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Vital Signs

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Vital signs include
BP, HR, Temp, and respiratory rate
Younger pt may have ________ BP values
lower
Inflate the cuff ________mmHg above the normal systolic rate to ensure full occlusion of the artery
15-20
Pulse measures?
indirect measure of the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
Concerning medications, what does not allow the HR to rise normally w/ exercise
beta blockers
Irregular for pulse
strong and weak beats occur
BP is higher in which UE
left
Pulse _________with stress, anxiety, or emotion
increases
Older pts (over 65) may have _________ BP values
higher
Most accurate location to measure body temp
Rectal
Normal Range of pulse for children
80-120 beats/min
Temp______as we get older
decreases
Body temp________at onset of menses
decreases
Normal range for diastolic
60-89
Pulse will_______in pt over 65yr
decrease
High BP leads to other conditions such as?
CAD, CVA, PVD, CHF
Pulse will_______in adolescents or younger
increase
What pressure should remain virtually unchanged?
diastolic
Too wide a cuff________the BP pressure
decreases
Systolic is usually ______in the thigh than the arm
higher
Thready for pulse
irregular beats, weak force with each beat
BP_______10-20mmHg as arm is lowered
increased
BP_______10-20mmHg as arm is raised
decreased
Body temp________with ovulation and pregnancy
increases
Rate
number of breathes taken per minute
Normal range for axillary body temp
95.8-98.9
What is blood pressure measured with?
Sphygmomanometer (BPcuff)
Factors affecting pulse
age, gender, environmental temp, infection, physical activity, emotional status, medications, CPD
What are factors that influence vital signs
exercise, disease processes, infection, stress/emotional status, environmental temperature, and age
If abnormal values are obtained at rest, what should not happen?
Exercise activity should not be initiated until the cause of the abnormal values is identified
Factors contributing to HTN
obesity, physical inactivity, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, oral contraceptives, middle age or older, kidney disease, race, diet, and excessive nicotine, alcohol or salt intake
Pulse ________when sleeping or relaxed
decreases
Body temp________with stress
increases
What are some adverse effects, likely due to anoxia?
Mental confusion, fatigue, exhaustion, lethargy, slow reaction time, decreased response to tactile and verbal stimuli, nausea, syncope, vertigo, diaphoresis, change in skin color, pupil constriction/ dilation, and loss of consciousness
Character
deviations from normal, resting, quiet respiration
Pulse consists of ?
movements of the blood in an artery, which is palpated at specific sites on the body or auscultated over the apex of the heart by using a stethoscope
Weak and regular for pulse
even beats, poor force for each beat
Tachycardia
rapid HR (>100bpm)
How long should it take for the systolic to return to normal after exercise
5-7min
Normal range for rectal body temp
97.8-100.5
high altitude causes ______respiratory rate until acclimated
increased
Depth
amount of air exchanged with each breath
Normal range for systolic
90-139
Too narrow a cuff ________the BP pressure
increases
Strong and regular for pulse
even beats, good force for each beat
Most common location to measure body temp
Oral
Normal Values in infants for respiration rate
40-60 bpm
systolic
BP at the time of left ventricle contraction
What is BP
indirect measurement of pressure inside an artery caused by blood flow through the artery
Normal Range of pulse for newborns
100-130 beats/min
Normal Values in adults for respiration rate
12-20 bpm
Most common location to access pulse
radial and carotid
Dyspnea
difficulty breathing
Vital signs
objective way to gain info. about a pt's physiological condition.
Rhythm
regularity of the breathing pattern
Location to access pulse in the LE
dorsal pedal, popliteal, posterior tibial, or femoral
Bradycardia
slow HR(<60bpm)
Orthopnea
difficulty breathing while lying down
High temp_______pulse
increases
When taking BP where should the arm be located?
about level to the heart
Infection________pulse
increase
Blood pressure
reflects the effects of cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, and other hemodynamic factors
Males have a______pulse
lower
What pressure gradually increases with exercise, plateau as exercise plateaus and gradually decreases as exercise decreases
systolic
Other locations beside oral and rectal to measure body temp, but less desirable
axillary, ear canal
Decreased elasticity leads to _______ systolic and ______ diastolic BP
increased, decreased
What is considered high BP
140/90
Physical Activity affects the pulse how?
rise in response to activity initially; plateaus as exercise stablizies; decline as exercise intensity declines
BP with medications_________
varying results based on their effect
Body temp is usually lower in the__________and higher in the___________
morning, afternoon
Cardiopulmonary disease_________the pulse
can increase or decrease
respiration________under age 5 and over age 65
increases
Location to access pulse in the UE
temporal or brachial
When is it important to gain baseline info. through vital signs?
Pts under 2 yrs old and over 65; debilitated pts or pts who have had limited aerobic activity; pt w/ current or a history of problems affecting the CV or pulmonary system; pts w/ traumatic injuries; and pt who have had surgery
Body temp _________during infection
increases
diastolic
BP at the period of rest for the heart
Physical activity rate and depth ______with exercise
increases
Respiration ______with high stress, anxiety, or emotion
increases
Apnea
not breathing at all, periods of not breathing
disease______respiratory rate and sometimes depth of respiration with disease
increases
Body temp _________during physical activity
increases
Reduced lumen leads to _________BP values
increased
Normal Range of pulse for adults
60-100 beats/min
Release the valve slowly so the needle falls ______mmHg per second during BP measurement
2-3
What is general considered normal for BP
120/80
Factors affecting body temp
Time, age, environmental temp., infection, physical activity, emotional status, menstrual cycle
Normal range for oral body temperature
96.8-99.5
Time duration for pulse to return to normal after exercise
3-5min
Tachypnea
rapid breathing
What are the two noted pressures in BP?
systolic and diastolic
Patient with abnormal resting VS may likely not be able to tolerate what kind of levels of exercise
high
BP should ________with high stress, emotion, anxiety
increase

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