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Personal & Social Development; Human Development Papalia


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Subjective reactions to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes
Self-conscious emotions
Emotions, such as smbarrassment, empathy, and envy that depend on self-awareness
Realization that one's existence and functioning are separate from those of other people and things
Self-evaluative emotions
Emotions, such as pride, shame, and guilt that depend on both self-awareness and knowledge of socially sccepted standars of behavior
Ability to "put on self in another person's place"and feel what the other person feels
Social Cognition
Ability to understand that other people have mental states and to gauge their feelings and intentions
Piaget's term for inability to consider another person's point of view; a characteristic of young children's thought
Characterisitc disposition, or style of approaching and reacting to situations
"Easy" children
Children with a generally happy temperament, regualt biological rhythms, and a readiness to accept new experiences
"Difficult" children
Children with irritable temperament, irregular biological rhyths, and a readiness to accept new experiences
"Slow-to-warm up" children
Children whose temperament is generally mild but who are hesitant about accepting new experiences
Goodness of fit
appropriateness of enviornmental demands and constraints to a child's temperament
Socialization process whereby children, at anearly age, learn appropriate gender roles
Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
Erikson's first crisis in psychosocial developmet, in which infants develop a sense of the reliability of people and objects
Reciprocal, enduring tie between two people, especially between infant and caregiver, each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship
Strange situation
laboratory technique used to study infant attachment
Secure attachment
Pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver upon his or her return
Avoident attachment
Pattern in which an infant rarely criews when separated fromthe primary caregiver and avoids contactupon his or her return
Ambivalent (resistant) attachment
Pattern inwhich an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset duringhis or her absence, andboth seeks and resists contact onhis or her return.
Disorganized-disoriented attachment
pattern in which an infant, after separation from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory behaviors upon his or her return
Stranger anxiety
Wariness of strange people and places, shown by some infants during the second half of the first year
Separation anxiety
distress shown by someone, typically an infant, when a familiar caregiver leaves
Mutual regulation
process by which infant and carevier communicate emotinoal states to each otherand respond appropriately
"Still-face" paradign
Research procedure used to measure mutual regulation in infants 2-9 months old
Social referencing
Understanding an ambiguous situation by seeking out another person's perception of it
Sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental pictureofone's abilites and traits
Sense of one's own capability to master challenges and achieve goals
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Erikson's second stage in psychosocial development, inwhich children achieve a blance between self-determination and control by others
Development of habits, skills, values, and motives shared by responsbile, productive members of society
During socialization, process by which children accept societal standards of conduct as their own
A person's independent control of behavior to confromto understood social expectations
Internal standards of behavior, whichusually control one's conduct and produce emotional discomft when violated
Committed compliance
Kochanska's term for wholehearted obedience of a parent's orders without reminders or lapses
Situational compliance
Kochanska's term for obedience of a parent's ordersonly in the presence of signs of ongoing parental control
Physical abuse
Action taken deliberately to endanger another person, involving potential bodily injury
Failure to meet a dependent's basic needs
Sexual abuse
Physically or psycholgically harmful sexual activity, or any sexual activity involving a child and an older person
Emotional maltreatment
Action or inaction that may cause behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or mental disorders
Cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself
Single representations
In neo-Piagetian terminology, first stage in development of self-definiton, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual, unconncected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms.
Real self
the self one actually is.
Ideal Self
The self one would like to be.
Representational mappings
In neo-Piagetian terminology, second stage in development of self-definition, in which a child makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms
The judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth
Initiative vs. guilt
Erikson's third stage in psychosocial development, in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with moral reservationsthat may prevent carrying them out
Gender identity
Awareness developed in early childhood, that one is male or female.
Gender roles
Behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that culre considers appropriate for each sex; differs for males and females.
gender stereotypes
Preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior.
In Freudian theory, the process by which a young child adopts charactersitics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors or the parent of the same sex.
Gender constancy
awareness that one will always be male or female.
Gender-scheme theory
Bem-- Children socialized themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information abotu what it means to be male or female in a particular culture
Social cognitive theory
Albert Bandura-- holds that children learn gender roles through socialization
Functional play
play involving repetitive muscular movements
Constructive play
play involving use of objects or materials to make something
Pretend play
play involving imaginary people or situations (fantasy/dramatic/imaginative play)
Methods of molding children's character andof teaching them to exercise self-control and engage in acceptable behavior
Corporal punishment
Useof physical force with the intention of causing pain but not injury so as to correct or control bheavior
Power Assertion
Disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control.
Inductive techniques
disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing toa child's sense of reason and fairness
Withdrawal of love
Disciplinary strategy that involes ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child.
Psychological aggresion
verbal attacks on a child by a parent that may result in psychological harm.
In Baumrind's terminology, parenting style emphasizing control and obedience.
In Baumrind's teminology, parenting style emphasizing self-expression and self-regulation
Baumrind-- parenting style blending respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values.
Behavior intended to help others out of inner concern and without expectation of external reward; may involves self-denial or self-sacrifice
Prosocial behavior
Any voluntary behavior intended to help others.
Instrumental aggresstion
Aggresttive behavior used asa means of achieving a goal.
Hostile aggression
Aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person
Overt aggression
Aggression that is openly directed at its target.
Relational aggression
Aggression aimed at damazing or interfering with another person's relationships, repuation, or psycholgical well-being; (indirect aggression)
Representational systems
In neo-Piagetian terminology, the third stage in development of self-definition, characterized by breadth, balance, and the integration and assesment of various aspects of the self.
Industry vs. inferiority
Erikson's 4th stage-- children must learn the productive skills their culture requires orelse face feelings of inferiority
Transitional stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise moment-to-moment self-regulation
Open adoption
Adoption in which the birth parents and the adoptive paretns know each other's identities andshare information or have direct contact
Unfavorable attitude toward members of certain groups outside one's own, especially racial or ethnic groups
Instrumental aggression
Aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal
Aggression deliberately and persistently directed against a particular target, or victim, typically one who is weak, vulnerable, and defenseless
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
Pattern of behavior, persisiting into middle childhood marked by negativity, hostility, and defiance
Conduct Disorder (CD)
Repetitive, persistent pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the rights of others
School phobia
Unrealistic fear of going to school
Seperation anxiety disorder
Condition involving excessive, prolonged anxiety concering separation from home or from people to whom a person is attached
Social Phobia
extreme fear and/or avoidance of social situations
Generalized anxiety disorder
Anxiety not focused on any single target
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety aroused by repetive, intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, often leading to compulsive ritual behaviors
Childhood depression
Mood disorder characterized by shich symptoms as a prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthlessness, weight change, physical complaints, and thoughts of death or suicide
Individual psychotherapy
Psychological treatment inwhich a terapist sees a troubledperson one-on-one
Family therapy
Psychological treatment in which a therapist sees the whole family together to analyze patterns of family functioning
Behavior therapy
therapeutic approach using principles of learning theory to encourage desired behaviors or eliminate undsired ones (behavior modification)
Art therapy
therapeutic approach that allowsa person to express troubled feelings without words, using a variety of art materials and media
Play therapy
Therapeutic approach in which a child plays freely while a therapist observes and occasionally comments, asks questions, or makes suggestions
Drug therapy
Administration of drgus to treat emotional or psychological disorders
Resilient children
Children who weather adverse circumstances, function will despite challenges or threats, or bounce back from traumatic events
Protective factors
Influences that reduce the impactof early stress and tend to predict positive outcomes
Erikson-- a coherent conception of the self, made up of goals, values, and beliefs to which a person is solidly committed
Identitiy vs. Identity Confusion
Erikson's 5th-- an adolescent seeksto develop a coherent sense of self, inclduing the role she orhe isto play in society
Identitiy statuses
Marcia-- states of ego development that depend on the presence or absence of crisis and commitment
Identity achievement
Identity status (Marcia) that is characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis, a period spent in exploring alternatives
Identity status (Marcia) in which a person who has not spent time considering altheratives is commited to other people's plans for his or her life
Identity status (Marcia) in which a person is currently considering alternatives (in crisis) and seems headed for commitment
Identity diffusion
Identity status (Marica) that is characterized by absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives
Marica-- period of conscious decision making related to identity formation
Marcia-- personal investment in an occpation or system of beliefs
Diseases spread by sexual contact
Adolsecent rebellion
Pattern of emotional turmoil, characterisitc of a minority of adolescents, which may involves conflict with family, alienation from adult society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adult values
Normative-stage models
Theoretical models that describe pscyhosocial development in terms of a deinite sequence of age-related changes
Timing-of-events model
Theoretical model that describes adult psychosocial development as a response to the expectedorunexpectedoccurrence andtiming of important life events.
Trait models
theoretical models of personality development that focus on mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral traits or attributes
Typological models
theoretical models of personality development that identify broad personality types or styles
Intimacy vs. isolation
Erikson's 6th-- young adults either make commmitments to others or face a possible sense of isolation and self-absorption
Life structure
Levinson--underlying pattern of a person's life at a given time, built on whatever aspects of life the person finds most important
Normative life events
in the timing-of-events model, commonly expected life experiences that occur at customary times
Social clock
Set of cultural norms or epectations for the timesof life when certain important events, such as marriage, parenthood, entiry into work, and retirement should occur
Five-factor model
Theoretical model of personality (Costa and McCrae) based on the "big five"factors underlying clusters of related traits: neuroticism, extraversion, opennes to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeablesness.
adaptability under potential sources of stress
Triangular subtheory of love
Sternberg-- patterns of love hinge on the balance among 3 elements: intimacy, passion, and commitment
Status of anunmarried couple who live together and maintain a sexual relationship
Jung-- emergence of the true self through balancing or integation of conflicting parts of the personality
Generativity vs. stagnation
Erikson's 7th-- in which the middle-aged adult develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the newxt generation or else experineces stangation (a sense of inactivity or lifelessness)
Erikson-- concern or mature adults for establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation
Neugarten-- concern with inner life (introversion or introspection) which usually appears in middle age
Midlife crisis
In some normative-crisis models, stressful life period precipitated by the review and reevaulation of one's past, typically occuring in the early to middle forties
Midlife review
Introspective examination that often occurs in middle age, leading to reappraisal and revision of values and priorities
Identity process model
Whitbourne-- identity development based on processes of assimilation and accomodation
Idenitiy assimilation
Whitbourne's tem for effot to fit new experience into an existing self-concept
Identity accommodation
Whitbourne-- adjusting the self-concept to fit new experience
Identity style
Whitbourne-- term for a characteristic way of confronting, interpreting, and responding to experience
Gender crossover
Gutmann-- reversal of gender roles after the end of active parenting
Social convoy theory
Theory (Kahn and Antonucci) that people move through life surrounded by concentric circles of intimate relationships on which they rely for assistance, well-being, and social support.
Socioemotional selectivity theory
Theory (Carstensen) that people select social contacts on the basis of the changing relative importance of social interaction as a source of information, as an aid in developing and maintaing a self-concept and as a source of emotional well-being
Marital capital
financial and emotional benefits build up during a long-standing marriage, which tend to hold a couple together
Empty nest
transitional phase of parenting following the last child's leaving the parents' home
Revolving door syndrome
Tendency for young adults who have left home to return to their parent's household in timesof financial marital or other trouble
Filial Maturity
Stage of life, proposed by Marcoen and others, in which middle-aged children, as the outcome of a filial crisis, learn to accpe tand meet their parents' need to depend on them.
Filial crisis
Marcoen-- Normative development of middle age, in whichadults learn to balance love and duty to their parents with autonomy within a two-way relationship
Caregiver burnout
Condition of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion affecting adults who provide continuous care for sick or aged persons
Sandwich generation
Middle-aged adults squeezed by competing needsto raise or launch children and to care for elderly parents
Kinship care
Care of children living without parents in the home or grandparents or other relatives, with or without a change of legal custody
Ego intergrty vs. despair
Erikson's 8th-- people in late adulthood either achieve a sense of integrity of the self by accepting the lives they have lived, and thus accept death, or yield to despair that their lives cannot be relived
Adaptive thinking or behavior aimed at reducing or relieving stress that arises from harmful, threatening, or challening conditions
Cognitive-appraisal model
Model of coping (Lazaus and Folkman) which holds that, on the basis of continuous appraisal of their realtionship with the enviornment, people choose appropriate coping strategies to deal with situations that taxtheir normal resources
Problem-focused coping
Coping strategy directed toward eliminating, managing, or improving a stressful situation
Emotion-focused coping
Coping strategy directedtoward managing the emotional response to a stressful situation so a to lessen its physical or psychological impact (palliative coping)
Ambiguous loss
A loss that is not clearly defined or does not bring closure
disengagement theory
Theoriy of aging (Cumming and Henry) which holds that successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawl between the older person and society
Activity theory
Theory of aging (which holds tha tin order to age successfully a peson must remain as active as possible
Continuity theory
Theory (Atchley) which holds that in order to age successfully people must maintain a balance of continuity and change in both the internal and external structures of their lives
family-focused lifestyle
pattern of retirement activity that revolves around family, home, and companions
Balanced investment
Pattern of retirement activity allocated among family, work, and lesiure
Serious Leisure
Leisure activity requiring skill, attention, and commitment
Elder abuse
Maltreatment or neglect of dependent older persons, or violation of their personal rights

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