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History of rock test


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Beach Boy's 3 periods
1. The surfer music
2. the post-surfer experimental style
3. the return to surf style
Beach Boy's 2 styles
Primary vocal force was brian Wilson who was influenced by the soft vocal groups like the four tops and Hi-los, so tight barbarshop like vocals. the second style came from Carl wilson who was influenced by Chuck Berry, so alot of bent notes, bent double stops ect.
Beach Boy's characteristics
1. High lead vocal with 4 vocalists in close harmony
2. Twangy guitar sound with little reverb
3. Lead guitar style that imitates that of chuck berry.
Folk Music Characteristics
1. Vocies had good vocal control
2. Lyrics were pronounced clearly and usually carried a message: peace, racial equality, and love.
3. Music to listen to and to think about rather than music to dance to and party with.
4. Harmony is simple but generally avoids the 12 bar blues progression and the doo wop progression of rock n roll.
5. Rhythm is kept deep in the background and is supplied by the strummed instruments.
6. No strong backbeat and very little use of syncopation
7. Only acoustic instruments
8. True honest sound, no studio tricks
9. Appeals to college kids and older.
Woody Guthrie
1. Wrote songs about personal experiences in the Great Depression
2. Autobiography "Bound for Glory"
3. Formed the Almanac Singers
4. Self-accompanying acoustic guitar, strummed and finger picked
5. Frequent irregular measures
6. Some yodeling
7. Clear pronunciation of words
8. most famous song is This land is our Land.
Pete Seeger
1. Part of the Almanac Singers with Woody Guthrie
2. After Woody died, almanac singers regrouped under seeger.
3. Solo career included songs like, "where have all the flowers gone"
Peter, Paul, and Mary
1. Most famous of the Political protest folk groups.
2. Simple vocal harmonies
3. Represented the new youthful attitude towards politics
Storphic Song Form
the words change but the music stays the same
a repeated chord progression, pattern, melodic figure.
a repeating musical figure or accompainment. Often times a springboard for at the opening of an improvisation
two-beat bass
bassist plays the root of the chord on the first beat of a 4/4 measure and the fifth of the chord on the third beat of a measure. Guitarists strum the chord on beats two and four of the measure, which results in a constant pulse throughout the measure.
Flat-Four beat
A rhythm style in which all four beats of a four beat measure are equally accented, as opposed to a backbeat rhythm. Prominent in Motown songs.
Standard Song Form
A musical structure that typically consists of two musical parts (A and B) played in four sections. A is played twice then B then A again, AABA in 32 measures.
a method of composition in which pitches, rhythms, motives, and other compositional decisions are left up to the performers discretion. Called chance music because whatever happens is due to chance
Placing a strong accent on the offbeats. In four-beat measure, the drummer typically emphasizes beats 2 and 4.
Used in early rap MC's, the technique of manually reversing the revolution of the turntable to repeat a phrase.
A type of sound distortion in which the sound is repeated several times very quickly resulting in an echo-like effect.
The fourth pitch of a major or minor scale. Also it refers to the chord that is built on the fourth pitch of a scale.
The main or central pitch of a major key. Also refers to the chord that is built on the first pitch of a scale and is therefor the home chord of a major or minor key.
The fifth pitch of the scale. Also it refers to the chord built on the 5th pitch of the scale.
Super Groups
When everyone in the group was previously in a major band. first one was Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young.
John Hammond
Found Bob Dylan. Offered him a job as harmonica player in a band.
technique used by rap MC's in which the turntable is moved rapidly back and forth.
Polyphonic texture
When several melodies occur simultaneously in different voice parts or instrument parts
Bob Dylan
Grew up in Minnesota, loved rock n roll, especially buddy holly, and elvis preasly. Dropped out of The University of Minn. and got into folk music. Was strongly influenced by Woody Guthrie and moved to New York to be near him. Changed his name and background. Said he was a drifter from Oklahoma just like his idle woody.
Folk Rock
It is blend between the profound, story telling lyrics and tuneful melodies of folk music mixed the electrification, ostinato bass, and hard driving backbeat of rock n roll. the pioneers are the byrds and Bob Dylan.
The Byrds
Roger McGuinn(lead guitar and vocal), David Crosby(rhythem guitar, vocal), Gene Clark(vocal), Chris Hillman(bass), and Mike Clarke(drums). Many songs written by Dylan including Mr. Tambourine Man.
country rock
1. Incorporation of the basic country string band with the electric band of rock.
2. Prominent use of country-style pedal steel guitar.
3. Bass often plays two-beat bass lines.
4. Twangy lead guitar sound
5. Nasally vocals with southern or country accents.
6. Close vocal harmonies.
7. Stiff country rhythems.
8. Steady, evenly divided beats.
9. Lyrics like country lyrics.
Southern Rock
a Mixture between: Blues, Country, and Memphis based Rockabilly.
1. Bands favor 2 sometimes 3 lead guitars.
2. All lead guitarist have exceptional ability.
3. Lead guitarists favor playing syncopated licks in unison or harmony at extremely fast tempos.
4. Prominent southern accents.
5. Vocal harmonies are in tight harmony in thirds.
6. Rhythem sections tend to be more country-oriented rather than rock-oriented.
7. Many songs are narratives, ballads.
8. Music is strongly aggressive.
9. Often display attitudes of strong southern pride and patriotism.
Combination of Gospel and Rhythm and Blues.
Gospel elements:
1. Improvisation
2. Vocal inflections
3. Religious Fervor
4. Call and Response Performance
Rhythm and Blues elements:
1. Bass, drums, piano, horns, backing vocalists, (some guitar).
2. Hard-driving Rhythms
3. Generally Fast tempos.
4. Aggressive performances.
Ray Charles
Crossed from Gospel to Rhythm and Blues. Influenced by classical composers, like chopin and strauss. By jazz pianist, like Art Tatum and Fats Waller. By Also by country and Western. Big influence was Wylie Pitman who played boogie woogie piano and told Charles to learn piano. Early sound was resembled jazz piano and sounded like Nat King Cole. Moved to Seatle and hooked up with blues singer Eddie "Guitar Slim" Jones. He Help create Ray into what he later became.
1. Gospel chord Progression
2. Horn section that resembled a backing choir
3. Emotionally charged singing style.
4. Strong gospel based piano style.
5. Raspy vocals.
6. Sense of wild abandon.
Booker T and the MGs
Most important group in defining Memphis soul. served as a model for later Soul rhythm sections. Helped develope such artist as Otis Redding and Rufus Thomas.
Otis Redding
Based his singing style on the shouting technigues of Little richard with a little soul. At Monterey music festival exposed people to a different side of rock and roll, people familiar with the psychedelic sounds of Jimi hendrix and other but otis gave a more rhythm and blues sound. A pioneer for black performers and the heart and soul of Stax studios.
Cholly Atkins
Chrographer of the Beatles
Brian Epstein
Manager of the Beatles
George Martin
Producer of the Beatles
James Brown
Begining of his life heavly influenced by gospel music from church. Joined the Group the Swannees which moved to a more rhythm and blues sound and would become the Famous Flames. From there his music developed into what it is now, soul. Known as the godfather of soul he had a strong influence on bands like Earth Wind and Fire, Parliament, and Sly and the Family Stone.
Musical Characteristics:
1. Heavy shuffle type beat
2. Latin-influenced cross rhythms
3. Guitarist using a "choked" style of playing which makes a percussive sound.
4. Bass more staccato, choppy sound.
5. Hard punching, bitting horn section.
Aretha Franklin
The Lady of Soul. Started as Gospel singer but moved to more rhythem and blues. One of the most diverse singers of her time.
Developed in Detroit almost single handedly by Berry Gordon. Famous artists include Michael Jackson and Stevie Wonder.
1. Lead singer backed by supporting singers.
2. Close Vocal harmonies.
3. Vocies over instruments
4. Band in background except bass.
5. More polished sound.
6. Few insturmental riffs
7. Strong beat
8. Emphasis on backbeat with handclaps.
9. Often uses string orch. in background
10. Performances visually oriented with dances.
Berry Gordy
Founder of Motown
Stevie Wonder
Performaning music since he was a child. toured with Motown artist.
1. High Baratone/low tenor vocal range
2. heavy rhythmic bass
3. tightly arranged horn section.
4. percussive keyboards, especailly synthesizers and clavinet
5. precise drumming
6. lyrics embrace social, political, and mystical concerns.
7. studio is compositional process with over dubbing
8. interest in electric keyboard.
Songwritting team that wrote the Supremes' songs
Sly and the Family Stone
Style derived from james Brown
1. Polyrhythmic vamps
2. Hard beat, funky bass line
3. minimal chord changes
4. sound distortions with electric devices
5. avoidance of strong backbeat
6. stress on all 4 beats
7. Memphis soul sound in horns
8. Guitar sound and performance associated with psychedelic rock sound out of San Francisco
Heavily rooted from Jazz
1. Syncopated Bass Line
2. bass provides rhythmic direction
3. heavily pronounce back beat on drums
4. Gospel influenced soul singing
5. rhythmic instruments often used to create melodies
6. Melody instruments often used to create rhythms
7. No focus on one person
8. rhythm guitarist: choked style
9. Live performances created collected improvisation.
10. studio improvisation.
George Clinton
Godfather of Funk. created Funkadelic mixture of Funk and psychedelic rock.
Heavy beat dance music popular in the clubs in the 70's. Sources are heavy dance beat from funk, emphasis on the flat-4 beat of motown, and smooth soul sounds.
1. Propulsive rhythm
2. Unsyncopated, straight 4/4 beat but with heavily miked snare drum backbeat.
3. Orchestral riffs
4. Funk style bass lines
5. Multiple layers of synthesizers, drum machines
6. extended Perussion interludes
Bee Gees
Started off as a vocal harmony pop group. Then were part of the British Beat groups of the 60's. later moved to disco.
1. spoken or chanted vocal delivery.
2. vocal delivery very rhythmic.
3. Poetic narrative
4. based on vamps of recurring harmonic/melodic riffs
5. bass and snare drums heavily accented
6. bass guitar performs synocated riff
Gil Scott-Heron
Urban Folk Poet who spoke out against many political issues.
Public Enemy
Very influencail Black rap group that rapped about the white racism and the problems withing the black community.
began in England it is a folk song style based on American folk music and using acoustic guitars and banjos and other acoustic instruments
Stu Sutcliffe
John Lennons friend and first bassist of the beatles.
Pete Best
Drummer for the Beatles
The Beatles: 1st period Initiation (1962-1964)
1. Had to liston the record company
2. writing some of their own music but mostly covers.
3. four piece rock band
4. underlying quality of innocence in the lyrics
5. influences are buddy holly and chuck berry.
The Beatles: 2nd period Experimentation (1965-1967)
1. A move away from touring because tired of it, rather sit in the studio and experiment.
2. songs resemble the ones from the first period
3. start to incorporate more acoustic and exotic intruments
4. polyphenic texture
5. lead guitar performance
6. Experimental chord progressions
7. mind expanding lyrics
concept album
an idea that runs through the entire album that links the various songs
musique concrete
composer takes various taped sounds and mixes them with real sounds and musical tones

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