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Speech Science


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On what structures do the fibers of the diaphragm originate?
Xiphoid process, lower edges of ribs 7-12, and upper Lumbar vertebrae
Where does the diaphragm insert?
In its own central tendon, or aponeurosis
How do muscles of diaphragm course?
They radiate from the periphery toward the central tendon.
Definition of airflow
Volume of air that moves through a given area in a unit of time (also the power source for speech)
Name for volume of air that we inhale and exhale during any given activity
Tidal Volume
What volume of air remains in the lungs after we have made the greatest exhalation possible?
Residual Volume
Which single capacity would be suitable to evaluate a speaker\'s control of inspiratory muscles?
Inspiratory Capacity because it requires active use of muscles of inhalation.
At what point in respiratory cycle is alveolar pressure equal to atmospheric pressure outside body?
at 38% of vital capacity
In the video, what kinematic technique did Dr. Stathopoulos demonstrate, and what did this measurement show?
Linear magnetometers to measure air movement
Functions of respiratory system
Exchange O2/CO2, regulate body temp., help with olfaction, provide power for speech
Where does exchange of O2/CO2 occur?
Alveolar sacs/alveoli
Tissue that envelopes each of the lungs and lines the interior surface of ribcage
Pleural, or serous, membrane
Tissue that surrounds each lung
Visceral pleura
Tissue that lines ribcage
Parietal pleura
True ribs attachment
Spine and sternum through costal cartilages
False ribs attachment
bottom of 7th true rib but not sternum
Floating ribs attachment
only attach at spine, attach nowhere in ventral area
How many of each kind of rib are there?
True = 7, False = 3, Floating = 2
Another word for intercartilaginous
Which of the intercostal muscles has both an intercartilaginous and an interosseous portion?
The internal intercostal muscles that are between the bony part of ribs.
Which of the intercostal muscles extend all the way to the sternum but not all the way to the spine?
Internal intercostals
Which intercostal muscles are only interosseous (i.e. have no intercartilaginous portion)?
External intercostals
Which muscles contract during active inhalation?
External interchondral and interchondral portion of the internal interchondral muscles contract.
Which muscles contract during active exhalation?
Abdominal muscles
2 synonyms for respiratory system
Ventilatory or pulmonary system
Why do we call the respiratory system the \"power source\" for speech?
The muscles of respiration generate the airflow that is required for sound to be produced by the 2 other systems of speech production.
List the parts of the vocal tract portion of the air passageway.
Nasal passages, pharynx, oral cavity
List the part of the phonatory system portion of air passageway.
List the parts of the respiratory system part of the air passageway.
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, air sacs. (thoracic)
What are the 3 divisions of the air passageway?
Vocal tract, Phonatory system, Respiratory system
Describe the structure of the trachea.
Flexible tube supported by open cartilaginous rings connected by smooth muscle and membranous tissue, lined with mucous membrane, begins at base of larynx and ends with tracheal bifurcation.
Region where 2 bronchial tubes branch off from trachea
Tracheal bifurcation
What is the spongy mass of the pulmonary lobes composed of?
alveolar sacs
How do the right and left lungs differ?
Right=larger, 3 lobes; Left=smaller, 2 lobes, cardiac impression
Name of region between 2 lungs
How many pairs of ribs in the typical ribcage?
Name for shoulder blades
Name for collar bones
Name for breastbone (also name its parts)
Sternum (comprised of manubrium, body, and xiphoid process)
What bones form the dorsal portion of the thoracic skeleton?
Thoracic vertebrae
Name the most important groups of muscles that are active during inhalation.
diaphragm, external intercostals, and intercartilaginous internal intercostal muscles
Which of intercostals has both intercartilaginouos and interosseous portion
internal intercostal muscles
What is an aponeurosis?
A large, relatively flat piece of tendon
How is the cycle of respiration different during speech than quiet breathing?
During quiet breathing inhalation and exhalation are close to same duration; in speech exhalation is much longer because we use a checking action to retard it.
In what units do we measure air volume during speech?
liters, milliliters, cubic centimeters
Is tidal volume the same regardless of activity?
No, the more exertion, the greater the tidal breathing volume and vice versa.
How would you describe the Inspiratory Residual Volume and Expiratory Residual Volume?
The amount of air you can inhale over and above tidal breathing; amount of air you can exhale beyond tidal breathing
Which bones form roof of mouth (hard palate)?
palatine process of maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone
What structure forms the boundary between oral cavity and nasopharynx?
Velum/soft palate
What do we call the bony ridge on maxillary bone wehre upper teeth are embedded?
Alveolar process
What structures form the back and sides of the pharyngeal cavities?
Pharyngeal constrictor and other neck muscles
The cranial bones that form the brain pan include the _____ bones (four).
Occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal
Which bones from upper jaw?
Which bone forms lower jaw?
Which bone is shaped like a butterfly?
The coronoid and condyloid processes are parts of which bone?
The pterygoid processes are parts of which bone?
Which bone includes the mastoid and styloid processes?
The joint that allows us to chew and to open adn close our mouths during speech is called the ___
temporomandibular joint
Where is the temporomandibular joint located?
There are two, one on each side where the skull and lower jaw meet at the temporal bone, located just in front of the ears.
Name 6 distinctive features of mandible.
alveolar process, mental process, condyloid process, coronoid process, ramus, and a special angle.
Name 4 ways that we can refer to the upper airway.
Supralaryngeal system, vocal tract, articulatory system, aerodigestive system
3 main subdivisions of vocal tract
pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavities (sinuses)
Common name for pharynx
What are 4 structures that form boundaries of pharynx?
epiglottis, pharyngeal constrictor muscles, tongue root, velum
Which of the 3 cavities of vocal tract has fewest structures that we can articulate?
nasal cavities/sinuses
What are at least 4 structures that we see when we look into the open oral cavity?
lips, teeth, soft palate (velum), hard palate, pharyngeal wall, tongue, faucial pillars, uvula
What muscles lie at heart of front and back faucial pillars?
palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus
What is the uvula?
fleshy muscular tip of velum
What do we use to make lip rounding and lip spreading gestures?
oro-facial muscles
Describe at least 3 elements we find on surface of tongue.
papillae, taste buds, mucous membrane, tonsil tissue
What structure do we use to equalize air pressure between middle ear and outside air?
Eustachian tube
name of air-filled hollow cavities we find in some of the oro-facial bones
Why is it important for us to understand the structures of the vocal tract and the movements of those structures?
We need to know those structures and their actions because those are the structures we use to articulate speech.
Where is sphenoid/why do we care?
Behind the nasal cavities. Because it is the attachment point for some important articulatory muscles.
How many bones form hard palate/what are they called?
2 - maxilla and palatine
How does the mandible attach to the cranium?
at the temporomandibular joint (the condyloid process and temporal bone)
Which of the bones we have discussed can move as an articulator?
Name the four depressors.
Think \"mega-depressed.\" Mylohyoid External (lateral) pterygoid Geniohyoid Anterior belly of digastric
Origin and insertion of mylohyoid
mandible; meidan raphe & hyoid
Origin and insertion of external (lateral) pterygoid
sphenoid; condyloid
origin and insertion of geniohyoid
mandible, hyoid
origin and insertion of anterior belly of digastric
mandible; hyoid bone
Name the three Elevators.
Temporalis, Masseter, Internal (Medial) pterygoid Think ELEVATOR TIM.
Origin and insertion of temporalis (elevator)
broadly across temporal bone; inferiorly on coronoid process and ramus
origin and insertion of masseter (elevator)
Zygomatic arch; inferiorly on angle & ramus
origin and insertion of internal (medial) pterygoid
lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid; inferiorly on angle and medial ramus
Name the four extrinsic tongue muscles.
Think SHPuG. Styloglossus, Hyoglossus, Palatoglosuss, Genioglossus
What does each do?
palato, stylo - pull tongue up and back hyo - down genio - down, forward
Other than their contribution to speech production, what functions do the structures of the supralaryngeal system provide?
Think I SIFT SOME. Ingestion, Salivation, Immune system protection, Facial expression, Taste, Swallowing, Olfaction, Mastication, and Equalization of air pressure.
3 main air-filled cavities of the vocal tract
pharyngeal (throat), oral (mouth), and nasal cavities.
3 synonyms for \"supralaryngeal system\"
aerodigestive, oro-naso-pharyngeal, vocal tract
How do the 3 air-filled cavities (pharyngeal, oral, and nasal) contribute to speech production?
They produce sounds called resonances as the air inside those cavities vibrates; they can also make non-voiced souds like frication and stop bursts that are intrinsic parts of some speech sounds.
What structure forms boundary between the oral cavity and nasopharynx?
bony ridge on maxillary bone where upper teeth are embedded
alveolar ridge
What structures form back and sides of pharyngeal cavities?
Pharyngeal constrictor muscles
what 2 structures, visible thru open mouth examination, form part of oepnign to oral cavity from pharynx and provide a space within which we find palatine tonsils?
anterior and posterior faucial pillars
What are the two faucial pillars composed of?
Anterior - palatoglossus muscle Posterior - palatopharyngeus muscle
How are the mucosal linings of the oral cavity diff. from the mucous membranes that line the rest of the respiratory passages?
They are specialized in various ways: they are stronger and more resistant to the rigors of chewing, they contain tastebuds on the tongue, they have openings for salivary glands, they contain tonsil tissue on the tongue dorsum.
What kind of tissue are the tonsils?
Lymphoid tissue, part of the auto-immune system.
How are we able to change the sizes and shapes of 3 cavities of vocal tract?
By moving articulators: mandible, tongue, lips, velum, pharyngeal wall
Which bones give our faces their characteristic cheekbone contour?
Zygomatic bones
Which cranial bones provide processes that together form the zygomatic arches?
Zygomatic and temporal
Pterygoid processes - part of which bone?
Which bone includes mastoid and styloid processes?
Through which bones do the external and internal auditory meatuses course?
Temporal bones
Where is temporomandibular joint located?
Between temporal bone and condyloid process of mandible
Where does each ext. tongue muscle (palato, stlo, hyo, genio) originate and insert?
SHPuG Stylo - styloid process; lateral margins of tongue Hyo - greater cornu of hyoid; sides of dorsum Palato (anterior faucial pillar) - midline of palate; side of tongue dorsum Genio - midline of lingual surface of mandible; base of tongue
Which muscles help us produce the manner of articulation of the second sound in the word \"add\"?
The manner of articulation for \"d\" is \"stop.\" In going from a vowel to a stop, the mandibular elevators must act. These include the temporalis, masseter, and internal pterygoid muscles.
Which articulatory muscle has its origin on the zygomatic arch?
Which muscles together form the \"mandibular sling?\"
Internal pterygoid and masseter
What is the action of the temporalis muscle?
It pulls up on the mandible via its attachment on the coronoid process and ramus.
Which msucle inserts in part on the coronoid process of the mandible?
How does external pterygoid muscle contribute to mandibular depression?
It pulls condyloid process forward, which allows other muscles of mandibular depression to pull the mandible down.
Which articulatory muscles have we studied before in their role as laryngeal elevators?
3 of the mandibular depressors: anterior belly of digastric, mylohyoid, and geniohyoid
Which muscles help us produce the distinctive sound of \"r?\"
The retroflexion of the tongue is produced by contracting the superior longitudinal muscles of the tongue.
if we wanted to flatten the tongue blade, which muscles would be most active?
vertical tongue muscles
What do we call back of body of tongue?
regions of tongue that are most flexible
tip and blade
lingual muscles (as a group) responsible for movements of tongue in height and front-backness?
extrinsic tongue muscles
lingual muscles primarily responsible for shape of tongue?
intrinsic tongue muscles
Lingual muscle that originates on roof of mouth and courses downward in an arch to insert on side of dorsum
Lingual muscle that has its origin on temporal bone
Extrinsic lingual muscle that inserts broadly along the sides of the tongue body?
tongue muscle uniquely capable of moving tongue FORWARD in mouth?
If the mandible could not move to elevate the tongue to produce \"i,\" which articulatory muscles would we use?
palatoglossus to elevate tongue more if necessary and genioglossus to advance tongue to front of mouth
the most anterior of the genioglossus muscle bundle \"bodies\" has what effect on the tongue?
It pulls the front of the body of the tongue down at the midline.
extrinsic tongue muscles active during production of \"g\"?
styloglossus pulls tongue back, palatoglossus pulls it up to make a velar articulation between dorsum or tongue and anterior surface of velum
Are the pharyngeal constrictors more likely to be active during production of \"d\" or \"n?\" Why?
During production of \'d\" the pharyngeal constrictors are active; it is an oral sound, and the velopharyngeal por tmust be closed. Velum must be elevated, and pharyngeal constrictors must be contracted to bring pharyngeal wall forward to meet it.
How do we close the velo-pharyngeal port?
The levator veli palatini pulls the velum up; the superir pharyngeal constrictors contract to advance the pharyngeal wall to meet it.
If we call the palatoglossus the glossopalatine, what are we implying about its action?
We are implying that it is pulling the velum down.
Can the velum contract?
Yep! it is a muscle in its own right, as is the uvula.
How does an oral sound differ from a nasal sound?
The velopharyngeal port is open for nasal and closed for oral.
What do extrinsic lip muscles do?
Shape mouth in various ways.
diff between glottis and epiglottis?
Glottis is space between vocal folds; epiglottis is a flexible cartilage hat depresses during swallowing to protect trachea.
two distinctly different kinds of \"open/close\" movements the vocal folds make?
abduction/adduction; vocal fold vibration
Which open/close movement requires use of skeletal muscles?
If we are not using muscular power (ab/adduction) to open/close the vocal folds, what kind of power are we using?
aerodynamic & myoelastic
What power forces vocal folds open, aerodynamic or myoelastic?
aerodynamic (subglottal pressure)
What force the vocal folds closed under these circumstances?
aerodynamic (Bernoulli Effect) and myoelastic (elastic recoil)
Name of \"sockets\" for ball-and-socket joints of larynx?
Where are the \"sockets\" of the larynx located, and which cartilages are involved?
2 on the lateral edges of cricoid where the thyroid cartilage articulates; 2 on upper surface of posterior portion of cricoid where the arytenoids articulate.
Lowermost cartilage of larynx, and how is it shaped?
cricoid; ring shaped; narrow arch in front and wide portion in back
Name the important processes of the arytenoid cartilages, and describe their orientation.
Apexes (apices) point upward; vocalic processes point forward toward the inside of thyroid angle; muscular processes point laterally.
Name and describe largest cartilage in larynx.
Thyroid cartilage; 2 large flat lamina join in anterior aspect to form prow-shaped body; they join at thyroid angle; two long cornua extend upward from posterior edge of lamina to join with hyoid bone; two shorter cornua extend downward to articulate w/ cricoid cartilage
function of intrinsic laryngeal muscles?
to control phonation: ab/adduction & vocal fold tension
What do extrinsic laryngeal muscles do?
raise and lower larynx
How do action of suprahyoid muscles differ from action of infrahyoid?
Suprahyoid raise larynx; infrahyoids lower it.
Because of their long flat shape, the infrahyoid muscles are sometimes called ___ muscles.
How do the vocalis muscles differ from muscularis muscles?
They form part of the true vocal folds.
Why are the muscles called \"vocalis\" and \"muscularis?\"
Because of their insertion points on the arytenoid cartilages
Provide various synonymous names for vocalis and muscularis.
Vocalis: internal thyroarytenoid, medial thyroarytenoid, thyrovocalis. Muscularis: external thyroarytenoid, lateral thyroarytenoid, thyromuscularis
Which intrinsic laryngeal muscle is responsible for abduction?
posterior cricoarytenoid
Which intrinsic laryngeal muscles are responsible for adduction?
lateral cricoarytenoids, transverse arytenoids, oblique arytenoids
Action of cricothyroid muscles?
rock the thyroid cartilage forward; stretch vocal folds horizontally and slightly downward making the vocal ligaments thin and taut
Which intrinsic laryngeal muscle forms part of the vocal folds?
The outer surface of the vocal folds, the epithelium, is what kind of tissue?
mucous membrane
Lamina propria
comprises 3 layers of tissue that vary in thickness and texture.
Which of 3 layers of lamina propria is most gelatinous?
Which lamina propria layers together form the mucosa?
superficial & epithelium
Which lamina propria layers together form the vocal ligament?
intermediate & deep
What is the space between false and true vocal folds called?
Ventricle of Morgagni
Why do women often have breathier voices than men?
presence of a posterior glottal gap in vocal folds caused by wide thyroid angle
How does larynx manifest sexual dimorphism in humans?
men\'s larynx is larger, more massive, including cartilages and muscles; men\'s thyroid angle is more acute.
Common name for larynx
voice box
common term for prominent thyroid angle in men
adam\'s apple
units we measure pressure of the air exerted on the subglottal surface of vocal folds
Pascals or microPascals
Before phonation can begin, vocal folds must be in what position?
During \"attack phase\" of phonation, what happens to vocal folds first?
subglottal pressure builds up below adducted vocal folds
What ahppens to the compressed air that has been building up subglottally when vocal folds are adducted?
The air works itself between the folds, deforming them slightly, until it can emerge.
What is a glottal pulse?
The puff of compressed air that escapes through the vocal folds before they are able to fall back closed.
Is a glottal pulse audible?
When we are phonating, how many glottal pulses are we producing per second?
anywhere from 80 to 250
In what units do we describe rate of vocal fold vibration?
cycles per second or hertz
During \"attack phase\" of phonation, what happens to vocal folds after a glottal pulse has been produced?
The Bernoulli effect and their natural myoelastic force bring them back to starting position
Vertical phase diff. of vocal folds? def
The time it takes for the vocal folds to begin opening at their lower surface and to finish opening at their upper surface.
What do we call the tendency of tissues that have been deformed by some external force t return to original shape and position?
Elastic recoil, or myoelasticity
What is the Bernoulli Effect
Aerodynamic force that also helps vocal folds return to original shape and position.
As air flow increases, air pressure___
As air flow decreases, air pressure____
In production fo voicign, air flow is slow coming up trachea, so pressure against the tracheal walls and sublglottal surface of adducted vocal folds is low or high?
As the air flows between deformed vocal folds during production of glottal pulse, what happens to mucosa covering vocal folds?
They develop a traveling surface wave/ripple.
Which muscles contribute to stretching the vocal folds?
Which muscles contribute to configuration of vocal folds that is conducive to low frequency of sound (more flaccid and shorter and fatter)?
Vocalis and muscularis
When we speak at our most typical pitch,a re we closer to the high or low end of personal range?
Diff. between loudness and sound pressure?
Loudness is perceived (psychoacoustics), while sound pressure is studied in acoustics.
Diff. between pitch and fundamental frequency?
Frequency is studied in acoustics, while pitch is perceived and therefore studied in psychoacoustics.
How is sound propagated through an elastic medium?
Longitudinal waves of alternating areas of compressed & rarefied air that radiate out from the sound source. Particle motion is parallel to direction of wave motion.
What is one cycle of sound?
comprised of 2 parts: a compression (region of increased pressure) and a rarefaction (region of lower pressure than normal).
Diff between longitudinal and transverse waves?
In longitudinal waves, energy is propagated ina back and forth motion of particles, with the particle motion being parallel to the direction of the wave motion. In transverse waves, energy is propagated in a back and forth motion of particles, with the particle motion being perpendicular to the direction of wave motion.
What kind of wave motion is sound (longitudinal or transverse)?
Diff between laminar and turbulent airflow?
Laminar - air molecules follow smoothly along same stream lines. Turbulent - particles have much more complex behaviors, moving in rotating paths at various speeds.
When can laminar airflow become turbulent?
When Reynold\'s Coefficient is above 2100.
How do we calculate frequency in time domain?
Divide 1 over period to get frequency.
How do we calculate frequency in the distance domain?
Divide speed of sound by wavelength to get frequency.
What would you hear if 2 100 Hz sounds were played simultaneously 90 degrees out of phase?
Destructive interference, and less amplitude/loudness
In what units do we represent sound pressure level, frequency, and phase?
Decibels, Hertz, degrees
What is the basic relationship among the parts of a complex periodic sound as shown by a Fourier analysis?
Given any periodic motion having a fundamental freuqency \"n\", the sme motion can be reduced to one particular set of simple harmonic motions of suitable amplitudes and phases whose frequencies are n, 2n, 3n, 4n, etc.
What is a resonator?
Anything that produces resonance, the phenomenon whereby one body, which has a natural tendency to vibrate at a certain frequency, will build up vibrations when set into motion by another body vibrating at a similar frequency.
How can air in the vocal tract be considered a resonator?
It is a closed tube where the frequencies are modified by the cavity resonance as influenced by articulators.
Relationship between resonator length and resonance frequencies?
Frequency is determined by size & shape. THe longer the length, the lower the frequency, and the shorter the length, the higher the frequency.
Define harmonic.
single oscillation whose frequency is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.
Define formant.
same thing as resonance frequency
Define octave.
When a higher note has twice the frequency of the lower.
Formula for calculating resonance in a 2-tube motel?
The sine wave represents what kind of sound?
simple periodic, pure tone
What aspect of sound does the peak of the sine wave represent?
Maximum compression
What aspect of sound does the trough of the sine wave represent?
Maximum rarefaction
What does one cycle of sound mean?
One complete change in air pressure from air at rest to full compression to air at rest to full rarefaction back to air at rest.
What 2 ways can we measure a cycle of sound?
period (amount of time it takes) and wavelength (its longitudinal distance)
What formulas do we use to calculate period and wavelength?
T=1/f, wavelength=c/f
If you know the period of a sound wave, can you calculate the frequency? How?
Yes. f=1/T
Why do we represent amplitude of sound in decibels?
Actual measurements have too large a range of values to be convenient.
In hat units is amplitude actually measured?
microPascals of sound pressure or dynes per centimeter squared of sound intensity
Which sound would have a longer wavelength?: 1200 Hz or 12,000 Hz. Why?
1200 Hz. wavelength=c/f
Why is phase more important when more than one sound is being produced at the same time?
Pos. or neg. interference affects how we hear the sounds: amplified, damped, or cancelled
How do we represent phase?
In degrees of polar notation
How would we get maximum constructive interference and max destructive interference.
2 sounds being in phase would give max const. interf. 2 sounds 180 degrees out of phase would give max dest. interf.
Describe the regularities Fourier discovered in production of complex periodic sound.
The sound consists of a series of simple harmonic sounds whose frequencies are integer multiples of fundamental freqency.
Name 2 commonly used graphical representations of speech, and explain how they differ.
The spectrum shows amplitude as function of frequency; the spectrogram shows frequency and amplitude as function of time.
how are complex period and complex aperiodic alike?
Both are ongoing and comprise a series of sounds of varying frequencies & amplitudes.
How do comoplex periodic and complex aperiodic sounds differ?
The sounds that compose a complex periodic sound are harmonic and have predictable rleationship among the amplitudes of those harmonics; the sounds that compose a complex aperiodic sound have irregular and unpredictable frequencies and amplitudes.
How is a simple aperiodic sound idff. from the other 3 kinds of sounds?
Singular soundwave, transient; not ongoing.
What happens to amplitude of simple aperiodic sound over time?
loses amplitude (damps) because of conversion of kinetic energy to friction
Explain how resonance builds up in vocal tract.
Sound press. waves of appropriate frequencies for length of cavity reflect off end surfaces of a cavity and set up an ampified vibration.
How does the sound source of voicign affect resonances of vocal tract?
Those harmonics that are closest to resonsnacnes of the vocal tract will be amplified.
What kind of sound sourcs can be gneerated in vocal tract?
Burst and frication.
Do burst and frication frequencies generate an amplification of vocal tract resonacne?
Describe regularity of harmonic amplitudes from the voiced sound source.
The amplitude of harmonics drops off a regular amount per octave.
What do the peaks of amplitude on the spectrum of a vocal tract transfer function represent?
formant frequencies
Which class of speechs egments have most audible energy?
Within what bandwidth of frequencies does most audible energy fall?
below 3500 hz.
Expalin how vocal tract filters voiced sound source of a vowel.
Frequencies in the sound source that are close to the formatn frequencies of the vocal tract are amplified; others are dampd.
What is the radiation effect of hte vocal tract?
The overall amplification of the emerging sound by the mouth opening
Does a formant frequency always correspond to a harmonic frequency during production of voiced speech sound?
how does the spectrum of avowel change if the speaker increases his or her fundamental frequency?
Harmonic frequencies all increase.
How do formant frquencies corrleate to vocal tract length?
Longer the vocal tract, lower formant frequencies.
Describe correlation between tongue height, tongue fornt-backness, lip rounding and frquencies fo first 3 vocal tract formants.
F1 correlates inversely to tongue ehight. F2 correlates positively to tongeu frontness. Lip rounding lowers all formants.
What is the biggest diff between acoustic signature of vowels and consonants/what causes it?
Vowels have higher amplitude because mouth is more open.
Expalin why a nasal consonatn generates antiformants.
Sound resonating in oral cavity can intefere destructively w/ air resonating in naso-pharyngeal cavity.
Describe resonating cavity of vocal tract in which speaker is producing the sound (s).
the region between alveolar ridge and lips
What single acoustic feature is most likely to show up on a spectrogram whena consonant is voiced?
voicing bar
How does a sibilant fricatvie look diff from an approximant?
It will have \"scratchy\" tracings of frication a high frquencies.
Why are the non-sibilant fricatives so hard to distinguish on the phone?
Phone companies do not transmit freuqency range that characerizes softer, front-of-hte-mouth fricatives.
What acoustic charactersitci do all stops share?
distinct stop gap
What acoustic cue do we use more than anything to distniugsih a oiced oral stop from an unvoiced one?
Postiive VOT (?)
Which consonants are most liekly to produce antiformants?
Nasals and laterals
Why don\'t nasal stops have bursts?
Since air lfows out the nose during nasal, ther is no build up of pressure behind oral closure to produce burst.
What is most distinctive acoustic characteristic of Englihs retroflex apprxoimant?
very low frequency F3
Why is it important to use phonemically balanced lists of words when administering articulation tests?
to make the test valid for particular language being tested
According to intensity test graph in our apcket, how intelligble is a word spken at 60 decibles of sound pressure level?
90% intelligible
What % of syllable intelligibiltiy tdo we get if speech is filtered thru a low-pass filter w/ cut-off frequency of 1000 Hz?
About 30%
What % of sllable intelligibility do we get if speech is filtered thru a high-pass filter w/ 1000 Hz cut-off?
About 90%.
Experiments in synthesized speech helped us understand what acoustic cue was most important for determining stop place of articulation. ____
F2 vowel transitions
Expain hwo discrimination tests differ form identification tests.
One asks whether 2 sounds are alike or diff, and the other asks what sound the listener is hearing.
Describe results of the classical tests (discrim and ident.) of categorical pereption.
Same amount of acoustic change will not be noticeable within categories but will be very noticeable between categories.
What does McGurk effect tell us?
Speech perception is affected by visual input as well as aural input.
One of the mos tchallenging questions that investigators studying speech percept. have to answer?
How can we perceive sounds as bieng hte same when they are actually quantitatively different? (invariance issue)
Explain diff between top-down & bottom-up processing of speech.
One assumes perception is more function of higher-level metnal processing cuz there is no invariance in the signal; other assumes that signal itself provides what we need to perceive diff. speechs ounds.
Describe a persuasive piece of evidence that supports Motor Theroy adn one that supports Quantal theory.
McGurk effect implies that info in the aural signal is not sufficient to allow us to correctly percieve speech; it must be a function of higehr-level processing of multiple inputs. However, the reuslts of animal expeirments implyt aht hwatever is in the speech signal is sufficient fro the discrimination fo sepech sounds evne in aniamls that do not have speech.

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