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Patho Ch 4 The Cell


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What is the protoplasm and what does it contain?
internal matrix of the cell;
- contains water (70-85%), proteins (10-20%), lipids (2-3%), carbohydrates and electrolytes
-Two egions:cytoplasm – lies outside the nucleus.
Karyoplasm or nucleoplasm which lies inside the nucleus
Name the functions of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA
mRNA - copies and carries DNA instructions for protein synthesis to cytoplasm
rRNA - site of protein synthesis once it moves to cytoplasm
tRNA – transports amino acids to the protein being synthesized
Describe the nucleus
control center for the cell; contains most of the hereditary material
What are ribosomes
sites of protein synthesis
Rough ER
contains ribosomes; proteins made here are destined for incorporation into cll membranes, lysosomal enzymes or exportation from the cell.
Smooth ER
-free of ribosomes
-does not participate in protein synthesis
-site of lipid, lipotprotein and steroid hormone production
Golgi Complex
-found near nucleus and associate with the ER
-Receives and modifies and ships out vesicles from ER
Digestive system of the cell
1. Primary lysosomes-contain hydrolytic enzymes that have not entered digestive process
2. Secondary lysosomes-activation of enzymes and degradation begins
What is Heterophagocytosis
the uptake of material from outside the cell
-common with WBC's such as neutrophils and macrophages
What is Autophagy
involves removal of damaged cellular organelles
-most common in cells undergoing atrophy
What is a phagosome
an infolding of the cell membrane the brings in external material into cell
-phagosomes then fuse with lysosomes to start degradation
What is Tay-Sachs disease
autosomal recessive disorder where GM2 ganglioside accumulates in the nervous system and other organs from a lack of the lysosomal enzyme hexosaminidase A
What are peroxisomes
-degrade peroxides and long fatty acid chains
-funtion in the control of free radicals
What is adrenoleukodystrophy
most common disorder of peroxisomes which causes the buildup of long-chain fatty acids in the nervous system
-results in dementia and adrenal insufficiency
What are proteosomes
present in the nucleos and cytoplasm
-degrade misformed and misfolded proteins
What does the mitochondria do?
Its the power plant of the cell that converts food into cellular energy (ATP)
-contains its own DNA, ribosomes and are self replicating
where does cellular respiration take place?
in the inner mitochondrial membrane
mitochondrial DNA is inherited from?
the mother (matrilineally)
What is the cytoskeleton composed of? What is their function
microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments and thick filaments. They control cell shape and movement
Describe the microtubles
-composed of tubulin
-participate in intracellular transport
-form centrioles, basal bodies, cilia and flagella
What is colchicine?
-a drug used to treat gout; reduces imflammatory reaction by interfering with microtubular function of WBCs and their movement
Cilia and flagella are anchored to what?
Basal bodies
What is bronchiectasis
disorder of the cilia in the respiratory trach that interferes with clearance of inhaled bacteria
What are centrioles
they form the mitotic spindle that aids in the separation and movement of the chromosomes during cell division
What are basal bodies
they are responsible for the formation of the core of the microtubules found in cilia and flagella
What are microfilaments
3 types:
1. thin actin filaments
2. intermediate
3. thick filaments
What is a neurofibrillary tangle
found in the brain in Alzheimer's disease and contains microtubule-associated proteins
Decribe the Cell membrane
-separates intra from extracellular envornments
-provides receptors for hormones and other substances
-participates in electrical events that occur in nerve and muscle cells
-consist of lipids(glycolipids and cholesterol), carbs, and proteins
The types of proteins found in the cell membrane
Transmembrane and peripheral
What is the glycolalyx
the cell coat that contains tisuue antigens (in RBCs the ABO antigens); participates in cell-to-cell recognition and adhesion
Name the types of cell receptors
1. G-protein-linked receptors
2. Ion-channel-linked
3. Enzyme-linked
4. Intracellular
Describe G-proteins
-most common
-they mediate cellular responses for 1st messengers
-they bind to Guanine
-when bound to GDP, it is inactive
-when bound to GTP it is active
-passes the message to effectors
what is an effector
an enzyme that converts an inactive molecule into a second messenger, usually cAMP
what is adenyl cyclase
its an enzyme that activates cAMP by tranferring phosphate groups from ATP to other proteins
What is GTPase?
an enzyme that converts GTP to GDP and thus inactivating the actions of the G-protein
-simply, its the on-off switch
How does Vibrio Cholerae work?
it binds and activates the G-protein that is linked to the cAMP system in the intestine and causes the cells to overproduce fluid leading to severe diarrhea
Describe Ion-channel-linked receptors
involved in synaptic signaling between electrically excitable cells
What are Enzyme-linked receptors?
they activate the intracellular domain by way of enzyme(tyrosine kinase)activity
-they mediate calcium influx, increased sodium-potassium exhange, and stimulate glucose and amino acid uptake.
What are the 5 phases of the cell cycle
Go, G1, S, G2, M
stage of cell growth, organelle and protein synthesis
G1 phase
stage when DNA is replicated
S phase
Pre-mitotic phase, protein sysnthesis
G2 phase
phase during which cell mitosis occurs
M phase
non-dividing cell phase such as the stage of mature nerve cells
Go phase
The 4 stages of mitosis in the order that they happen

T/F Lipofuscin, which is brown pigment characteristic of ageing, accumulates in lysosomes.
This organelles normally produces an enzyme that is missing in babies with Tay-Sachs disease
The ABO antigens of the cell are found here
The Cell Coat
The receptors on nerve or muscle cells that respond to neurotransmittes are?
Ion channels
What are the functions of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and anaphase-promoting complex?
They regulate cell division
What are the byproducts of aerobic metabolism?
CO2 and water
List 3 examples of passive transport
Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis
Glucose is transported into the cells by this process
facilitated diffusion
Name some lipid-soluble molecules that can cross directly through the cell membrane
CO2, O2, alcohol, fatty acids, steroid hormones
The ectoderm differentiates into what?
the epidermis and nervous system
The endoderm gives rise to?
1.Epithelial linings of the resp tract and digestive system
2.glandular cells of organs such as the liver and pancreas
The mesoderm gives rise to?
Smooth muscle tissue, CT, blood vessels, blood cells, bone marrow, skeletal tissue and reproductive and excretory organs
The process that converts the bilaminar embryonic disk into a trilaminar embryonic disk
Bone forming cells
Cells that break down bone
Fat soluble vitamins
What is glycolysis
The anaerobic process that occurs in the cytoplasm that breaks down glucose to pyruvate
What is the process by which most of the ATP is made?
Oxydative phosphorylation
What is albumin?
Plasma protein made in the liver
What is BUN?
Blood Urea Nitrogen; its a reflection of protein metabolism in the kidneys
Cortisol is made here
adrenal cortex
Where does blood formation take place?
mostly takes place in the red marrow of the bones.
What are cytokines
hormone-like growth factors that control the proliferation and differentiation and functional abilities of various blood blood cells
What is hematocrit on a CBC?
The percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood. For example, a hematocrit of 38 means that 38% of the blood's volume is composed of red cells.
Name the granulocytes
Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils
Major phagocytic granulocytes
These granulocytes are the least numerous and secrete histamine when activated
The two types of Agranulocytes
Monocytes and lymphocytes
Name the four types of tissues
Where is transitional epithelium found
Bladder, ureters, renal pelvis
Where can you find Pseudostratified Epith.
Respiratory and tracheal passages
Where can you find stratified cuboidal
Ducts of swet glands
Where can you find simple cuboidal
collecting tubules of kidney and the covering of ovaries
Where is simple columnar epith.
lining of intestine and gallbladder
Where is simple squamous epith. found?
Lining of blood vessels, alveoli, and body cavities
Where is stratified columnar epith. found?
Salivary glands, mammary glands, and conjuctiva
The types of especialized connective tissue
This type of glandular cell ruptures and releases its entire contents into a duct system
Holocrine cells
An example is sebaceous glands
This type of cell loses the apical portion of its cell along with small portions of the cytoplasm. e.g. mammary glands, certain sweat glands
Apocrine glands
These glands release their products by exocytosis
Merocrine or eccrine-type glands. e.g. salivary glands, exocrine glands of the pancreas
This tissue comprises the framework of the liver, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs
Reticular tissue
This tissue makes up tendons and ligaments
Dense regular
This tissue is found on the dermis of the skin
Dense irregular
This tissue is found in subcutaneous areas
loose or areolar
Functions are:

1.Synthesis of lipid molecules
2.Regulate intracellular calcium
3.Metabolism and detoxification
Smooth ER
Deficiency of hexosaminidase A needed for degrading of GM2 gangliosides
They catalyze the phosphorylation of amino acids in the protein structure causing conformational changes
Protein kinases
Mediate cellular responses such as calcium influx, sodium-potassium exchange, and stimulation of glucose uptake
Enzyme-linked receptors
harnesses energy from primary active transport (usually sodium ions) and uses it for cotransport of a second substance
Secondary active transport
In this type of transport sodium and solute are transported in same direction
Channels that open and close in response to such mechanical stimulations as vibrations, tissue stretching, and pressure
Mechanically gated channels
The 3 types of gated channels
1. voltage gated
2. ligand gated
3. mechanically gated
T/F Potential difference and voltage are synonymous
T/F In the resting state, the concentration of K ions is opprox 35 times greater inside than outside
This hormone is responsible for the start of menses in females and secondary sex characteristics in men
leuteninzing hormone; its a gonadotropin

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