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CMT Chapter 18 Obstetrics


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The placenta, the amnion, the chorion, some amniotic fluid, blodd, and blood clots expelled from the uterus after childbirth.
Protein found in the amniotic fluid. Measurement of the level of this in the amniotic sac are used for early diagnosis of fetal defects such as spna bifida and anencelphaly.
Absence of mentrual flow.
Inner of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy.
Liquid produced by and contained within the fetal membranes during pg. Protects the fetus from trauma and temperature variations, helps to maintain fetal oxygen supply, & allows for freedom of movement by the fetus during pg.
amniotic fluid
Double layered sac that contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pg.
amniotic sac
Darker pigmented, circular area surrounding the nipple of each breast.
Technique of using the examiner's finger to tap against the uterus, thru the vagina, to cause the fetus to bounce within the amniotic fluid and feeling it rebound quickly.
Irregular, ineffective contractions of the uterus that occur throughout the pg.
Braxton Hicks contractions
Suturing the cervix to keep it from dilating prematurely during the pg. This procedure is sometimes referred to as a "purse string procedure." The sutures are removed near the end of the pg.
Part of the uterus that protrudes into the cavity of the vagina; the neck of the uterus.
Surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally.
cesarean section
Bluish-violet hue of the cervix and vagina after approximately the sixth week of pregnancy.
Chadwick's sign
patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pg, occuring mostly on the forehead, cheeks, and nose; also called the "mask of pregnancy."
Outer of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pg.
Sexual intercourse; copulation
Thin, yellowish fluid secreted by the breasts during pg and the first few days after birth, before lactation begins.
Union of a male sperm and a female ovum; also termed fertilization.
Mass of yellowish tissue that forms within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation.
corpus luteum
Functions as a temporary endocrine gland for the purpose of secreting estrogen and lg. amounts of progesterone, which will sustain pregnancy.
corpus luteum
Needle aspiration, thru the vagina,into the cul-de-sac for the purpose of removing fluid from the area for examination or dx
The enlargement of the diameter of the cervix during labor.
Technique used in ultrasound imaging to monitor the behavior of a moving structure, such as flowing blood or a beating heart.
Most sever form of hypertension during pg, evidenced by seizures.
Swelling, with water retention.
Thinning of the cervix, which allows it to enlarge the diameter of it opening in preparation for childbirth.
Sudden emission of semen from themale urethra, usually occuring during sexual intercourse or masturbation.
Name given to the product of conception fromt he 2nd thru the 8th week of pg.
Inner lining of the uterus.
Surgical procedure in which an incision ismade into the woman's perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery of the baby
One of the female hormones that promotes the development of the female secondary sex characteristics.
Pair of tubes opening at one end into the uterus and at the other end into the peritoneal cavity, over the ovary.
fallopian tubes
Union of a male sperm and female ovum; also termed conception.
Special stethoscope for hearing the fetal heartbeat thru the mother's abdomen.
Name given to the developing baby from approximately the 8th week after conception until birth.
Fringelike end of the fallopian tube
Superior aspect of the uterus
Mature sperm or ovum
A return, or reflux, of gastric juices into the exophagus, resulting ina burning sensation.
gastroesophageal reflux
Term of pregnancy, which equals approximately 280 days from the onset of the last menstrual period; the period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception thru birth; also termed the gestational period.
Complication of pregnancy in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure after 20 weeks' gestation, with no signs of proteinuri or edema.
gestational hypertension
form of sugar that is stored in body cells, primarily the liver.
Gamete-producing gland, such as an ovary or a testis.
Softening of the uterine cervix, a probably sign of pregnancy
Goodell's sign
Mature, fully developed ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum.
graafian follicles
Woman who is pregnant.
Softening of thelower segment of the uterus; a probable sign of pregnancy.
Hegar's sign
Increase in the pigmentation of the skin.
High blood pressure; a common, often asymptomatic disorder, in which the blood persistently exceeds 140/90 mmHg.
Low blood pressure; an abnormal condition in which the blood pressure is not adequate for normal passage thru the blood vessels or for normal oxygenation of the body cells.
A state of extreme physical collapse and exhaustion due to massive blood loss; "less than normal" blood volume.
hypvolemic shock
Time and processes that occur during birth, from the begginning of cervical dilatation to the delivery of the placenta.
Production and secretion of milk from the female breasts as nourishment for the infant. Lactation can be refered to as a process or as a period of time during which the female is breastfeeding.
Channels or narrow tubular structures that carry milk from thelobes of each breast to the nipple.
lactiferous ducts
Visualization of the abdominal cavity w/ an instrument called a laparoscope thru an incision into the abdominal wall.
White discharge from the vagina.
Settling of the fetal head into the pelvis, occurring a few weeks prior to the onset of labor.
Darkend vertical midline appearing on the abdomen of a pregnant woman, extending from the fundus to the symphysis pubis.
linea nigra
Position in which the patient lies on her back, buttocks even w/ the end of the table, with her knees bent back toward her abdomen and the heel of each foot resting in an elevated foot rest at the end of the examnination table.
lithotomy position
Forward curvature of the spine, noticeable if the person is observed from the side.
Four weeks or 28 days; approximately the amount of time it takes the moon to revolve around the earth
lunar month
female breasts
mammary glands
patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pg, occuring mostly on forehead, cheeks, nose; also known as chloasma
mask of pregnancy
Woman who has been pregnant more than once.
woman who has given birth two or more times after 20 weeks' gestation.
Formula that is used to calculate the date of birth; Subract 3 months from the 1st day of the last normal period and add 7 days to that date to arrive at the estimated date of birth.
Nagele's rule
Branch of medicine that specializes in the tx and care of diseases and disorders of the newborn thru the first 4 weeks of life.
Woman who has nver completed a pg beyond 20 weeks' gestation.
Physician who specializes in the care of women during pg, the delivery of the baby, and first 6 weeks following the deliver, known as the immediate postpartum period.
Field of medicine that deals with pg, the delivery of the baby, and the first 6 weeks after delivery.
One of a pair of female gonads responsible for producing mature oava and releasing them at montly intervals
Release of the mature ovum from the ovary; occurs apprs. 14 days prior to the beginning of menses.
female reproductive cell; female sex cell or egg.
Woman who has produced an infant regardless of whether the infant was alive or stillborn. Applies to any pg carried more than 20 weeks' gestation.
Act of giving birth.
Area between the vaginal orifice and the anus; it consists of muscular & fibrous tissue & serves as support for the pelvic structures.
Highly vascular, disc-shaped organ that forms in the pg uterine wall for exchange of gasses & nutrients between the mother & fetus.
state during pg in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure, accompanied by proteinuria or edema, after 20 weeks' gestation.
Period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception thru birth.
Length of average pregnancy
40 weeks
Another name for pregnancy
gestational period
pertaining to the period of time, during pregnancy, that is before the birth of the baby.
Woman who is pregnant for the first time.
Woman who has given birth for the first time, after a pregnancy of at least 20 weeks' gestation
female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta. It is primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum, and for development of the maternal placenta after implntation of a fertilized
Presence of protein (albumin) in urine; also call albuminuria. Can be a sign of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH).
hertburn; idigeston
First felling of movement of the fetus felt by the expectant mother; usulay occurs around 18-20 weeks' gestation.
Surgical removal of a fallopian tube.
Objective findings a perceived by an examiner, such as the measurement of a fever on the thermometer, observation of rash, bluish-violet color of the cervix.
Stretch marks that occur during pregnancy due to the great amount of stretching that occurs. They appear as slightly depressed, pinkish-purple streaks in the areas of greatest stretch, which are the abdomen, breast, and thighs.
striae gravidarum
Subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the patient; something experience or felt by the patient.
Rapid hearbeat, consistently over 100 beats per minute.
Paired male gonads that prduce sperm. They are suspended in the scrotal sac in the adult male.
Ultrasound image that is prduced by inserting a transvaginal probe in the the vagina. The probe is encased ina disposable cover and is coated with a gel for easy insertion.
transvaginal ultrasonography
One of the three periods of approx. 3 mos. into which pg is divided.
Noninvasive procedure that involves the use of reflected sound waves to detect the presence of the embryo or fetus.
Ultrasound image that is produced by inserting a transvaginal probe into the vagina.
transvaginal ultrasonography
Ultrasound image that allows clear visualization of the uterus, gestational sac and embryo in the early stages of pg.
transvaginal ultrasonography
One of the three periods of apprx. 3 mos. into which pg is divided.
Nonivasive procedure that involves use of reflected sound waves to detect the presence of the embryo or fetus.
Flexible structure connecting the umbilicus of the fetus with the placenta in the pg uterus. Serves as passage for the ubmillical arteries and vein.
umbilical cord
Twisted, swollen veins that occur as a result of the blood pooling in the legs.
varicose veins
Manner of walking in which the feet are wide apart and the walk resembles that of a duck
waddling gait
Swollen veins of the rectum & anus that develop as a result of increasing pressure on the area due to the progressing pg.
Termination of a pg before the fetus has reached a viable age.
Premature separation of a normally implanted placenta from the uterine wall, after the pg has passed 20 weeks' gestation or during labor.
abruptio placenta
Abnormal implnatation of a fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity; also called tubal pg.
ectopic pregnancy
diminished blood volume
hypovolemic shock
Disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pg develop diabetes during the pg
gestational diabetes
Abnormal condition that begins as a pregnancy & deviates from normal debelopment very early; diseased ovum deteriorates and the chorionic villi of placenta change to mass of cysts resembling a bunch of grapes.
hydatidiform mole
Abnormal condition of pg characterized by severre vomiting that results in maternal dehydration and weight loss.
hyperemesis gravidarum
Condition in which the cervical os dilates before the fetus reaches term resulting in spontaneous abortion.
incompetent cervix
Suturing the cervix to keep it from opening during the pg.
Condition of pg which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus and precedes the fetus during birthing process.
placenta previa
Development of hypertension during pg in wemne who had normal bp readings prior to pg
pregnancy-induced hypertension
Development of hypertension after 20 weeks' gestation w/no signs of edema or proteinuria. BP reading 140/90 or greater
gestational hypertension
Development of hypertension w/proteinuria or edema after 20 weeks gestation.
Most severe form of hypertension during pg. Presence of seizures.
An incompatibility between RH- mother's blood w/her Rh+ baby's blood, causing mother's body to develop antibodies that will destroy the Rh+ blood.
Rh incompatibility
Vaginal discharge that is a mix of thick mucus and pink or dark brown blood.
bloody show
Mild, irregular contractions that occur thru-out pg.
Braxton Hicks contractions
Stress test used to evaluate the ability of the fetus to tolerate the stress of labor & delivery (CST); also known as oxytocin challenge test.
contraction stress test
Use of an electronic device to monitor the fetal heart rate & the maternal uterine contractions; this procedure can be done with external or internal devices.
fetal monitoring
Noninvasive technique that produces basically the same results as the contraction stress test by having the pg woman stimulate the nipples of her breasts by rubbing them between her fingers.
nipple stimulation test
Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
pelvic ultrasound
Tests performed on maternal urine and/or blood to determine the presence of the hormone, HCG.
pregnancy testing
cesarean section
cesarean section
contraction stress test
expected date of birth
expected date of confinement
expected date of delivery
electronic fetal monitoring
fetal heart rate
fetal heart sound; fetal heart tone
gravida, para, abortion
human chorionic gonadotropin
L & D
labor and delivery
last normal menstrual period
normal spontaneous delivery
spontaneous vaginal delivery
(used on obstetrical hx forms to obtain pt. data
term, preterm, abortions, living
uterine contractions

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