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Anatomy Test 2


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Dynamic Reciprocity
interaction between cell and its environment
Basal membrane
basal lamina
Basal surface is
towards body fluids
Apical surface is
towards the external surface away from fluids
The foundation of cells sits where
basement membrane
Epithelia cells are ___________
and have little____________--
tightly packed
extracellular matrix
Basal surface

mucosal or serosal
basal- serosal
apical- mucosal
Anchoring junctions
provide support
Desmosome has what kind of connection?
- creates spot weld
- strong connection
What are the fibers of the desmosome?
intermediate filaments ( keratin)
What role does the hemedesmosome play?
anchors cell to basement membrane
Where does an adherens junction occur
near apical surface
What is an adherens junction consist of?
moderately strong connection between cells
A tight junction is like a _____________ that doesnt let ________ or _____________ cross
ziplock bag phospholipids and proteins
What facilitates the difference between the Apical and basal membranes?
tight junction
What is a gap junction?
a very narrow gap that allows exchange
What are some epithelial characteristics?
friction at surfaces
greatest rate of mitosis
no blood vessels
get nutrients from connective tissue
cube shaped
Layers of cells
one layer
What kind of exchanges take place over the simple squamous?
blood to tissue
exchange of gases
What kind of exchanges take place through simple cuboidal
reabsorption and secretion in the kidneys
Columnar are found in the -------
and are responsible for
reabsorption and secretion
In ciliated epithelia fluid______________
moves over the cell
Where are ciliated epithelial found?
uterine tubes
IN the respiratory system ciliated epithelial_____________________-
moves mucous out into the throat
Exocrine glands are responsible for
secretion from apical surface to cells
Endocrine is the secretion___________
across basolateral surfaces
ex. hormones
Secretory vesicles
merocrine secretions
The Goblet cell is a
unicellular gland specialized for secretion of mucus
T or F Some glands are multicellular
Cancer has a _________ nature
Carcinoma causes cancer of the
epithelial origin
Sarcoma causes
cancer of the connective tissue at the mesenchymal origin
Connective tissue is
collagen fibers in the EM that connect body tissues
What are the major cell types of the CTP and what are they?
fibroblast-collagen fibers
Adipocytes-fat cells
What are the majore fiber types of the CTP
reticular-specialized type of collagen
Characteristics of Areolar Connective tissues
- loose components
loss of elastic fibers causes wrinkles
uv damage
Reticular fibers are and make up what
thin narrow collagen fibers that make up LN, spleen, liver, etc.
Dense Regular CT is made up of
collagen fibers arranged parallel to each other and densely packed
Dense irregular CT
collagen fibers tightly packed but arranged perpendicular to each other in two dimensions
Elastic connective tissue is made up of Abundant elastic fibers
give skin its stretchiness
store energy from contracting heart
The matrix of cartilage is
The major cell type of cartilage is the
Fibrocartilage is made up of
Where would cartilage be found in general?
high pressure areas
The bone is a __________ whose major fiber type is cartilage
Bone cells are called
solid matrix
The definition of bone is
osteocytes in a solid matrix of collagen fibers and calcium salts
Skin separates the self from non-self
What does the skin include?
glands, hair, and nails
The 3 major functions of the skin Integumentary system are
1. protection
2. body temp regulation
3. sensory perception
The skin has 3 layers
subcutaneous layer
What are each three made up of?
Epidermis- SS epithelium
dermis- dense irregular connective tissue
Subcutaneous layer- hypodermis
How are cells connected?
What is keratinization
The movement from stratum basale to upper dead layer (differentiation
The most important thing for replenishing the skin is? Why?
- cells must remain attached to membrane to continue dividing
Stratum spinosum is
- pt. of strongest connection
- thickest layer of living cells
stratum granulosum is important bc
- waterproofing lipids are secreted here
The stratum granulosum involves __________ of the cytoskeleton
The nail root area is located
underneath the epidermal layer
Insted of stratum coneum the nail is made. This is a different type of
The visible part of the nail is mad eup of
dead cells
What is sebum
moisturizer secreted by the hair follicle
What is a hair follicle?
invagination where basal membrane extends down to dermis
The hair is made up of what?
cytoskeletons of cells that underwent differentiation in the matrix
sudor =
Eccrine sweat glands function is
evaporative cooling
Apocrine sweat glands function is
carrying odor= drains into hair follicle
= evaporative cooling with odor
- found in pits and pubic areas
melanocytes are located
in the stratum basale
Melanin is responsible for (2)
1.dark color of skin
absorb UV light
UV light generates
Vitamin D
Some muscles attach into the ______
an example being
skeletal muscles of facial expression
Hypodermis is made up of
adipose tissue and loose connective tissue
Epidermal ridges aka
finger prints
- give friction for better grip
The body can be divided into two regions when studying temp regulation
The core is made up of? which are
highly regulated
The shell is made up of ? which are?
skin and limbs
not highly regulated
IN a cold environment
core- heat conserved for the core
shell- allowed to be cold
In a warm environment
excess heat leaves the body via the shell
Heat is a
molecular motion
Conductance factor- how easy it is for heat to pass through
What are the two mechanisms of heat transfer?
radiation and conduction
Which accounts for most of the heat loss in the body
What is the main way of receiving heat if outside in the sun?
Conduction is
heat transfer by direct contact
Conductors have while insulators have
high conductance
low conductance
Convection is
increase in conduction due to movement of a liquid or gas
Evaporation is another mechanism of heat transfer. what does it do?
cools body by removing heat from body to environment
What layer of the skin acts as an insulator
the adipose tissue of the dermis
Blood flow into the skin is
highly regulated
The more blood u have the more
radiation, convection, conduction
The main role of skin is to be a
radiator and conductor
What is the most important receptor? location?control center?
in brain above pituitary gland
Blood goes through brain- temp detected
info relayed to control center
What is shivering?
human muscles contracting in a repetitive cycle
what is the purpose of Thyroxin release?
What is the purpose in activating brown fat?
- increases metabolic processes
-mitochondria generate heat instead of ATP
Decrease body temp
heat los-> vasoconstriction- decrease activity decrease fuel intake
Behavioral Control- example
seek shade affects radiation- reduces sun
Local contral exists where?
What is the purpose of local control?
What is the cause of a fever?
increase in set pt.
What is the purpose of a fever?
inhibits bacterial growth or speeds up immune system
IS the hypothalamus still working in a fever?
Yes but the set pt. is increased
How does open heart surgery take advantage of the state of hypothermia?
It lowers the metabolic rate therefore lowering the amount of oxygen needed
What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system
Ca and P storage
Where is the site for blood cell formation?
What provides rigidity to the bone?
Bone Marrow
Ca and P
Osseous Tissue is Bone Tissue
cells scattered in a matrix of collagen fibers and calcium/phosphate salts
What is responsible for reinforcing the bone and adding flexibility
What does an osteoblast develop from?
stem cell first off then that differentiates into a Osteogenic cell then to and osteoblast thet to an osteocyte
Give the function of the following
forms bone tissue
bone destroying cell
maintains bone tissue
WHere are blood vessels located and what are there purpose?
IN the middle of the osteon- keep osteocytes alive
IN the lacuna Canaliculi are found= what do they do?
they are small channels that run through the bone matrix and allow diffusion (communication w/ osteocytes)
Compact bone:
Spongy bone:
bone appears to be solid, densely packed
boney network with spaces in between e.g-trabeculae
- layer within compact bone organized into circular structure- is an OSTEON
What is the basic unit of compact bone
What is the periosteum?
connective tissue covering that surrounds the bone
What is the place where tendons fuse w/ bone
dense connnective tissue
What does intramembraneous ossification lead to?
development of bone from msenchyme or CTP
What is endochondral ossification?
development of bone from hyaline cartilage
What does intramembranous ossification develop
flatter bones (skull)
knee cap
What is the central portion of thelong bone?ends?
What is the epiphyseal plate?
line of cartilage separating epiphysis from diaphysis
Where is yellow bone marrow stored?
medullary cavity
The epiphyses are are separated from the shaft by what?
epiphysial plate
How does the bone increase in length?
as the plate lays down new bone on the end of the shaft
When does growth stop?
when the epiphyses unites with the shaft. not when epiphysial line is made
What happens in osteoporosis?
net loss of bone
bone becomes porous
holes made by osteoclasts
more likely to fracture
Rickets and bone fracture- Osteomalacia
What happens to osteoblastic activity?
it is normal
What is the cause of osteomalacia?
lack of precipitation of Ca and P salts
There are two types of skull bones name them
cranial and facial
What is the part of the skull that allows for rapid growth in babies?
The coronal suture separates what?
frontal from parietal
Sagittal suture
separates left and right parietal bones
What b=part of the skull allows for brain and spinal cord attachment
foramen magnum
Which skull bones allow olfactory nerves to pass into the cranial cavity?
ethmoid bones
Which bone is associated with hearing?

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