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Native American History 2


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Francis Parkman
A historian born in Boston, MA, who wrote the Oregon Trail and several books describing British and French relationships with Indians.
The Middle Ground
Book by Richard White describing interactions between Native Americans and Europeans from 1650’s to early 1800’s. He describes French-Algonquin alliances and Iroquois-British alliances, and their deterioration.
Term used in Canada for person of mixed lineage. Usually French and Native American. The Metis were accepted in both cultures. Indians who marry French fur traders live Europeanized lives. Some Metis women became business women very influential in their tribes.
A Christian religious order of the Catholic Church founded just before the counter-reformation whose purpose was to counter the Protestant reformation. They wanted the colonies to be a religious experiment, clashing with the government’s desire to outline policy according to economic lines.
Black Robe
A film in which a Jesuit missionary tries to convert Huron Indians to Catholicism. “Black Robe” is what the Jesuits were called because of their clothing. Some believed the black robes to be holy men, while others regarded them as demons.
Great Lakes
Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Eerie, Lake Ontario
Waterways used by Native Americans to ease their travels and help them travel farther
Areas between rivers. The practice of carrying a canoe over land to avoid an obstacle on the water route such as rapids or waterfalls, or to get from one body of water to another. RELEVANCE Iroquois, Huron trade.
5 Nations of Iroquois
Mohawks, located to the east; Oneidas, near Syracuse NY; Onandagas, south of Lake Ontario or Eerie???; Cayugas, Fingerlake area; Senecas (keepers of the western door), south of Niagra into PA
Beaver Wars
Brutal conflicts in mid 17th century when Iroquois tried to expand their territory and monopolize fur trade between European markets and the tribes of the western Great Lakes region.
The 3 Fires
Three tribes in Michigan: Ottawas, Chippewa, Potawatomi; very similar tribes, may at one time have been part of one big tribe. French tap into fur trade here through Ottawas.
Governor of New France. Together with LaSalle comes up with a scheme to rebuild French fortunes.
Builds forts in the western Great Lakes region; allies with Potts.
In late 1670’s, traveling on foot to IL from Galveston after getting caught in a hurricane, his men mutiny and slit his throat.
Onantio’s Milk
Indian term for brandy named after French governor.
Miami Village which welcomed British traders. Chief is called “Old Briton” because he is so pro-british.
Susan Sleeper Smith
author of Indian Women and French Men.
How did the French become indianfied and what advantage did it serve?
They traveled in canoes, wore Indian clothes, and learned their language. Taking Indian wives gave them kinship ties.
How did the Jesuit plans clash with the French government's plans regarding the colonies?
The Jesuits wanted the colonies to be a religious experiment; the French government wanted the colonies to be run along economic lines.
Who were the Dakota/Lakota?
Their name means Allies, and that is what they called themselves.
What did the other tribes call the Dakota/Lakota?
The Sioux. It's a Chippawa word meaning rattlesnakes.
It means Smells Like Dead Fish, because there were a lot of dead fish in the area.
Sir William Johnson
He was a British Indian agent of Irish ancestry. Married to Molly Brant of the Mohawk tribe. Brother-in-law: Joseph Brant, a big spokesperson for the Mohawks.
A British trader of Irish descent who worked out of Ohio and Pennsylvania. He had much experience with the Indians.
Deleware prophet who said that Indian suffering resulted from them losing the old ways

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