This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Study Guide-Words Their Way (Glossary of Terms)

Terms from "Words Their Way"


undefined, object
copy deck
The degree to which a story, text passage or word sort may be anticpated or foretold based on familiarity and/or prior knowledge.
vowel marker
A silent letter used to indicated the sound of vowel. In English, silent letters are used to form patterns associated with specific vowel sounds. These are usually vowels and the "i" in drain, or the "a" in treat, but they can also be consonants, as the "l" in told.
sc, scr, sk, sp, st, squ, sw
closed syllable
A ______ syllable ends with or is "closed" by a consonant sound. In polysyllabic words, it contains a short vowel sound that is closed by two consonants (rabbit, racket)
An activity in which children supply a single missing word or end of a sentence, such as, "the cat sat on the ____."
specialized readers
Profcient readers whose reading speeds exceed 250 to 300 words per minute and vary thereafter according to interest and background knowledge. These readers encounter derivational vocabulary of greek and Latin origin. Vocabulary growth begins to specialize according to academic discipline, personal interest, or profession.
Phonics instruction that begins with individual sounds and blending of sounds to form words.
A speech sound produced when the breath stream is stopped and released at the point of articulation, usually where the tip of the tongue rubs against the roof of the mouth, just behind the teeth when pronouncing the final sound in the word clutch or the beginning of the word trip.
reduced vowel
A vowel occuring in an unstressed syllable.
Words that are spelled alike, but have different pronounciations and different meanings. e.g., "tear a piece of paper, " and "to shed a tear,"; "lead someone along," and "the element lead."
Word study that divides words into their elemental parts through phonemic, orthographic, and morphological analysis.
writing sorts
Often follows a word sort, in which students write words under headings of columns.
Most commonly a suffix or prefix attached to a base word, stem or root.
concept sorts
A categorization in which pictures, objects or words are grouped by shared attributes or meanings to develop concepts and vocabulary.
syllable patterns
The alternative patterns of consonants (C) and vowels (V) at the point where syllables meet.
center time
Work completed independently in prepared areas within a classroom.
word cards
Words written on 2-by-1 inch pieces of cardstock or paper.
word bank
A collection of known words harvested from frequently read texts such as little leveled books, dictated stories, basal preprimers, and primers. Students can recognize with ease and use in word study games and word sorts.
salient sounds
A prominent sound in a word or syllable that stands out because of the way it is made or felt in the mouth, or because of idiosyncratic reasons such as being similar to a sound in one's name.
free morpheme
Meaning units of language that stand alone as words (workshop has two of these, work and shop).
transitional stage of literacy development
A period of literacy development when learners are becoming fluent in reading easy materials. SIlent reading becomes the preferred mode of reading. There is some expression in oral reading. This stage is between the beginning and intermediate stages of literacy development, and corresponds to the within word pattern stage of spelling development.
invented spelling
A term coined by Charles Read referring to a children's phonetic spelling Spelling generated by any speller when the word is not stored in memory.
complex consonant patterns
Consonant units occurring at the end of words determined by the preceding vowel sound. Final "tch" follows the short vowel sound in "fetch" and "scotch," while final "ch" follows the long-vowel sound in "peach" and "coach." Other complex consonant patterns include final "ck" (pack vs. peak) and final "dge (badge vs. cage).
inflected endings
Suffixes that change the verb tense (walk, walked, walking) or number (dogs, boxes) of a word
absorbed/assimilated prefixes
The spelling and sound of the consonant in a prefix that has been absorbed into the spelling and sound at the beginning of the base or root to which the prefix is affixed (e.g., ad + tract=attract).
static reversal
A handwriting error that is the mirror image of the intended letter (b for d, p for d)
word study notebooks
Notebooks in which students write their word sorts into columns and add other words that follow similar spelling patterns throughout the week. May also contain lists of words generated over time, such as new vocabulary, homphones, cognates, and so on.
ambiguous vowels
A vowel sound represented by a variety of different spelling patterns, or vowel patterns that represent a wind range of sounds.
short vowels
The vocal cords are more relaxed when producing these vowel sounds, and are often referred to as lax.
An approach to word study that emphasizes processes that apply to many words, as opposed to an approach that focuses on one word at a time.
inflected endings
Suffixes that change the verb tense (walk, walked, walking), or number (dogs, boxes) of a word.
word hunts
A word study activity in which students go back to texts they have previously read to hunt for other words that follow the same spelling features examined during the word or picture sort.
advanced readers
Highly skilled readers and writers capable of reading different genres of texts for different purposes with speed, accuracy, and comprehension. This type of reader acquires and advanced Greek-and Latin-derived vocabulary particular to specific fields of study
A complex speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving to another within the same syllable. For example: /oy/ in boy or /ou/ in cloud.
alphabetic layer of instruction
The first layer of word study instruction focusing on letters and letter-sound correspondences.
The ability to fingerpoint read a text, demonstrating concept of word.
vowel digraphs
Two vowels that make one sound
derivational relations spelling level
Students in this developmental spelling stage learn about the process by which new words are created from existing words, chiefly thorough affixation, and the development of aword from its histoical origin.
error guide
A sample of spelling errors arrranged by spelling stages that enables teachers to place children in instructional groups.
short-term word banks
Words that are not consistently recognized out of context; words are promoted to word bank status when consistently recognized out of context or conversektm are discarded if the remain problematic.
An orthographic term referring to two-or three-letter sequences that are blended together. Although the letter sounds are blended together quickly, each one is pronounced. When occurring at the beginning of a word, they are referred to as onsets, and as such, are treated orthographically as a unit.
Words that sound alike, are spelled differently, and have different meanings, e.g., bear and bare, pane and pain, and forth and fourth.
blind writing sort
A variant of the blind sort in which one student (or teacher) names a word without showing it to another student who must write it in the correct category under a key word.
Letter sequences that function as a unit and are related to a consistent category of sound. Frequently, they form rhyming families as in the "ai" of Spain, rain, and drain.
indpendent level
The level of academic engagement in which an individual works independently, without the need of instructional support. At this level, students demonstrate a high degree of accuracy, speed, eas, and fluency.
Occuring at the same time, as with the stages of spelling development in context with reading and writing behaviors ocurring at the same time.
word families
Phonograms or words that share the same rime (ex; fast, past, last, blast, all share the -ast rime). In the derivational relations stage, this can refer to words that share the same root or origin, as in spectator, spectacle, inspect, inspector.
compound words
Words made up of two or more smaller words. It may or may not be hyphenated, depending upon its part of speech.
The musical qualities of language, including intonation, expression, stress and rhythm.
feature guide
A tool used to classify students' errors within a hierachy of orthographic features. Used to score spelling inventories to assess student's knowledge of specific spelling features at their particular stage of spelling development and to plan word study instruction to meet indivudual needs.
A form of support. The familiar structures of oral language offer a form of support for beginning readers.
Words that share the same spelling, but have different meanings (tell a yarn, knit with yarn)
A sound that, when produced, vibrates the vocal cords in a way that the letter sound "f" does not.
Often called word families, these end in high frequency rimes that vary only in the beginning consonant sound to make a word. For example, back, sack, black and track.
word consciousness
An attitude of curiousity and attention to words critical for vocabulary development.
zone of proximal development
A term coined by the Russian psychologist Vgotsky referring to the ripe conditions for learning something new. A person's ZPD is that zone which is neither too hard nor too easy, and is similar to the concept of instructional level.
continuant sound
A consonant sound, such as /s/ or /m/, that can be prolonged as long as the breath lasts without distorting the sound quality.
feature analysis
More than scoring words right and wrong, this process provides a way of interpreting children's spelling errors by taking into account their knowledge of specific orthographic features such as consonant blends or short vowels, and can be used to inform teachers what spelling features to teach.
personal readers
Individual books of reading materials for beginning readers. Group experience charts, dictations, and rhymes compose the majority of the reading material.
The study of word parts related to syntax and meaning.
open syllable
This type of syllable ends with a long-vowel sound (labor, reason)
fingerpoint reading
Refers to the kind of reading in which emergent and beginning readers use a finger to point to each word as it is spoken.
preliterate stage
Henderson (1990) called the emergent state this term because students are not yet reading or writing conventionally. Students in this stage have not discovered the alphabetic principle.
sight words
Words recognized and pronounced immediately at "first sight." This term does not necessarily mean high frequency words or phonetically irregular words. It is simply any known word, regardless of the frequency or phonetic regularity.
consonant alternation
The process in which the pronunciation of consonants changes in the base or root of derivationally related words, while the spelling does not change. For example, the silent-to-sounded g in the words sign and signal; the /k/ to /sh/ pattern in the words music and musician.
Refers to morphemes, or meaning units in the spelling of words, such as the suffix -ed which signals past tense, or the root word, "graph" in the words autograph or graphite.
key pictures
Pictures placed at the top of each category in a picture set, These act as ehaders for each colum and can be use for anlaogy.
Words that do not fit the targeted feature in a sort.
Unstressed syllables. The final unstressed syllable in words such as "label" and "doctor" have no distinct vowel sound.
Consonant-Vowel-Consonant (CVC)
Refers to the pattern of consonants and vowels within a syllable. The spelling pattern for the word mat would be this type of pattern, while the spelling pattern for mail would be represented as CVVC pattern.
vowel alternation
The process in which the pronounciation of vowels changes in the base or root of derivationally related words, while the spelling does not change. For example, the long-to-short vowel change in the related words crime and criminal; the long-to-schwa vowel change in the related words impose and imposition.
A sound produced when the air is blocked in the oral cavity but escapes through the nose, as in the first consonant sounds in "mom" and "no."
sound sort
Sorts that ask students to categorize pictures or words by sound as opposed to visual patterns.
r-influenced vowels
In English, /r/ colors the way the proceeding vowel is pronounced. For example, compare the pronounciation of the vowels in "bar" and "bad."
Composed of a vowel and any following consonants within a syllable. For example, the unit in the word "tag" would be "ag."
An affix attached at the end of a base or root word.
phoneme segmentation
The process of dividing a spoken word into the smallest units of sound within that word. The word "bat" can be divided or segmented into three of these: /b/a/t/.
Words in different languages derived from the same root.
picture sort
A categorization task in which pictures are sorted into categories of similarity and difference. Pictures may be sorted by sound or by meaning. Pictures cannot be sorted by pattern.
These vowels are commonly known as short vowels.
The initial consonant(s) sound found at the beginning of a single syllable or word. For example, /s/ in the word "sun" and "sl" in the word "slide."
pattern layer
The second layer or tier of English orthography in which patterns of letter sequences, rather than individual letters themselves, represent vowel sounds. This layer of information was acquired during the period of English history following the Norman Invasion. Many of the vowel patterns of English are of French derivation.
Two letters that represent one sound.
classroom composite
A classroom profile that organizes children into instructional groups by features to be taught within each stage.
mock linear
Writing characteristics of the emergent stage of spelling development in which the linear arrangement of written English is mimicked in rows of letterlike shapes and squiggles.
Representing sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols (letters), each denoting a single sound.
kinetic reversal
An error of letter order (pte for pet)
A unit of meaning. It may be a single syllable or a combination of syllables. May contain smaller units of meaning within it. In print, it is separated by white spaces. In speech, several may be strung together in a breath group. For this reason, it takes awhile for young children to develop a clear concept.
pretend reading
A paraphrase of spontaneous retelling told by children as they turn the pages of a familiar storybook.
key words
Words placed at the top of each category in a word sort. These act as headers for each column and can be used for analogy.
beginning period of literacy development
A period of literacy development that begins when students have a concept of word and can make sound-symbol correspondences. This period is noted for disfluent reading and writing, and letter-name alphabetic reading.
bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sl
The smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. For example, the /t/ of tug and /r/ of rug.
intermediate readers
At this level, readers are fluent in reading and writing, whose word recognition of one and two-syllable words is automatic. These readers are grappling with a more advanced vocabulary involving emaning units such as prefixes and suffixes. These readers negotiate unfamiliar genres and expository texts typical of the upper elementary and middle grades, and are spellers learning about syllables and affixes.
sound board
Charts used by letter-name alphabetic spellers that contain pictures and letters for basic sound-symbol correspondences (e.g., the letter /b/, a picture of a bell, and the word "bell").
A vowel sound in English that often occurs in an unstressed syllable, such as the /uh/ sound in the first syllable of "above."
concept of word
The ability to match spoken words to printed words as demonstrated by the ability to point to the words of a memorized text while reading including two syllable words.
Refers to the transition from one syllable to the next, Sometimes this transition involves a spelling chang such as consonant double or dorpping the final -e before adding -ing.
pattern sort
A word sort in which students categorize words according to similar spelling patterns.
A vowel sound that is commonly known as the long-vowel sound. Long vowel sounds are produced by tensing the vocal cords.
orthography or orthographic
Refers to the writing system of a language, specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols.
open sorts
A type of picture or word sort in which the categories are left open. Students sort pictures into groups according to their own judgement. These types of sorts are useful for determining what word features are salient for students.
seat work
School work that is completed at the student's own desk. It is usually on a student's independent level and is usually assigned for practice.
speed sorts
Pictures or words that are sorted under a timed condition. Students try to beat their own time.
br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr
prephonetic writing
Writing that bears no correspondence to speech sounds; literally "before sound," this type of writing occurs during the emergent stage and typically consists of random scribbles, mock linear writing, or hierolglyphic-looking symbols.
letter-name-alphabetic spelling level
Students in this developmental spelling stage have recently acquired a concept of word. Students represent beginning, middle and ending sounds of words with phonetically accurate letter choices. Often the selections are based on the sound of the letter name itself, rather than abstract letter-sound associations. h (aitch), produces the /ch/ sound, and is often selected to represent the sound (HEP for chip)
root word
Refers to Greek word parts that are often combined with other word parts to form such words as "telephone." (tela and phone)
frustrational level
A dysfunctional level of instruction where this is a mismatch between instruction and what an individual is able to grasp. This mistmatch precludes learning and often results in frustration.
Refers to the speed and accuracy of word recognition and spelling. It is the goal of word study instruction and frees cognitive resources for comprehension.
choral reading
Oral reading done in unison with another person or persons.
a writing system containing characters or symbols representing individual speech sounds.
within word pattern spelling level
Students at this developmental spelling stage have mastered the basic letter-sound correspondences of written English, and they grapple with letter sequences that function as a unit, especially long-vowel patterns. Some of the letters in the unit may have no sound themselves, for example, silent /e/
spelling-meaning connections
Words that are related in meaning often share the same spelling despite changes in pronounciation from one form of the word to the next. The word sign, for example, retains the /g/ from signal even though its not pronounced, thus, "signaling" the meaning connection through spelling.
emergent spelling level
Typcial behaviors at this developmental spelling stage include: random marks, representational drawing, mock linear or letter-like writing, random letters and numbers.
phonemic awareness
Refers to the ability to consciously manipulate individual phonemes in a spoken language. It is often assessed by the ability to tap, count, or push a penny forward for every sound heard in a word like cat: /c/a/t/.
instructional level
A level of academic engagement in which instruction is comfortably matched to what an individual is able to do.
preconsonatal nasals
Nasals that occur before consonants, as in the words "bump" or "sink." The vowel is nasalized as part of the air escapes through the nose during pronounciation.
closed sorts
Word sorts based on predetermined categories.
Units of spoken language that consist of a vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by several consonants. Syllables are units of sound and can often be detected by paying attention to movements of the mouth.
consonant digraphs
Common examples include: sh, ch, th and wh
Word parts, usually of Latin origin, that cannot stand alone, but are used in combination with other word parts in words related to meaning.
blind sort
A picture or word sort done with a partner in which students who are responsible for sorting cannot see the word. They must instead attend to the sounds and sometimes visualize the spelling pattern to determine the category.
draw and label activities
A variation of picture sorting in which the students draw pictures of things that being with the sounds under study. The pictures are drawn in the appopriate categories and lables with the letter(s) corresponding to tha sound.
structural analysis
The process of determining the pronounciation and/or meaning of a word by analyzing word parts, including syllables, base words and affixes.
syllables and affixes spelling level
Students in this developmental spelling stage learn about the spelling changes which often take place at the point of transition from one syllable to the next. Frequently this transition involves consonant doubling, or dropping the final -e before adding a suffix.
A sound that, when produced, does not necessitate the vibtration of vocal cords.
echo reading
Oral reading in which the student echoes or imitates the reading of the teacher or partern. This technique is generally used with very beginning readers as a form of support or to model fluent reading.
Places, things, and actions that are named after an individual.
phonics readers
Beginning reading books written with controlled vocabulary words the contain recurring phonics elements.
bound morphemes
Meaning units of language that cannot state alone as a word. "Respected" has three of these: re+spect+ed.
directed-reading-thinking activities (DRTAs)
A stragegy for developming comprehensions processes during reading. The stategy is a variation of a predict-read-prove routine.
memory reading
An accurate recitation of text accompanied by fingerpoint reading.
A speech sound produced by the easy passage of air through a relatively open vocal tract. These form the most central sound of a syllable. In English, these sounds are represented by the following letters, "a,e,i, o, u, and sometimes y."
base word
A word to which prefixes and/or suffixes are added. (e.g., unwholesome-whole)
phonological awareness
An awareness of various speech sounds such as syllables, rhyme, and individual phonemes.
language experience approach
An approach to the teaching of reading in which students read about their own experiences recorded in their own language. Experience stories are dictated by the student to a teacher who writes them down. Dictated accounts are read in unison, echo fashion and independently.
long vowels
These vowel sounds "say their letter name." The vocal cords are tense when producing these vowel sounds. The linguistic term for these vowel sounds is "tense."
meaning sorts
A type of word sort where the categories are determined by semantic categories or by spelling-meaning connections.
The occurrence in a phrase or line of speech of two or more words having the same beginning sound.
An affix attached at the beginning of a base word or root word.
derivational affixes
Affixes added to base words that affect the meaning (sign/resign, break/breakable) and/or part of speech (beauty/beautiful)
Unlike other consonant sounds, these sounds /r/ and /l/, do not obstruct air in the mouth. These sounds are more vowel-like in that they do not involve direct contact between the lips, tongue and the roof of the mouth as other consonants do.
semiphonetic writing
Writing that demonstrates some awareness that letters represent speech sounds. Literally , "part sound." Begininng and/or ending consonant sound of syllables or words may be represented but medial vowels are usually omitted (ICDD for I see Daddy). Occurs at the end of the emergent state or the very onset of the early letter-name alphabetic stage.
How sounds are shaped in the mouth during speech. Some confusions are made in spelling based on similarities in articulation (e.g., tr for dr).
Spelling features that do not vary, but stay the same.
word root
A Greek or Latin element to which affixes are attached, for example, cred, dict, fract, phon. It usually cannot stand alone as a word.
meaning layer of information
The third layer of English orthography including meaning units such as prefixes, suffixes and word roots. These word elements were aquired primarily during the Renaissance when English was overlaid with many words of Greek and Latin derivation.
The process of attaching a word part, such as a prefix or suffix, to a base word, stem or root.
The study of the origin and historical development of words.

Deck Info