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Anatomy Chapter 21


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Breath right strips, do they work?
DO NOT help a person breath better.
What makes it important to breath?
Breathing basics

How many breaths in a minute?
Breathing basics

How many liters does a person take in to their body in a minute?
6 Liters
Breathing basics:

When excercising how many liters of air does a person take in?
100 liters/ min
Breathing Critical times

- Unconsciousness occurs
- brain damage occurs
- death occurs
4-5 minutes

7-8 minutes

10 minutes
The greeks and romans believed that air was
an important visible (?) fluid.
the greeks and romans believed that PNEUMA were
an intangible life force
To accomplish respiration 5 things need to occur, what are they?
Pulmonary ventilation
External respiration
Transport of respiratory gases
Internal respiration
Pulmonary ventilation is
the actual act of BREATHING. Moving air in and out of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs.
External respiration refers to
the actual gas exchange (O2 loading and CO2 unloading)

Gas exchange must take place between air and blood in the lungs.
Transport of respiratory gases is the job of the
cardiovascular system with blood as the transporting fluid.
Internal respiration refers to
the gas exchange between the blood and cells.
This chapter only covers which of the 5 "TRUE" respiratory system functions?
Pulmonary ventilation
External respiration
what are the functions of the respiratory system
Gas exchange
Sound production
Assistance in abdominal compression
Reflex breath (sneeze, cough)
For what processes is abdominal compression necessary?
urination, defecation and childbirth.
What are the two functional divisions of the pulmonary system? From where to where do they exist?
Conducting zone- All structures that deliver air to the alveoli.

Respiratory zone- pulmonary alveoli
What occurs in the Conducting zone?
Transport of air from the environment to the respiratory structures in the lungs.
The Conducting zone has what "atmostphere"?
Warm and humid.
Why is the conducting zone warm and humid?
To remove most of the dust that comes in with the air before it reaches the lungs.
The nose serves several functions including (4):
Airway for respiration

To warm, moisten the air in each nostril


Resonating chamber
What are two ODD facts we must know about smelling?
We can smell better through one nostril than the other.

The speed of respiration and exhalation of the nostrils are DIFFERENT
What is the function of the nose in the vocalizations?
the nose serves as a resonating chamber to magnify the voice.
What are the three divisions of the pharynx? what do they include?
Nasopharynx- the most supperior part of the throat to the uvula.

Oropharynx- from the uvula to the epiglotis.

Laryngopharynx- from the epiglotis to the larynx.
What are the two functions of the pharynx?
to transport food and air

a resonating chamber for the voice once again.
In the NASOPHARYNX what major structure do we find? what is its purpose?
UVULA- to keep liquids away from the nose (Milk + laughing = trouble)
In the larynx we find what five major structures?
Thyroid cartilage, Cricoid cartilage, Vestibular folds, Vocal folds, EPIGLOTTIS.
Where is the glottis?
the structure between the vestibular folds and the vocal folds.
What are the collective functions of the laryngopharynx?
Air, food and fluid movement to digestive processes vs. respiratory processes


Sound production
Sound production are caused by
vibrations of the vocal folds.
What accounts for the differences between males and female voices?
Males have deeper voices because of slower vibrations a result of larger and longer larnx and vocal folds.
The walls of the trachea consist of
16-20 C-shaped rings of TOUGH hyaline cartilage.
the tracha also has _____ connective tissue. Purpose?
fibroelastic connective tissue

this allows for the trachea to flex and bend but the 16-20 HARD c shaped cartilage do not allow its collapse.
what are the functions of the trachea?
Air conductions and cleansing

(Book: air passageway, filters, warms incoming air)
The pulmonary "trunk" refers to the split of the trachea to the 2 ________________ at the ____________. Further they break into the ______________.
primary bronchi at the carina.

later the primary bronchi further break into the secondary bronchi which enter the lungs.
How many levels of tubes are their in the lungs? What are the first three levels called?

Primary bronchus = MAIN bronchus
Secondary bronchus = Lobar bronchus
Tertiary bronchus = Segmental bronchus
bronchial tree: The tree further divides past tertiary (segmental) bronchi to ______________ then ____________________
Bronchioles and terminal bronchioles
What is the purpose of bronchioles and terminal bronchi?
The tubes of the bronchioles mimic those of the trachea with tough hyaline cartilage. As the tubes get smaller these three changes occur...
1.) Connective tissue changes are replaced by irregular cartilage.

2.) Epithelium changes

3.) smooth muscle becomes important
What is the sequence of changes in epithelium of the bronchi..
Psuedostratified columnar
Simple columnar
Simple cuboidal
Why is "smooth muscle now important"?
smooth muscle controls the amount of air entering the alveoli.
What happens in the case of sympathetic nervous system excitement? what happens as we get closer to the alveoli?
The smooth muscle relaxes widening the air tubes to maximize air to the alveoli during Fight or flight.

Smooth muscle thins as we approach the alveoli until there is none around the alveoli.

-causes ____ deaths per year
-affects ____ children
-is a result of ____

4.8 million children

little smooth muscle/cartilage in bronchioles

Can also be caused because of spasms of the smooth muscle in the bronchioles.
The respiratory zone contains these structures... purpose?

chambers in which air-exchange occurs.
How many alveoli? How many square feet?
300 million, 1500 sq. ft.
For the two Alveolar cells name the histology, and function.
Type I Alveolar cells

-histology: simple squamous
-function: diffusion, gas exchange

Type II Alveolar cells

-histology: cuboidal epithelium
-function: secrete surfactant (soap-like fluid to reduce friction)
which type of alveolar cell prevents the collapse and helps with recoil?
Lung disesase

-kills ______
-smoking increases risk by
150,000 deaths per year

20% increase risk if you smoke.
the real story of lung disease?
Lungs can heal and the rate of risk for lung disease drops from 20% more likely to 2% more likely for ex-smokers.
Mechanisms of ventilation include

_____- breathing in
______- breathing out
what is the pressure gradient that exists with breathing?
Breathing is a negative pressure situation.

Where ambient pressure (760) is higher than in the lungs (750-758). Thus air moves into the lungs when the diaphragm RELAXES.
Inhalation occurs when
Volume increases in the lungs because the diaphragm shifts moves inferiorally. When volume increases pressure decreases. Air then always moves from high pressure to low pressure (IN)
Forced inhalation requires additional muscles namely
Scalenes and the sternocleidomastoid.
What is the tidal volume?
the volume of air that comes in and out of the lungs during "quiet respiration".
it should be noted that tidal volume is not equal. Why?
5,000 mL of air or .5L of air remains in the lung so that it will not collapse. Thus more air comes in than leaves.
what is the vital capacity?
the amount of air left after an exhalation. ABOUT 5 L (not .5 like i wrote in last card)
nonrespiratory air movements include
coughing and sneezing are
inhaling followed by a quick exhalation. the exhale is redirected in the direction of the foreign object to be expelled.
Sighing and yawning
non-respiratory air movements. in other words contrary to popular opinion it does not increase the amount of oxygen to the blood.
laughing and crying
fast inhalation and exhalation
What is a hiccup?
Spasms of the diaphragm
How do you "cure" the hiccups?
the diaphragm is just like any muscle. Muscles that spasm need to be stretched. How do we stretch the diaphragm --> EXHALING as much as possible and holding air out.

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