both ears
drug allergies, food allergies, previous drug reactions
inner lining of uterus
list of medicines being taken at present and over past six months
Male external genitals
penis, scrotum
Auscultation (listening)
use of stethoscope to listen to breathing, heart, etc, to find out if internal organs are functioning properly
state of mental distress that occurs in reactions to significant loss, including one's own impending death, death of a loved one, or a quasi-death experience
orgasmic standard
all sexual interaction should lead to orgasm
lub-dupp lub-dupp
valves closing and opening- known as S1 and S2
Premature ejaculation
ejaculation that occurs prior to or almost immediately following penile penetration of the vagina
Women don't leave partners because
financially dependent, fear retaliations against themselves or children, think situation will change, cultural/religious beliefs forbid divorce, still love partner
Hernias- defects in the abdominal wall
cal be either present at birth (congenital) or developed later (as a result of abdominal surgery) usually benign
course sounds heard on expiration, to to fluid in the airways
the normal range for the 1st period is 9-17
urethral opening
urine is expelled
importance of palpation in detecting hernias
sometimes intestines can bulge into hernia and get blocked off, so doctor's prefer to repair hernias on an elective basis- easiest to detect hernias through palpation
tuning fork
instrument used to play a note, test hearing
Importance of treating strep throat
if not treated completely, it can lead to rheumatic fever, which can destroy valves of the heart
Depo provera
an injectable method of birth control that lasts for 3 months
vasocongestion, increased blood flow in the genital region, stimulates male and female genital responses
Male internal genitals
testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cowper's glands
acquaintance or date rape
occur as the result of incidental contact at a party- crimes of opportunity
Emotional attachment
share feelings or spiritual beliefs and meanings, and are intimate friends
inflammation of the peritoneum; organs inside the abdominal cavity are surrounded by the visceral peritoneum, while the abdominal wall itself is surrounded by the parietal peritoneum; sometimes an abnormal amt of fluid collects in the potential space and is called ascites; irritation of these membranes is painful and leads to inflammations- wherever peritonitis occurs, bowels stop moving completely and any movement or stretching of the membranes causes extreme pain- abdominal muscles contract involuntarily and the abdomen becomes rigid
Characteristics of healthy relationships
characteristics related to family, close friends, romantic partners: behavioral interdependence, need fulfillment, emotional attachment, emotional availability
Child abusers
tend to have a history of abuse as a child, poor self-image, feelings of isolation, extreme frustration with life, higher stress or anxiety than normal, abuse drugs and alcohol, unrealistic expectations of child
Causes of jealousy
overdependence on the relationship, high value on sexual exclusivity, severity of the threat, low self-esteem, fear of losing control
experiencing primary attraction to and preference for sexual activity with people o the same sex
normal waves of peristalsis (muscular contractions) have stopped altogether
The middle ear
small, air-filled cavity right behind the eardrum, then a mass of spongy bone called the mastoid; also, three small bones which connect the eardrum to the inner ear and the eustachian tube which connects it to the throat; examination: an otoscope allows physician to see eardrum
high risk for violence
Children, women, black males, elderly
Internal female genitals
vagina, uterus, endometrium, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes
other birth control
sterilization, intrauterine devices, withdrawal, emergency contraceptive pills, and abstinence
Hate crimes
30% of all hate crimes are against property, 70% against person; brutal, randomly to total strangers, multiple offenders; motivated by thrill, defensive feelings, hate-mongering mission
Triangular theory of love: robert sternberg
1. intimacy, 2. passion, 3. decision/commitment
taking a history
chief complaint, history of present illness, past medical and surgical history, medications, allergies, social history
heart click
occurs due to the opening of abnormally stiff aortic and pulmonic valves, or due to the closing sound of an abnormal mitral valve
romantic standard
sex should be related to love
Staying single
more than 10% of people say they would never marry
Sexual performance anxiety
a condition of sexual difficulties caused by anticipating some sort of a problem with the sex act
2 types of hearing loss
1. Conductive loss and 2. Sensorineural loss
orgasmic phase
vasocongestion and muscle tensions reach their peak, and rhythmic contractions occur through the genital regions
safer sex standard
if we choose to be sexually active, we should act to prevent unintended pregnancy or disease transmission
Bruits- abdominal
Rushing sounds made by abdominal blood flow
sexual penetration without the victim's consent; most extreme form of sexual assault
Sexual behavior standards
heterosexual standard, coital standard, orgasmic standard, two-person standard, romantic standard, safer sex standard
Societal causes of violence
Poverty, unemployment, parental influence, cultural beliefs, the media, stress, alcohol, discrimination, oppression, religious differences, political differences, breakdowns in criminal justice system
process of decline in body functions, resulting in death of an organism
Elements of healthy relationships
Trust, predictability, dependability, faith
term used to describe various infections of the female reproductive tract; symptoms: inflammation of the pelvic cavity, severe pain in the lower abdomen, menstrual irregularities, fever, nausea, painful intercourse, ectopic pregnancies, severe depression; early treatment reduces risk
located along the back of the eye- only place in the body where one can see small arteries, veins, and nerves directly; when inspecting the retina, the ophthalmologist usually looks at the vessels, the optic disc and cup, the surface or the retina, and the macula
Test ability to see
a test of "visual acuity" where each eye is tested separately, reading a chart from a distance of 20 ft
period of sexual maturation
a spontaneous, usually temporary, biological feeling or emotional state that occurs during frustration- can be biological or socio-cultural or because of family background( greatest predecessor of future violence)
Theory of attraction and falling in love: fisher: predictable pattern
1. Imprinting; 2. attraction; 3. attachment; 4. production of a cuddle chemical (oxytocin)
Blood pressure
measures pressure in the high pressure circuit of pumping blood- recorded as 2 numbers- systolic (top number, typically over 100, during peak heart cntraction); and diastolic (bottom number, typically below 100, while heart is resting) ; Typical adult blood pressure: 120/80
a complex set of chemical reactions and changes that tissues undergo in response to bacterial invasion or diseases; indicated by the 4 hallmarks of inflammation
irrational hatred of fear of homosexuals
options for sexual expression
kissing, erotic touching, oral, genital stimulation, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse
Rectovaginal exam
index finger in vagina, middle finger in rectum, so doctor can feel posterior surface of the uterus, cervical ligaments, ovaries, and side walls of pelvis
a drug sometimes used in combination with alcohol to facilitate date rape by making a woman unaware of what is happening to her
motivational component that reflects romantic, sexual attraction
muscular contractions
Sexual harassment
any form of unwanted sexual attention
Social contributors to sexual assault
minimization, trivialization, blaming the victim, "boys will be boys"
heart inspection
looking- physician examines skin for discoloration (blue means not enough oxygenated blood is being received) or deposits of cholesterol under the skin (which show too much blood cholesterol) ; can also examine fingernails for short rounded nails (not enough oxygen), swelling of the ankles and shortness of breath (heart doesn't work well enough)- final inspection is of the veins in the neck
Male socialization
exposed to social norms that objectify women and make them appear as objects that can be used; men are told to act tough and unemotional, to strive for power, status, and control and to be aggressive
Six muscles in eye
control movements- must be in perfect synchronization or the person will see double- the eyes must remain coordinated with movements of the body, so that objects can remain in focus while a person walks
sexual abuse of children
sexual interaction between a child and an adult or older child; includes sexually suggestive conversations, inappropriate kissing,touching, petting, and oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse
Five stages of dying patients: Dr. Kubler-ross
Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
caused by a protozoan; symptoms: foamy, yellowish, unpleasant-smelling discharge accompanied by a burning sensation, itching, painful urination; transmitted by toilet seats, wet towels, sexual contact, other items with discharged fluids on them; treated by oral metronidazole
the womb
two-person standard
sex is an activity to be experienced by 2
methods of observation
Inspection (looking), Auscultation (listening), Palpation (feeling), Percussion (tapping)
Abdominal Auscultations
listening- doctors feel this step should be conducted first (before disturbing the organs during palpation) ; abnormal bowel sounds include too many or too few of the normal bowel sounds (gurglings heard several times per minute); no sounds indicate ileus and hyperactive sounds can occur because of diarrhea and are normally higher pitched that regular bowel sounds
condition in which a person is psychologically of one sex by physically of the other; gender dysphoria
Normal grief
periodic waves of physical distress lasting from 20 minutes to an hour; feeling of tightness in the throat; choking and shortness of breath; frequent need to sigh; feelings of emptiness and muscular weakness; intense anxiety that is actually painful
Mons pubis
fatty tissue covering the pubic bone
cognitive component that includes the decisions you make about being in love and the degree of commitment to your partner
if unable to eliminate enough carbon dioxide from lungs
over a period of hours or days, kidneys would retain more basic levels, so the acid levels would stabilize
Prevent a rape
Be vigilant, use campus escorts, demand a well-lit campus, don't use same route all the time, don't leave alone or with a stranger, let friends and family know where you are, when you'll be back, keep close to others, keep windows and doors locked
symptoms male: white milky discharge from penis with painful, burning urination 2-9 days after contact; 20% have no symptoms; few develop sensation upon urinating; treated with antibiotics
if someone with a serious headache can't lower their head to touch their chest, it could be meningitis, see doctor immediately
Progestin-only fills
for women who don't want to use estrogen pills
heterosexual standard
sexual attraction should be limited to members of the other sex
Symptoms of Peritonitis
Absent bowel sound, guarding: the patient has so much pain from the irritation of the peritoneal membranes that their abdominal muscles are contracted and it is difficult to feel any other abdominal structures on examination, and rebound tenderness: movement or stretching causes extreme pain
disease affecting arterial blood vessels- chronic inflammatory response in walls of arteries and is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries; caused by the formulation of multiple plaques w/i the arteries
pain experienced by women during intercourse
heart auscultation
doctor will listen to see if fluid is backed up in the lungs- backed up fluid will make a crackling sound, means that left side of heart is failing; doctor then listens to heart valves
Examining the Anus, rectum, prostate
visually inspected for lumps, rashes, inflammation, skin lesions, warts, and external hemorrhoids
Major organs in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen
descending colon
Point of maximum intensity
Pap smears
good for detecing early signs of cervical cancer- cells are gently scraped from the cervix and vagina with a swab and examined to detect cancerous cells
passageway from uterus to outside of body
mildly uncomfortable to extremely serious; burning sensation and redness at the site of infection; prescriptions keep disease from spreading
Passive euthanasia
intentional withholding of a treatment that would prolong life
helps keep the endometrium developing in order to nourish a fertilized egg- helps maintain pregnancy
secondary sex characteristics
characteristics associated with gender but not directly related to reproduction, such as vocal pitch, degree of body hair, and location of fat deposits
passive form of mercy killing- prolonged life treatments not offered, interventions not offered or are withheld- allows a terminally ill person to die naturally
seminal vesicles
storage areas for sperm where nutrients and other fluids are added to them
Lung Auscultation
doctor uses stethoscope to determine the normality of breathing
Social death
a seemingly irreversible situation in which a person is not treated like an active member of society
Plateau phase
initial responses intensify, voluntary/involuntary muscle tensions increase
Lung inspection
doctor will see how quickly patient breathing (normal for adults is 12-20 times/minute); look to see how many muscles have to use in order to breath (if neck muscles can expand or not); ill observe symmetry in both sides of lungs
Hospice care: positive alternatives
hospice is concept of care for terminally ill patients designed to maximize quality of life- alternative to dying at hospital
neurochemicals produce feelings of euphoria and elation
Brain death
irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain stem
Heart Palpitation
doctor will feel pule, liver (liver will be swollen if right side of heart has failed), and the heart- in feeling heart, doctor looks for point where heart can be felt most intensely (PMI: point of maximum intensity), and for a movement next to the breastbone (if the right side of the heart is too large, pushes up against breastbone)
vas deferens
tube that transports sperm toward the penis
Causes of domestic violence
alcohol abuse, communication patterns, personality disorders, dynamics that partners bring to relationship
on the back of the testis where sperm mature
rape is the most underreported of all serious crimes- nearly 25% of women in the US have been raped
Percussion (tapping)
tapping with hands on or over organs can determine similarity of organ or tissue to that of healthy patients- most useful during live and spleen exams
used to listen to sounds inside body- heart, lungs, bowels
Barrier methods
male and female condoms, jellies, creams, foams, suppositories, diaphragm
tongue depressor
used to hold tongue down while patient says "ah" so doctor can see tonsils and back of throat
Self-defense against rape
Speak in a strong voice, maintain eye contact with the would-be attacker, stand up straight, act confident, remain alert
"Boys will be boys"
men can't control themselves once they become aroused
instrument used to examine ear canal and ear drum
lower end of the uterus that extends down into the vagina
use of unlawful force or violence against person or property to intimidate or coerce a gov't, the civilian pop, etc, in furtherance of political or social objectives
Heart Bruit
sound of blood moving past a blockage in an artery
Body temperature
normal temperature: 98.6 degrees F; can be measured in mouth, under arm, in ear, recotally; rectal is most accurate; thermometer (mercury or electric) is placed in close contact with body for several moments; fevers can be caused by infections, tumors, connective tissue diseases (arthritis, etc) and drugs; temps higher than 104 degrees= extremely dangerous
Holographic will
will written in testator's own handwriting, unwitnessed
Heart Percussion
rarely used to assess size of heart- doctor will tap fingers from one side of chest to another, but mostly replaced by chest x-rays
Emotional availability
ability to give up and receive from others emotionally without fear of being hurt or rejected
A set of behaviors that produce injuries, as well as the outcomes of these behaviors (the injuries themselves)- unintentional and intentional
Abdomen inspections (4)
Inspection, auscultation, palpitation, percussion
4 techniques for inspecting lungs
inspection, auscultation, palpitation, and percussion
house developing eggs and produce hormones
eye exam
can reveal presence of diabetes, high blood pressure; if the cup (head of optic nerve) is enlarged, may signal glaucoma (where pressure builds up in eyeball, causing blindness); unusually small blood vessels in retina could indicate high blood pressure, numerous/quickly forming blood vessels indicate diabetes, broken blood vessels signify high blood pressure, diabetes, leukemia, severe bleeding disorder
Sexual assault
any act in which one person is sexually intimate with another without that other's consent
gender-role stereotypes
generalizations about how males and females should express themselves and the characteristics each possesses
Ortho-evra patch
worn for 3 weeks at a time that releases hormones
4 hallmarks of inflammation
redness, pain, swelling, increased temperature
examining the vas deferens
long thin ducts that come away from each testicle and travel up through the scrotum inside the spermatic cord and up into the abdomen through the inguinal canal- should feel smooth, moveable cords and not beaded or bumpy
Abdominal distension
clue to the presence of some sort of obstruction; obstructed bowels increase in diameter, which causes the abdomen to distend; can also be caused by fluid collection in the abdominal cavity (usually associated with heart disease and some liver or kidney diseases)
Heart rate and rhythm
primary concerns are the rate at which the heart is beating and the rhythm it beats at; Normal rate for an adult is 72-80 beats per minute; maximum safety heart rate: 220
Being self-nurturant
developing individual potential through a balanced and realistic appreciation of self-worth and ability
Exam of breasts
appearance and texture evaluated; makes notes of bumps, flattenings, unequal shapes; then nipples; changes from previous exam; lumps. areas of thickening, areas of tenderness all discovered; nipples squeezed, checked for discharge
loss experienced by a survivor when a loved one dies
pain in lower right abdomen
Heart Murmur
occurs when valves of the heart are stuck and don't open or close all the way; 3 causes: leaking valve, or regurgitation; the damage or scarring of a valve, causing a narrowing of the valve, or stenosis; or a hole between two of the heart's chambers
PEA and divorce rates
PEA levels drop significantly over a 3-4 year period, which leads to divorce
Blaming the victim
the woman did something to provoke the attack, like dressing revealingly or flirting a lot
past medical and surgical history
all significant medical history and any surgery /complications with surgery
not exhibiting exclusively male or female secondary sex characteristics
Lung Percussion
doctor will tap across chest wall- if sound over one side of chest is high pitched and other normal or hollow, it would mean that one lung has collapsed; fluid collections can also cause the tapped area to sound dull, commonly signifying pneumonia
area at the middle of the retina- to see it, the patient has to look directly into the ophthmaloscope- macula has no vessels crossing it
outer ear
visible from outside body- composed of cartilage and also includes tube that leads to the eardrum, which is a thin membrane that transmits sound waves to the bones in the middle ear; Examination: examine outer ear for small bumps called sebaceous cysts (similar to acne), which are found in people with gout; also check for swollen lymph nodes which are lumps in front of or behind ear that signal infection
Jealousy in relationships
often indicates underlying problems that may prove to be a significant barrier to a healthy intimate relationship
tissue between vulva and anus
Major organs in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen
stomach, spleen, left kidney
Breathing rate
to take, watch breathing and count times that chest rises during a minute- normal adults breath 12-20 times.minute
Violence in the US
Since 1985 the US public health service identified violence as the leading public health problem that contributed significantly to death and disability rates- according the the CDC violence is a pervasive chronic disease
Women as victims
6 out of 10 women in US will be assaulted at some time in their lives by someone they know; 12% of married women are victims by husbands; Domestic violence is greatest cause of injury to women
Sensorineural loss
Occurs when sensory cells and nerves are not transmitting sound effectively to the brain, or when the brain has difficulty receiving them; most common in adults over 40
Production of a cuddle chemical
brain secretes chemical oxytocin, which stimulates sensations during lovemaking and eliciting feelings of satisfaction and attachment
Examining the penis
observe for discharge, lumps/knots, wounds/lesions, and inflammation/swelling; Palpation is done to check for plaque-like structures lodged inside the shaft of the penis's spongy tissue responsible for erections
usually no symptoms- but early symptoms can be painful and difficult urination, frequent urination, watery, pus-like discharge from the penis; females might have yellowish discharge, spotting b/w periods, spotting after intercourse; easily treatable with anti-biotics
Abdomen inspection
several abnormalities can be detected by looking alone: obesity, abdominal distension, defects in the abdominal wall, pulsations of the aorta as it courses through the abdomen, large tumors
male sexual organ
Inspection (looking)
carefully examine entire body, especially hair, skin, nails, and openings to body (mouth, ears, anus)
4 ways to examine heart
inspection, auscultation, palpitation, percussion
Heart rhythm
can be: normal (same amt of time b/w beats); irregularly irregular (usually- not normal, but there is a pattern); or irregularly irregular (no pattern at all)
Situational factors
dates in which the male makes all the decisions, pays, drives, and controls what happens are more likely to end in aggression; alcohol and drug use and length of relationship increase risks of severity of assault
Benefits of being medically literate
can determine physical problems, can help you defend against illness through understanding/being sensitive to bodily changes, can enable easier conversation with doctors, can make quick care of injuries possible
the dialect, or individual speech pattern and communication style of each gender
to test for sinus infections you tap over sinuses to see if they are infected- sharp pain may indicate sinus infection
peripheral vision
important to test, because loss of peripheral vision signifies certain dieases
sexual assault
any act in which on person is sexually intimate with the other without consent
Direct inguinal hernia
produce a bulge the doctor can feel- doctor examines for these by placing 2 fingers over each external ring and instructing patient to bear down as if having a bowel movement
major organs in the upper left quadrant of the abomen
liver, gallbladder, right kidney
fallopian tubes
where spern and egg meet and fertilization takes place
process by which a society communicates behavioral expectations to its individual members
Reactive aggression
more often part of an emotional reaction brought about by frustration and life experiences
Examining the scrotum
inspected generally for size, appearance, and symmetry; generally scrotum is darker than the rest of skin, typical for the left testicle to hang lower than the right testicle; palpation includes spreading out wrinkled surface of scrotal sac to allow for visual inspection for any possible growths or unusual thickening of scrotum
Variant sexual behavior
sexual activities that are not engaged in by most people: group sex, transvestism, fetishism, exhibitionism, voyeurism, sadamasochism, pedophilia, autoerotic asphysiation
Active euthanasia
mercy killing in which person knowingly acts to hasten death of a terminally ill person
Male misperceptions
men who are convince that women really want sex even if they say they don't are more likely to perpetrate sexual assaults; misinterpret a woman's words and behavior
measures patient's body temperature (orally, rectally, under arm, in ear)
chemical cousin of amphetamines and causes a natural high
high pitched whistling sounds heard on expiration, indicating that the airways has narrowed; can be heard in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in some allergic reactions
Major organs in the lower left quadrant of the abdomen
oral contraceptives
pills taken daily for 3 weeks of the menstrual cycle that prevent ovulation by regulating hormones
Tension Building in cycle of violence
minor battering occurs, women may become more nurturing, pleasing, and more intent on anticipating the spouse's needs; assumes guilt for doing something to provoke violence
Cycle of Violence: Lenore Walker
1. tension building; 2. acute battering; 3. remorse/reconciliation
Sexual assault on campus
25-60% of college men have engaged in some form of sexually coercive behavior
Nuva ring
soft, flexible ring inserted into the vagina that releases hormones that prevent pregnancy; left in place for 3 weeks and removed for 1 weeks for a menstrual period
Domestic violence
use of force to control and maintain power over another person in their home environment
Abdominal Percussion
tapping- done primarily to decide size of liver and spleen, to determine if an abnormal collection of fluid exists in the abdominal cavity; generally, doctors palpate in all 4 quadrants to see if any organs can be identified
Inguinal Hernias
conditions in which the inguinal canals serve as passageways for the intestines to protrude through the inguinal canal and into the scrotum
Heart Rub
occurs when the sac surrounding the heart either becomes inflamed or filled with large amounts of fluid, causing it to rub up against the heart
set of negative attitudes and beliefs or an emotional reaction or way of thinking about a group of people
brains control
the rate at which we breath- dictated by the level of carbon dioxide in our blood- if carbon dioxide increases, blood more acidic, breathe faster
Puberty and menstrual cycle
around 9.5 and 11.5 years old, hypothalamus receives the message to begin secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone; signals the pituitary gland to release hormones called gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone- FSH and luteinizing hormone- LH); signal the ovaries to produce estrogens and progesterone
Pink eye
when bacteria or viruses infect the hair follicles on the eyelid, causing inflammation, pain, redness, and increased temperature
brain injury
if one pupil is larger than another, could be serious brain injury and person must go to hospital
normally pinkish-gray, shaped like a round tent; doctor can see movement of eardrum by pumping air into ear canal (called pneumatic otoscopy); normal ear moves in an out as pressure increases and decreases
Sexual victimization
sexual battering is the single greatest cause of injury to women in the US
primary attraction to and preference for sexual activity with people of the other sex
Timing for gynecological exam
one exam a year starting at age 18
Examining the epididymis
a maze of tubes that adheres to the back and upper surface of each testicle- assessed for size, shape, consistency, tenderness,

Deck Info