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Sem 1 Mini III Histology Skin


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The epidermis is ______ epithelium thats grows continuously but maintains its thickness through _______.
keratanized stratified squamous epithelium, desquamation
Epidermis is derived from ____, while dermis is derived from ____.
ectoderm, mesoderm
____ is dense connective tissue that imparts mechanical support, strength, and thickness to the skin.
Dermis is derived from ____.
Beneath the dermis lies the ____ or _____ tissue, a loose connective tissue.
hypodermis, subcutaneous
The ____ contains variable amounts of adipose tissue seperated by connective tissue septa.
Deep invaginations of the epidermis,____, interdigitate with _____ of the dermis.
pegs, papillae
The palms of the hands and soles of feets are ____ skin, with no hair, which relates to the thickness of the _____.
thick, epidermis
The five layers of epidermis from the bottom are ____, ____, _____, ____, and ____.
stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
A single layer of cells resting on the basement membrane at the dermal- epidermal junction.
stratum basale
Stratum _____ contain stem cells and is charaterized by intense mitotic activity.
____ bind stratum basale into a layer, and _____ bind each cell to the basal lamina.
Desmesomes, hemidesmosomes
As cells progress upward, the number of keratin filaments ____.
The stratum spinosum is composed of a few layers of _______, with intracellular bridges composed of _____, that give them a spiny appearance.
polyhedral keratinocytes (prickle cells), desmosomes
Cells of the ____ and ___ are the only keratinocytes that divide.
stratum spinosum, stratum basale
Tonofilaments is another word for ____ in skin.
keratin intermediate filaments
The most superficial layer of epidermis with nuclei.
stratum granulosum
____ are layers of flattened keratinocytes whose cytoplasm is filled with coarse basophilic granules called ____.
stratum granulosum, keratohyaline granules
The substance in the ____ granules, bind the keratin filaments together in the stratum granulosum.
Cells of the stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum contain ____ granules that dischaged their contents into the intercellular spaces of the ________.
lamellar, stratum graulosum
____ acts as a barrier to penetration by foreign materials and provides a very impt sealing effect for the skin
lamelar granules
Small rod like structures that are formed by lipid bilayers.
lamellar granules
Clear layer of the epidermis just superficial to the stratum granulosum.
stratum lucida
____ is only found in palmar and plantar thick skin, and consist of keratocytes that have neither nuclei nor organelles, but _____.
stratum lucida, keratin filaments
Most superficial layer of the epidermis that consists of dead, non nucleated cells filled with keratin.
stratum corneum
Stratum corneum is much thinner in ___ skin than ___ skin.
thin, thick
The cells of the stratum corneum are called ____.
Thick skin lacks ___ and ___.
hair follicles, sebaceous gands
In thin skin, the ____ is absent, then ____ may not be in well defined area, and the ____ may be quite thin.
stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum corneum
___ synthsize the dark brown pigmment melanin.
____ function as antigen presenting cells, phagocytosing foreign antigens.
___ are sensory mechanoreceptors with neuro-endocrine functions.
merkel cells
Melanocytes synthesize melanin from ____ then with the enzyme _____ and transfer the pigment to ____.
tyrosine,tyrosinase, keratinocytes
____ cells originate from precursors in the bone marrow.
Melanocytes and langerhans cells are ___ in nature.
Merkel cells are small in number found in the stratum _____ of the finger tips, and connect via desmosomes to neighboring cells.
The dermis is composed of dense irregular connective tissue that contains many type ___ collagen fibers and networks of thick ____ fibers.
I, elastic
Dermis is divided into a superficial ___ layer, and a deper ___ layer.
papillary, reticular
The break down of ____ and ___ fibers are responsible for wrinkling.
collagen, elastic
In old age, extensive cross linking of ____ fibers, the loss of ____ fibers, and their degeneration by excessive exposure to the sun, _____, cause wrinkles.
collagen, elastic, solar elastosis
The ____ is avascular.
____ is a direct arteriole- venule connection, no capillaries.
arteriovenous anastamosis
When blood is shunted into the arteriovenous anastamosis there is ____ surface area and heat loss.
_____ are receptors for fine touch, heat, cold, pain, and itching, that terminate in the ____ and lack schwann cell coverings.
free nerve endings, stratum granulosum
Free nerve endings are found in the ____ and the ____ around hair
epidermis, dermis
Merkel cells are in the ____. of epidermis and most abundant in skin where ____.
stratum basale, acute sensory perception
____ are deep pressure receptors for mechanical and vibratory pressure, that are found in the ____ and ____.
Pacinian corpuscles, deep dermis, hypodermis
Meissner's corpuscle are ___ receptors present in the ____ just below the epidermal _____ and found in such areas as the _____.
touch, demal papillae, basal lamina, lips, genitalia, nipples
Epidermal skin appendages are derived from down growths of epidermal epithelium, and include ____,____,___, and ____.
hair follicles, sebarceous glands, eccrine glands, appocrine glands
Sebaceous glands produce ____, eccrine glands produce ____, and apocrine glands produce ____.
sebum, sweat, mixed products
A thickened basement membrane that seperates the dermis from the epithelium of the hair follicles.
glassy membrane
Proliferation of ____ cells accounts for the growth of hair, and are homologous to the straum _____.
matrix, basale
____ glands and ____ glands discharge their secretions around hair follicles.
sebaceous, appocrine
____ glands produce sweat all over the body.
____ sweat glands are found only in the arm pit, areola of the nipples, and anal region.
____ sweat glands are odorless.
____ glands are embedded in the ____, and are found all over the body, except for the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
sebaceous, dermis
____ glands are important for thermoregulation.
Eccrine sweat glands are composed of ____ cells that contain many mucinogenic rich secretory granules, ____ cells that secrete a watery electrolyte rich material, and _____ cells that contract.
dark, clear, myoepithelial
____ glands do not begin to function until puberty and open into hair follicles.
Apocrine glands and eccrine glands have _____ secretions.
merocrine (exocytosis)
____ glands have a wide lumen compared to eccrine glands.
Sebaceous glands secrete ____, an oily secretion, which may have a weak antibacterial and antifungal property.
A chronic inflamation of obstructed ____ glands is acne.
_____ glands are most abundant on the scalp and face.
Sebaceous glands have a ____ secretion, where product of secretion is released with remnants of dead cells.
____ and ____ glands begin functioning at puberty.
apocrine, sebaceous
____ are independent structures, not associated with hair follicles.
Freckles are a result of increased _____ production and accumulation in the basal area of epidermis without an increase in _____.
melanin, melanocytes
____ are groups of melanocytes in the skin.
A calous is a thickening of the stratum ____ resulting from pressure.
____ happen when many new blood vessels group together in one place on the skin.
Warts are benign epidermal growths caused by infection of the keratinocytes with ______.
_____ is a keratolytic found in OTC anti wart drugs.
salicylic acid
____ is a disease characterized by greater turnover of keratinocytes, resulting in the accumulation of keratinocytes and stratum _____.
Psoriasis, corneum
First Degree burns have ____ still intact.
stratum basale
Second degree burns still have epidermis from ____ deeper in the dermis.
In third degree burns ____ cell are destroyed.
all keratinocytes/ epithelial cells, past the hair follicles
The most common type of cancer is ____ cell carcinoma, arising in the stratum ____.
basal , basale
____ cell carcinomas are most common on the face, with most patients recovering.
____ cell carcinoma is the 2nd most common and most common on the ____ and ___.
squamous, head, neck
____ is the deadliest skin cancer arising in ____.
melanoma, melanocytes
Melanoma can spread by entering the blood vessels of the ___.

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