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Anatomy and Physiology ~ Unit 6! Sections 3-4


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Integumentary System
System pertaining to the skin; both a membrane (covers body) and organ (several kinds of tissue);
Functions: protection-UV rays, pathogens (germs), etc.
Sensory perception-help respond to pain, pressure, etc.
Body temp. Regulation- blood vessels help retain or lose heat
Storage- stores fat, glucose, water, vitamins, salts
Absorption- medicine (called transdermal medicine)
Excretion- eliminate salt and excess water (perspiration)
Production-produce vitamin D from UV rays and skin compounds
the outermost layer of skin; made of five to six smaller layers but no blood vessels or nerve cells;
stratum corneum and stratum germinativum
corium-"true skin"; has framework of elastic connective tissue and contains blood vessels; lumph vessels; nerves; involuntary muscle; sweat and oil glands; and hair follicles
Subcutaneous fascia or hypodermis
innermost layer; made of elastic and fibrous connective tissue and andipose (fatty) tissue, connects the skin to underlying muscles
Sudoriferous glands
Sweat glands; coiled tubes that extend through dermis and open on the surface of the skin at pores
Sebaceous glands
Oil glands that usually open onto hair follicles; produce sebum, an oil that keeps the skin and hair from becoming dry and brittle
Baldness, usually pertaining to males; permanent loss of hair on scalp
Get larger; blood vessels dilate and excess heat from blood can escape through skin
Ger smaller; blood vessels constrict and heat is retained in body
a person with an absence of color pigments; skin has pinkish tint and hair is pale yellow or white; eyes are red and sensative to light
Reddish color of the skin that can be caused by either burns or a congestion of blood in the vessels
Yellow discoloration of the skin, can indicate bile in the blood as a result of liver or gallbladder disease; also occurs in conjunction with certain diseases that involve destruction of red blood cells
Bluish discoloration of the skin caused by insufficient oxygen; associated with heart, lung, and circulatory diseases or disorders
Macules (macular rash)
flat spots on the skin, such as freckles
Pauples (papular rash)
firm, raised areas such as pimples and the eruptions seen in some stages of chickenpox and syphilis
Blisters, or fliud-filled sacs, such as those seen in chickenpox
Pus-filled sacs such as those seen in acne or pimples
Areas of dried pus and blood, commonly called "scabs"
Itchy, elevated areas with an irregular shape; hives and insect bites are examples
A deep loss of skin surface that may extend into the dermis; may bause periodic bleeding and the formation of scars
Acne Vulgaris
an inflammation of the sebaceous glands; cause is unknown but usually occurs in adolescence
Athlete's foot
a contagious funcus infection that usually affects the feet; skin itches, blisters, and cracks into open sores
Cancer of the skin
Occurs in different forms such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma; often developes from a mole or nevus that changes in color, shape, size, or texture
Inflammation of the skin, can be caused by many factors and is frequently an allergic reaction to detergents, cosmetics, pollen, or certain foods;<br />Symptoms:dry skin, erythems, itching, edema, macular-papular rashes, scaling
Noncontagious inflammatory skin disorder caused by an allergen or irritant; diet, cosmetics, soaps, medications, and emotional stress can cause eczema;
Symptoms: dryness, erythema, edema, itching, vesicles, crusts, and scaling
Highly contagious skin infection usually caused by streptococci or staphylococci organisms;
Symptoms: oozing vesicles, pustules, and yellow crust;
Chronic, noncontagious, inherited skin disease;
Symptoms: thick, red areas covered w/ white or silver scales; no cure but can be treated
Highly contagious funcus infection of skin or scalp;
Symptoms: formation of flat or raised circular area w/ clear central area surrounded by an itchy, scaly, or crusty outer ring
Warts; caused by a viral infection of the skin
Symptoms: rough, hard, elevated, rounded surface on skin; some disappear on their own, others need treatment
Skeletal system
made of organs: bones; adult human has 206 bones;
Functions: framework, protection (vital organs), levers (help provide movement), production of blood cells (red, white, and platelets), storage (calcium)
long part of bone
two ends of the bone
Medullary canal
Cavity in the diaphysis; inner portion of a long bone
Yellow marrow
Soft tissue in the diaphyses of long bones; mainly fat cells
Membrane that lines the medullary canal and keeps the yellow marrow intact; also produces some bone growth
Red marrow
Soft tissue in the epiphyses of long bones; produces red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets, and some white blood cells; it is used to diagnose blood diseases and is sometimes transplanted in people w/ defective immune systems
Fibrous membrane that covers the bones except at joint areas; contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and osteoblasts (cells that form new bone tissue); it is necessary for bone growth, repair, and nutrition
Axial skeleton
Forms the main trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs, and breastbone
Appendicular skeleton
Forms the extremeties and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
Spherical structure that surrounds and protects the brain; made of eight bones: one frontal, two parietal, two temporal, one occipital, one ethmoid, and one sphenoid
"soft spots" allow for enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs; made of membrane and cartilage and turn into solid bone by about 18 months of age
areas where the cranial bones have joined together
air spaces in bones of the skull that act as resonating chambers for the voice; lined with mucous membranes
Openings in bones that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bones
26 bones that make up the spinal column; protect spinal cord and provide support for the head and trunk
Intervertebral disks
pads of cartilage tissue that separate the vertebrae; they act as shock absorbers and permit bending and twisting movements of the vertebral column
also known as costae; there are 12 pairs; attach to thoracic vertebrae on the dorsal surface of the body
True ribs
First seven pairs of ribs; attach directly to the sternum, or breastbone, on the front of the body
False ribs
Next (middle) 5 pairs of ribs; first three pairs of false ribs attach to cartilage of the rib above
Floating ribs
Last two pairs of false ribs; they have no attachment on the front of the body
breastbone; the last bone of the axial skeleton; consists of three parts, manubrium (upper region), body, and xiphoid process (small piece of cartilage at the bottom)
Collarbones, helps make up the shoulder, or pectoral girdle
Shoulder bones; provide for attachment of the upper arm bones; helps make up shoulder, or pectoral girdle
Long bone of upper arm
Bone in lower arm on thumb side
Larger bone of lower arm with a projection called the olecranon process at its upper end, forming the elbow
eight bones that make up the wrist
Five bones that make up the palm of the hand
Fourteen bones that make up the fingers
Ox Coxae
Two bones that make up the pelvic girdle; hip bones
Thigh bone in leg; longest and strongest bone in body
Kneecap bone
Inner and larger bone of the lower leg, between the knee and ankle
Outer and smaller bone of the lower leg
One of seven bones that forms the instep of the foot
Bone of the foot between the instep and each toe; there are five
An articulation, or area where two bones meet or join together
Fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
Freely moveable; examples include the ball-and-socket joints of the shoulder and hip, or the hinge joints of the elbow and knee
Slightly moveable; an example is the vertebrae
Immovable; an example is the cranium
A group of diseases involving inflammation of the joints; two main types are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
The most common form of arthritis; usually occurs as a result of aging; usually affects hips and knees; joint pain, stiffness, aching, and limited range of motion; there is no cure but there are treatments
Rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic, inflammatory disease affecting the connective tissues and joints; three times more common in women than in men and usually is between ages 35-45; attacks can cause scar tissue formation and atrophy of bone/muscle tissue
An inflammation of the bursae, small, fluid-filled sacs surrounding the joints; frequently affects the shoulders, elbows, hips, or knees; symptoms include severe pain, limited movement, and fluid accumulation in the joint
A crack or break in a bone; types include greenstick, simple/closed, compound/open, impacted, comminuted, spiral, depressed, colles
Greenstick fracture
The bone is bent and splits, causing a crack or incomplete break; common in children
Simple/closed fracture
Complete break of the bone with no damage to the skin
Compound/open fracture
Bone breaks and ruptures through the skin; creates an increased chance of infection
Impacted fracture
Broken bone ends jam into each other
Comminuted fracture
Bone fragments or splinteers into more than two pieces
Spiral fratures
Bone twists resulting in one or more breaks; common in skiing and skating accients
Depressed fractures
A broken piece of skull bone mobes inward; common with severe head injuries
Colle fractures
Breaking and dislocation of the distal radius that causes a characteristic bulge at the wrist; caused by falling on an outstretched hand
Reduction of a fracture
Before a fracture can heal, the bone must be put back into its proper alignment
Closed reduction of a fracture
involves positioning the bone in correct alignment, usually with traction, and applying a cast or splint to maintain position until fracture heals
Open reduction of a fracture
Involves surgical repair of the bone; sometimes special pins, plates, or other devices are surgically implanted to maintain correct position of the bone
When a bone is forcibly displaced from a joint; frequently occurs in shoulders, fingers, knees, and hips; after dislocation is reduced (bone is replaced in the joint), the dislocation is immobilized with a splint, cast, or traction
When a twisting action tears the ligaments at a joint; wrists an ankles are common sites; symptoms include pain, swelling, discoloration, and limited movement
A bone inflammation usually caused by a pathogenic organism; infectious organisms cause formation of an abscess withing bone and accumulation of pus in medullary canal; sumptoms include pain at site, swelling, chills, and fever, antibiotics are used
Increased porosity or softening of the bones; metabolic disorder caused by a hormone deficiency, prolonged lack of calcium in diet, and sedentary lifestyle; treatment includes increased intake of calcium and vitamin D; medications to increase bone mass, exercise, and/or estrogen replacement
Ruptured disk
Also called a herniated or slipped disk, occurs when an intervertebral disk (pad of cartilage separating vertebrae) ruptures or protrudes out of place and causes pressure on spinal nerve; can occur anywhere on spinal column; symptoms include severe pain, muscle spasm, impaired movement, and/or numbness
"hunchback"; rounded bowing of the back at the thoracic area
Side-to-side, or lateral, curvature of the spine
"Swayback"; an abnormal inward curvature of the lumbar region; poor posture, structural defects of the vertebrae, malnutrition, and degeneration of vertebrae can all be causes

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