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study guide questions and topics


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empathy motivates
prosocial, or altruistic, behavior
fast mapping works
best with visually labeled objects, from general topics to specific, with metaphors
effortful control is
the ability to suppress a reaction
there are positive correlations amongst self esteem,
valuing of an activity and success at same activity
Kohlberg's extension of P's morality states
moral understanding is a result of 1) grappling with moral issues, and 2) perspective taking
kinship studies
compare characteristics of family members
I-self is
understanding self as a separate entity
twin studies show that heredity link increases in adulthood for ___ but not for ___
intelligence; personality
a tonic neck reflex is
a fencing motion, probably early reaching
three factors that increase likelihood of modeling in Social Learning Theory are
1) warmth/responsiveness, 2) competence/power, and 3) consistency between assertions and behavior
brain loses plasticity
after lateralization
temperament can
predict or protect from environmental effects
joint attention increases the rate of
language development
crying in infants is
a unique vocal signature related to the central nervous system
lateralization is
the specialization of the hemispheres
self recognition occurs
by age 2
recovery from brain damage is
better for language than for spatial reasoning
habituation and recovery might
be better able to predict developmental abilities
a major limit to concrete operational thinking is
that its not abstract
gene therapy is
delivering normal DNA to developing cells
stability of temper is
low to moderate, but extreme flips are rare
adolescents define friendship as
intimate and loyal
infant DQs are
mostly used for screening - predict IQ poorly
one benefit of fetoscopy is
it allows an opportunity to sample fetal blood
concordance is
the rate at which both twins have the same characteristics
neglected is
well-adjusted usually
a long-term consequence of divorce can be
exacerbation of any pre-existing problems
feedback can intensify self-conscious emotions if
they are used to value a child's worth (i.e. good girl!)
triarchic theory (Sternberg) is
3 broad and interacting intelligences: 1) analytical, 2) creative, and 3) practical
transitive inference is
seriating mentally - a concrete-operational skill
the four main categories of peer acceptance are
1) popular, 2) neglected, 3) rejected, and 4) controversial
before speaking, babies
1) engage in give-and-take games, 2) use preverbal gestures
private speech and self-directed speech are other terms for
egocentric speech
boys end up with longer legs due to
two additional years of preadolescent growth
children with advanced attention and language are better at
delayed gratification
low SES families have higher stress and lower control which tends to result in
punishment for their children
facial expressions in infants are
the best way to guess their emotions
The institutional review board (IRB)
evaluates research ethical dilemmas
neighborhoods and family resources are most important for low SES individuals because
they provide opportunities that may not be gotten elsewhere (especially in small communities)
formal op and concrete reasoning are both
often specific to situation and task
sexual orientation may be
x-chromosome or hormone related
some vulnerabilities to SIDS might be
repiratory problems, exposure to smoke, sleeping on stomach, too many bedclothes
continuous development is
the gradual augmentation of existing (innate) skills
egocentric speech ultimately becomes
inner speech
the two ideas of Erikson that influence identity development are
exploration and commitment
three ways kids might learn vocab are
1) mutual exclusivity bias, 2) place in sentence, 3) inferring adults intentions
age-graded influences are
biological and cultural events strongly related to age
a factor in obesity is
the broader food environment (Pima tribe ex.)
early experiences affect
organization of the cortex
girls' close relationships are often shorter than boys due to
likelihood of relational aggression
some limits to the Nativist theory are
there is no single underlying system of grammar, language acquisition is gradual, and localization of language is not necesary for language acquisition
the biggest factor in positive adjustment after divorce is
positive parenting
colic is
persistent crying that goes away between 3-6 months
Language Acquisition Device (LAD) devised by Chomsky and the Nativist theory
is an innate system to learning that contains rules common to all languages
the 5 states of arousal are:
1) regular sleep, 2) irregular sleep, 3) drowsiness, 4) quiet alertness, and 5) waking activity/crying
the second level of moral development (K) is
conventional level - conformity is important in order to maintain the social system - most people stay at this level
lifespan perspective is
a dynamic systems approach to development
popular pro-social is
competent and kind
a cult is most likely related to
identity foreclosure
tracking is
sorting kids onto a career/educational track
Interactionist theory (Info-processing approach) to language development states
language is a blend of nature and nurture, and the language centers of the brain are also used for other things
cognitive development (i.e.comparing traits) and feedback
affect structure of self
the Apgar scale stands for
Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration
crowds are linked to
self-concepts and identity
genetic counseling is
pedigree (family tree) of chances of genetic illness
neo-Piagetians (Robbie Case) believe that
rather than stages, mastery is increase in info-processing speeds
the formal operational stage is characterized by
the ability to use abstract, systematic thought
correlates most strongly with self-esteem
moral self-relevance
degree to which morality is central to self-concept - this affects moral behavior
social referencing is
actively seeking emotional direction from a trusted loved one
in social referencing, what is most effective?
the voice more than the face
the fourth stage of moral development (K) is
social-order maintaining orientation - morals depend on societal laws not close ties
Vygotsky Sociocultural theory is:
continuous and discontinuous, many cultural courses, nature and nurture, both early and late experiences
one aspect of intelligence that is often overlooked is
the cultural variation in it
grades often decline during school transitions because
academic standards increase, and personal attention decreases
self-conscious emotions are
emotions that affect sense of self (pride, embarassment)
hierarchical structured self esteem is
an overall self-esteem garnered from the categories of self-evaluation
4 main categories of self-evaluation are
1) academic, 2) social, 3) physical, and 4) appearance
genetic-environmental correlation is
our genes influence the environment to which we're exposed
mirror neurons
in cerebral cortex, may underly ability to imitate
Lifespan Perspective theory is:
continuous and discontinuous, many courses, nature and nurture, early and late experiences
fetoscopy is
a visual check of the fetus using an internal scope
a limitation to SLT is
it has too narrow a view on environmental influences
infants can discriminate color well starting
around 2 months old
infant intelligence tests emphasize
perceptual and motor responses
more parent-child conflict is seen when
there is greater gap between parents' and kids' views on kid's autonomy
scaffolding is
adjusting support to match a child's performance; also can be supportive language used in private speech
teenagers experience more negative events and
have more intense reactions to them
80% of obese kids
become obese adults
analgesics are
like epidurals, milder form of pain relief in childbirth
nonnormative influences are
unpredictable; individual effects
evocative correlation is
when natural instincts elicit similar environments (i.e. a smiling child is treated more sociably)
according to Sternberg, overall intelligence is
balancing all three types of intelligence to achieve success at chosen fields
the limit to Erikson's types of identity is
it fails to capture constructing a sense of self-continuity despite personal changes, as might be influenced by culture
the three main problems in development are
depression, suicide, and delinquency
self-conscious emotions require
self awareness and adult instruction
emotional self-regulation is
voluntary and requires effortful control
early adolescence is a time of gender intensification due to
salient differences, pressure from others, and desire to be attractive
pubertal moodiness is
only moderately linked to hormones
stability and plasticity
vary by domain
categorical self is when toddlers begin to
put self into categories
mastery oriented attributions
credit success to ability and failure to changeable circumstances
the 5 rights of research subjects are
1) protection from harm, 2) informed consent, 3) privacy, 4) knowledge of test results, and 5) beneficial treatments
children benefit more from
working with "experts" than with peers
gender androgyny is
generally healthier and especially for girls
two aspects of range of reaction are
1) we each respond differently to the same environment stimuli, and 2) different genetic/environment combos can lead to the same outcome
habituation and recovery assess
short term memory
logic and abstract thought are
both gradually increasing skills
two senses that have prenatal developments are
taste and smell
range of reaction is
a unique genetic response to environment
younger children are more extreme in their
a child who is malnourished in infancy
is more likely to become obese later
basic emotions are
emotions like happy or sad that promote survival
the lifespan perspective has 4 criterion for development:
1) it's lifelong, 2) multidimensional and multidirectional, 3) plastic, and 4) affected by multiple forces
infants prefer what kind of sounds
complex and/or familiar
low self-esteem is linked to
anxiety, depression, and anti-social tendencies
chorionic villus sampling is
checking the villa inside the placenta for illness; this usually takes place earlier and carries some risk
the mediation of the superego
determines personality
the four identity statuses of Erikson are
1) identity achievement - commit to values after exploration, 2) identity moratorium - explore but don't commit, 2) identity foreclosure - commit but don't explore, and 4) identity diffusion - (worst) neither explore nor commit
some physiological responses of shy are
elevated heart rate, BP, pupil dilation, activity in right frontal lobe and amygdala
decentration is
relating several aspects of a problem
NBAS recovery curves are
the best predictor of intelligence and emotional stability over the first couple of years of life
low SES parents encourage external skills in children, while high SES parents
encourage internal skills
Information Processing is:
continuous, one course, nature and nurture, both early and late experiences
analytical intelligence is
poverty is most common in
single moms, the elderly, and minorities
according to Vygotsky, egocentric speech is
a foundation for higher cognitive processes and kids do it for self-guidance
me-self is
a self as an object of things, i.e. physical attributes
the cornerstone of personality is
some evidence for nature-based language acquisition is
infants prefer human speech sounds, children reach universal language milestones, complex grammar is unique to humans, and childhood is a sensitive period for language development
controversial is
a blend of positive and negative, some similarities to popular anti-social
Ecological Systems theory is:
not specified for continuity, many courses, nature and nurture, early and late experiences
operations are
mental actions that obey logical rules
infants can discriminate between
similar kinds of sounds
Freud's psychosexual theory
belives personality is a result of parental resolution of kids' drives
irregular (REM) sleep is
uneven, movement, brain activity resembling waking state
contributes to different parenting
learned helplessness
credits failures to lack of ability and success to luck
pendulum problem is
a test that differentiates the abilities of concrete op kids with formal op kids
for girls but not boys, cliques predict
social and academic competence
heredity and obesity
are only moderately linked
the least developed sense at birth is
an extended family household (3+ generations) are
more common in Black culture and provide some protection from environmental problems
public policies for the young have lagged behind those for the
apathy or hopelessness are likely related to
identity diffusion
modeling helps kids develop
emotional skills
rejected withdrawn is
passive and socially awkward
the specialization of the hemispheres may be reversed
in lefties, but more commonly, hemispheres are just less specialized
crying is usually a response to
physical needs or external stimuli
poverty's effects worsen as
the length of time it has been experienced increases
emotional self-regulation is
controlling emotions
temperament is
early appearing and stable differences in reactivity and self-regulation
hearing children of deaf parents
babble with their hands
according to Piaget, egocentric speech is
an indication that kids don't consider other's perspectives and declines w/ more peer interaction
theories should be:
1) describe, 2) explain, 3) predict, and 4) provide organizing framework
V. saw make-believe play as
an ideal social context for learning and internalizing rules and behaviors
Bandura's Social Learning Theory (SLT) stresses
some problems with punishment are
it only elicits momentary compliance, it can lead to mental health problems, it can be transmitted intergenerationally
ultrasound is
one of the safest prenatal checking methods; can contribute to low birth weight if used too much
conservation tasks and reversibility tasks are possible in
Piaget's concrete/operational stage
amniocentesis is
checking uterine fluid for abnormalities
individualism is
separate entities concerned with personal needs
P. believed that cognitive development was independent, while V. believed
cognitive development is socially mediated
frontal lobes are
responsible for thought and have the longest development period
the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
evaluates reflexes, state changes, and responsiveness in infants
over time, children form personal standards and become particular about
who they model
self esteem is
the evaluative side of self-concept
kids learn vocab through
social cues and direct guidance
infants can match a voice
to an emotionally appropriate face
social learning theory uses
behavior modification
both P. and V. emphasize
active classroom participation and acceptance of individual differences
emotional contagion is
responding in kind
the first level of moral development (K) is
preconventional - morality is externally controlled
the Babinski reflex is
when toes fan and curl - unknown reason
Psychoanalytic theory of development is:
discontinuous, one course of development, nature and nurture, based on impulses and experiences in early childhood
the Moro reflex is
an embracing motion
Bandura is unique in that he considers
a child's unique and active role in learning
the third level of moral development (K) is
postconventional or principled - morals are abstract and apply universally
kids frequently engage in
social comparisons
environment affects temper in what ways
nutrition and parenting (influencing traits they want to see)
during puberty,
the cephalocaudal trend reverses and leads to gangly arms and legs
self-conscious emotions
can be positive if not paired with shame
puberty for girls is called menarche, for boys its called
divorce mediation can
reduce marital conflict and negative consequences on kids
a child's adjustment during divorce depends on
1) custodial parents psychological health, 2) child's characteristics, and 3) social support
the left hemisphere is known for
language, positive emotion, and sequencing
babies release what hormone during delivery to protect them from anoxia
Rogoff's guided participation is
a broader scaffolding; a general sharing between expert and child
self esteem and self-descriptions are
the cognitive foundation for identity
peer acceptance is
also known as likeability and is unidirectional
the first outward sign of puberty is
the growth spurt
recovery to familiar stimuli assesse
long term memory
emotional self-regulation
adjusts emotional state to an intensity that's comfortable so that one can accomplish their goals
blacks and girls
physically develop fastest, and this may be a factor in girls' resistance to harmful environmental factors
V. focuses on how culture is
spread intergenerationally
social smile is
the big smile that comes out about 6-10 weeks
history-graded influences are
events in history that lead to cohorts
natural or prepared childbirths are
designed to lower pain and minimize medical intervention
newborns can imitate certain gestures like head movements which may be
a reflex
the stages of childbirth are
1) dilation and effacement of the cervix (the longest stage), 2) delivery, 3) delivery of the placenta about 10 minutes later
three things that can lead to negative outcomes of friendship are
jealousy, aggression, and delinquent behavior
propositional thought (formal op) (poker chips example)is
the ability to evaluate the logic of propositions without real world examples
because infant intelligence tests may not measure intelligence, they are called
development quotients (DQ)
negative temper is
more heriditarily linked than positive temper
verified theories are
the basis for practical action
adolescents more than younger children
respect autonomy in friendship
Bronfenbrenner's "third parties" are
secondary influences on an individual (family dynamic)
shame can be
destructive to feelings of self worth
regular (NREM) sleep is
slow, even, with motionless EEG
some newborn reflexes are
eye blink, rooting, stepping, and sucking
meiosis contributes to
genetic variability
social interactions are
necessary to acquire cultural values
eating dinner as a family results in
better childhood adjustment
popular anti-social is
popular but aggressive
reactivity is
the quickness and intensity of emotional reactions
the first stage of moral development (K) is
punishment and obedience orientation
stability is
displaying a characteristic throughout lifespan
early maturing girls do
worse than late-maturing ones
seriation is
the ability to order objects along a quantitative measure
preimplantation genetic diagnosis is
checking zygotes for abnormalities prior to IVF implantation
discontinuous development (or stage development) is
a qualitative change
expansions are
elaborating on/or making kids' speech more complex
scaffolding resembles
a classroom environment and therefore might be culturally specific
K's theory may be too
culturally specific
the continuum of acquisition is
a limitation to concrete-op - gradual mastery of tasks - not coming up with universal logic and applying it
the class inclusion problem (flowers) shows
ability to relate three things at once
social preference and social prominence are
only moderately related
new fathers also show
hormonal changes such as decreased androgens and increased estrogen and prolactin
mood swings are
related to situational changes
spatial reasoning
increases n the concrete-operational stage
rejected withdrawn are
likely to become learned helplessness attributors
one vulnerability to colic might be
sensitivity to unpleasant stimuli
some limits to Piaget's theory are
it is culturally influenced, conservation is delayed in some cultures, and school speeds up the mastery process
heritability estimates are
the extent to which individual differences in complex traits are due to genetics
proteomics is
modifying gene-specified proteins involved in aging and disease
Chomsky's nativist theory states that
people are born with language skills etched onto the brain
the best way to measure physical maturity is
by measuring skeletal age
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
stresses social context of cognitive development
three problems with Freud
1) he's a dirty old man, 2) low external validity, and 3) he didn't actually study kids
pragmatics are
the practical side of language
rejected-agressive is
the most aggressive; belligerent and poor emotional regulation
both parent and teacher feedback affect
attribution style
three things that can lead to positive outcomes of friendship are
opportunities to explore self and understand others, foundation for future intimate relationships, and help deal with stress and improve school involvement
meiosis creates
1 ovum or 4 sperm
passive correlation is
infants exposed to the parent's choices
a strength of Erikson's psychosocial theory is it's use of case studies, while limitations are
it has vague ideas and narrow methods
indulgent parenting is linked to
overblown self esteem
Piaget's cognitive/behavioral theory is:
discontinuous, one course, nature and nurture, both early and late experiences
stage theorists have historically assumed universal sequences, but modern theorists also consider
contexts of development
stranger anxiety is
environmentally influenced and less severe if parent is near
gametes are
the ovum and the sperm
many rejected aggressive children
aren't aware of their poor social skills
maternal blood analysis is
the safest prenatal check; by the second month the embryo's blood mixes with the mother's and can be checked for abnormalities
for boys, peer admiration is related to
physical prowess
emotional development in early childhood is supported by
gains in representation, language, and self-concept
spanking can be adaptive if
it is done in a warm, benign way
identity development can
differ across domains
coruminating is
repeatedly mulling over negative concepts and can spark anxiety and depression
babbling occurs universally but
hearing speech is necessary for it to progress further
unhealthy babies have
shorter, shriller cries
alcohol interferes with
neurons in neural tube
boys are often stronger than girls due to
extra muscle growth and extra red blood cells
touch and regular feeding
reduce length of crying bouts
Piaget's concrete/operational stage is
from ages 7-11, thought is more logical, flexible, and organized
in divorce, boys tend to do better
with their fathers
self conscious emotions are
governed by a sense of personal responsibility in middle childhood
girls as compared to boys are
shorter, lighter, fattier (yay us!)
intelligence is often not reflected in
standardized intelligence tests
intermodal perception is
perceiving objects/events as unified wholes - supports self-awareness
joint attention is
babies looking in the same direction as parents, also vice versa
controlling parenting is linked to
low self-esteem
the two capacities for compliance are
memory and self-recognition
the fifth stage of moral development (K) is
social contract orientation - laws are flexible and for furthering human purpose
practical intelligence is
application of intelligence in daily tasks
adolescents' statement about themselves reveals
a desire to be viewed positively by others
working has negative effects while
job training has positive effects
early maturing boys do
better than late-maturing ones
P.'s two stages of morality are
1) heteronomous morality - rules are handed down and rigid (focus on outcome rather than intent), and 2) autonomous morality - rules are flexible and agreed-upon
zygotes are
when gametes combine
pupil familiarity and low competition help
to keep grades stable in large schools
overregularization is
overextension of grammatical rules
the third stage of moral development (K) is
good girl orientation, or morality of interpersonal cooperation - desire to obey rules to maintain social harmony
the goodness of fit model is
how temper and environment together can create favorable outcomes, respects unique dispositions and adjusts environment to fit
SIDS might be the result of
voluntary movements not taking over for diminishing reflexes
V. promotes both
assisted discovery and peer collaboration
emotional competence is
marked by gains in emotional abilities in 2-6 year olds
some infant areas sensitive to touch are
mouth, palms, soles of feet, genitals
SES has three related variables:
1) years of education, 2) prestige of/or skill required of job, and 3) income
recasts are
restructuring incorrect speech
the price of plasticity is
slower processing overall
the cerebral cortex is
sensitive to environment longest
adults get 20% REM sleep while infants get
can affect rates of childhood cancer and cognitive difficulties
immediate consequences of divorce are
1) decreased income, 2) stress and disorganization of family routines, and 3) harsher discipline when kids act out
peer victimization is
when certain kids become targets, and sometimes bullies themselves. biological traits increase likelihood of victimization
the most common problem in development is
the sixth stage of moral development (K) is
universal ethical principle orientation - self-chosen abstract, flexible principles
with strangers, infants balance
approach and avoidance
Skinner's theory of behaviorism and language acquisition
states that language is acquired through operant conditioning
hypothetico-deductive reasoning is
to start with a hypothesis, deduct logical inferences, and compare to see what is confirmed in the real world
the area in which P. recognized the value of language was in
the formal op stage where abstract thought is vital
the poorest grades are seen in kids with
uninvolved parental figures
fast mapping is
connecting new words with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter with the new word
early interventions to obesity are
the most effective
the right hemishphere is known for
spatial awareness, negative emotion, and holistic understanding
Ethology and Evolutionary theory is:
continuous and discontinuous, one course, nature and nurture, early experiences
active correlation is
seeking suitable environments for oneself (niche picking)
the second stage of moral development (K) is
instrumental purpose orientation - the right is for self-interest and reciprocity is key
obesity is classified as
20% + of "normal" body weight
social referencing allows children to begin to see
that others may feel differently to them
important to moral development is
mutuality and intimacy of friendships
collectivism is
interdependent; stresses group goals over those of the individual
epigenesis is
when development results from bidirectionality of genes and environment
new social learning theory is often called
social cognitions theory
multisystemic therapy is
designed to reduce delinquency by combining many factors of one's life
the subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development are
cognitive, language, motor and two parental reports: social-emotional scale, and adaptive behavior scale
identity development
follows many paths, though most go from lower to higher
social referencing
allows kids to compare their own assessments with others'
habituation is
reduction of response through repetition
3 limitations of heredity theories (nature/nurture) are:
1) nature and nurture are so linked they're difficult to untangle, 2) unfair conclusions are often drawn (i.e. racial diffs), and 3) links don't show how or why, or how to change
zone of proximal development is
the range of tasks too difficult for a child alone, but able to be completed with assistance
debriefing is used when
deceit was necessary to use in an experiment
subculture is
a group with beliefs and customs that differ from the majority
girls gain motor skills gradually while boys
have a dramatic spurt
one piece of evidence contradicting Skinner is
children create novel phrases
attribution retraining
can sometimes help improve learned helplessness
heredity plays a role in
depression which is only higher for girls in industrialized nations
if the maternal age is over 40,
it increases the chances of infertility, miscarriage, and chromosomal defects
authoritative parenting
affects pretty much everything in a positive way
three things that can ease school transitions are
1) parental involvement, 2) monitoring, and 3) gradual autonomy
a limitation to sociocultural theory is
that verbal means might not be the only way by which thinking develops
peers influence superficial things but parents
influence major life decisions
releases breast milk, is calming, causes uterine contractions, promotes responsiveness to babies
effortful control
increases with age and is a major dimension of temper
an example of a private protective children's organization is
Children's Defense Fund
ideal reciprocity is
the golden rule
a major difference between P and V is that
P addresses basic cognitive functions like motor skills, while V does not
temper can be modified by
an example used by Kohlberg is
the Heinz dilemma
Erikson's Initiative vs. Guilt theory states
that sometimes an overly strict superego (societal norms) cause a child to feel guilty and destroys initiative
REM sleep is vital for
central nervous system growth and is an indication of brain function
info-processing theory for language acquisition states
children search for consistency and patterns
central conceptual structures are
networks of concepts that are generalized to other things (neo-Piaget)
intelligence and personality are difficult to study because they are
canalization is
the tendency of heritability to restrict development of some characteristics to a few outcomes
discontinuous development is
when new and different ways of understanding emerge at specific times
emotional contagion is
when young infants pick up emotional cues
culture has a profound effect on
an example of a private elderly organization is
trait statements (you're so smart) can contribute to
learned helplessness
plasticity is
ability to change - advocated by nurturists
Behaviorism/Social Learning Theory is:
continuous, many courses (varies by person), nurture, and both early and late experiences

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