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PLS160H Test Questions


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When balancing internal law and sovereignty, communitarianism...
...tends to relax international law
Differential growth of power can occur because of...
...system leaders, technology diffusion, imperial overstretch
In the just war tradition, proportionality...
...implies that the harm done by an act may not be disproportionate to the good sought or the evil to be avoided
The school of thought that purports that by solving specific problems, step by step, for states, international organizations could ensure peace and harmony is called...
From the perspective of natural law...
...the community of humankind share rights and responsibilities irrespective of their status as citizens of states
Pacifism is different from a realist "all's fair" position in that it...
...rejects the use of force as an instrument of national policy
According to Immanuel Kant, the three factors necessary for perpetual peace are... organization, democracy, and interpendence
The structural explanation offered for the democratic peace phenomenon includes...
...division of powers, institutiona constraints on power, elections
What caused the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Bureaucratic politics or system anarchy, depending on the issue
The cultural/normative explanation for the democratic peace phenomenon includes...
...perceptions and learning that permit peaceful resolution of conflicts
The rules of international law... communication, clarify expectations, coordinate state behavior
Positivist international law is like realist international law b/c...
...neither accept the notion that there are such things as universal ethics that apply to the entire human community
In the social sciences, the theory that violent/aggressive behavior stems from jealousy/frustration is called...
..relative deprivation
Waltz is associated with what theory of IR?
The security dilemma is at its worst when...
...offense has the advantage and weapons are not differentiable
Which of the following made MAD possible?
Second-strike capability
What is the difference between stable peace and unstable/negative peace?
Unstable/negative peace is enforced with military strength
Modelski and Thompson's "long cycles" of global leadership are:
approximately 100 year cycles of the rise and fall of global powers/hegemonies
In the just war tradition, discrimination...
...refers to the principle of noncombatant immunity
Unconventional or irregular conflicts generally describe...
...conflict where combatants on at least one side avoid pitched battles with one another
Two major elements of the just war tradition are:
discrimination, proportionality
The two sets of principles embodied in just war theory are known as:
justice inwar, justice of war
Some argue that a bipolar system is less prone to war because...
...war would be long and costly and the risks of losing are substantial
The power of consent comes from the notion that...
...pacts must be observed
What author thinks that economic pressures, stemming from capitalism, causes war?
Power transition, as defined by Organski, refers to the...
...period when a rising challenger approximates the power of the dominant state
International organization refers to...
...the ways states arrange themselves for purposes of promoting cooperative and collaborative practices in world politics
What are the differences between how realists and positivists view international law?
Positivists believe international law changes behavior through consent, realists disagree
Keohane and Nye's idea of complex interdependence refers to...
...transnational relations involving more than just security that organize international relations
What is the difference between peacekeeping and peacebuilding?
Peacebuilding sometimes involves constructing domestic electoral institutions, peacekeeping does not
The observation that stable democracies are unlikely to engage in militarized disputes, or let such disputes escalate into a war with each other, is called...
...democratic peace
The three major philosophical perspectives on law and ethics are known as...
...naturalism, positivism, and realism
Following the devastation and destruction of WWII, some people adopted the principles of world federalism, which is the idea that...
...permanent peace could only be achieved through the establishment of a world government
The Security Dilemma is weakest when:
Defense has the advantage and weapons are differentiable
Regarding realist and liberal theories of world politics, one can conclude that...
...realist theories assume it does not matter how different countries' economic systems are organized, while liberal theories say that it does make a difference
The double effect is very similar to the idea of...
Guerilla warfare and terrorism...
...are the main forms of contemporary nonstate violence in the international system
The proposition that arms and war are inevitable because of inherent influences of human nature is rejected by the...
...Seville Statement of 1986
What is the most important source for international laws?
International conventions and treaties
Which element of the just war tradition is violated by the American declaratory policy emphasizing countercity nuclear deterrence in the early post-WWII era?
Three approaches to both the study of IR and international economics are called...
...realism, liberalism, and radicalism
Realists studying international political economy can be said to be descended from which intellectual tradition?
According to the mercantilist school, the best way to maximize the wealth and power of states is to...
...encourage exports while discouraging imports, in order to add to their treasury
Although IOs and MNCs do not have the same resoures available to them as nation-states do...
...liberals emphasize that traditional forms of state power are not always effective
When analyzing a state's foreign economic policy, realists argue that states...
...focus on relative gains instead of absolute gains
When analyzing a state's foreign economic policy, liberals argue that states...
...focus on absolute gains instead of relative gains
When looking at IPE, liberals believe social harmony is...
...better achieved by deffering to the "invisible hand" of the market
The radical, or Marxist, approach to IPE differs from the realist approach in that...
...the former believes international cooperation is undertaken for the benefit of the dominant class, while the latter believes it is undertaken for the benefit of the dominant state
The success of economic coercion as a tool of foreign policy...
...depends on how vulnerable the target is, how available a substitute is, how great compliance is, and how easily the punishing state can adapt its own economy to the sanction
As one scholar argued, there has been a shift from geopolitics to geoeconomics, meaning that...
...commercial quarrels will lead to political clashes, but still have to be resolved through commercial weapons
The expression "guns vs. butter" is used to describe the relationship between...
...military preparedness and economic performance during peacetime
When critics of large defense budgets raise the issue of opportunity costs, they are usually referring to...
...the benefits foregone by investing in the military instead of in more economically productive pursuits
The cozy relationship between politicians, the military, and defense contractors is known as...
...the iron triangle
Two elements of interdependence are...
...vulnerability and sensitivity
One of the basic principles of international trade refers to how states produce what they are best at producing and then trading the surplus for other goods. This is also known as...
...comparative advantage
The economic policy known as autarky...
...refers to minimizing trade in favor of domestic production, is rarely cost-efficient, and happens when state leaders value isolation over productive efficiency
In between the extremes of free trade and autarky, we find examples of...
Taxes and duties that are levied to control imports of goods and services are also known as...
Economic protectionism policies include nontariff barriers to control the imports of goods and services, an example includes...
Jointness of supply and nonexclusivity are characteristics of...
...a collective good
Which of the following is a problem associated with collective goods?
A network of rules, norms, and procedures that regularize behavior and control its effects is also known as...
...a regime
The mechanism designed to help states manage their exchange rates, maintain their reserve currencies, and regulate the movement of international capital is called... international monetary regime
The creation of a single market out of a number of separate previously defined by national boundaries in order to take advantages of a larger market is called...
...economic integration
A group of countries that agrees to eliminate all tariffs between them and then adopt a common set of tariffs on imports from other countries is called a...
...customs union
When we talk about the process whereby economic, political, and sociocultural transactions are less and less constrained by national boundaries, we are referring to...
If one argues that a multiplicity of interactions bypass the gov't of states and act directly on their domestic environments, one would also say that...
...nonstate actors and subnational actors are playing a greater role than ever
Complex interdependence is one vision describing the state of global politics and includes three major elements:
actors other than states matter, military security is still the dominant concern, the use of military force is precluded as a method of resolving conflicts
The North-South gap refers to the...
...discrepancy in human and economic development levels between the Northern and Southern hemispheres
Import substitution industrialization is a policy devised to...
...promote industrial development by substituting imported manufactures for domestic ones
In the 1970s, many less-developed countries proposed a program of collective international action aimed at lessening their levels of dependence, which was called the...
Despite the fact that dismantling colonial empires and increasingly large impacts from technology have contributed greatly to interdependence,
much of what we are calling interdependence is not really new, we are just seeing it for the first time
Liberals who believe national boundaries are becoming less relevant would prefer to see the world in terms of...
...transnational relations rather than international relations
The interdependent links between and among actors in the contemporary global system...
...can be examined in terms of sensitivity/vulnerability, we should expect suprising consequences when things change in the system
Which is a following is an example of a purely private good?
Your textbook
How well a state can collect and analyze information is
a. an intangible measure of its power.
b. a reflection of the size of its government.
c. a tangible measure of its capabilities.
d. of little interest in international relations
2. Of the levels of analysis given below, the most micro level (smallest scale) approach to understanding international relations is
a. individual decision makers.
b. society.
c. government.
d. sysetm.
3. A key element of a system is
a. prospect theory
b. the interdependence of elements of the system.
c. the chaos of interaction.
d. the complexity of rules.
4. An example of a general purpose intergovernmental organization is the
a. International Statistical Institute.
b. World Health Organization.
c. Organization of African Unity.
d. National Center for Atmospheric Research.
5. In the context of the government's relationship with society, openness refers to the
a. freedom given to people.
b. censoring of information.
c. fairness of local laws.
d. ability of society to influence government.
6. In addition to acting on behalf of nation-states, decision makers in world politics act on behalf of
a. transnational organizations.
b. private organizations.
c. parts of government.
d. all of the above.
7. Which of the following has been THE main actor in the global system?
a. the UN
b. the nation-state/state
c. intergovernmental organizations
d. nongovernmental organizations
8. Which of the following attributes is a tangible element of a state's power?
a. GNP per capita
b. leadership
c. efficacy of central government
d. intelligence
9. Realists argue that international organizations like the UN are
a. important organizations that promote and maintain world peace.
b. important organizations because they promote justice and equality among all powers.
c. only as importan
10. When two or more alliances form among a larger number of major powers, we say the system
a. has become polarized.
b. is dependent.
c. is integrated.
d. is static.
11. The anarchic condition of the global system means that
a. the global system is in a state of chaos with constant war.
b. there is order and hierarchy.
c. no legal authority exists to control the behavior of sovereign states in the syst
12. The relationship in which changes or events in any single part of a system produce some reaction or have some significant consequence in other parts of the system is known as
a. behavior.
b. dependence.
c. interdependence.
d. tran
13. The level of analysis that focuses on the distribution of capabilities, state resources and status among all actors in international relations is
a. the world system.
b. the state government.
c. the roles of decision makers.
d. in
14. The rally-round-the-flag phenomenon
a. helps incumbents to gamer support for foreign policy initiatives.
b. helps Democrats and hurts Republican presidents.
c. does not change the president's popularity.
d. describes laws protecti
15. The perspective known as transnationalism/liberalism (or liberal institutionalism or liberal internationalism) advocates
a. collective responsibility based on the balance-of-power system.
b. collective security based on total disarmament.
16. The members of an intergovernmental organization are
a. nations.
b. NGOs
c. states.
d. MNCs
17. If two states cooperate in security or military affairs under a formal written treaty, they are in
a. alignment with each other.
b. coalition with each other.
c. alliance with each other.
d. nonalignment with each other.
18. The power elite view argues that
a. national welfare is maximized when societies are generally ruled by power elites who can maintain order and provide direction.
b. political and societal leaders fundamentally agree on what the national go
19. The state is the only form of international actor that controls
a. territory.
b. ethnicity.
c. bureaucracy.
d. the environment.
20. According to Hans Morgenthau, power is
a. the ability to control the behavior of other actors.
b. the ability to prevail in conflict and overcome obstacles.
c. a set of attributes or capabilities.
d. always the immediate aim of in
21. Of the levels of analysis given below, the most macro(most general) level approach to understanding international relations is
a. individual decision makers.
b. society.
c. government.
d. world system.
22. The level of analysis that focuses on the governmental structure attempts to
a. transform authoritarian governmental structures into democratic structures.
b. understand how governmental structures are formed.
c. understand the opportu
23. A global system characterized by more than 3 major actors is
a. unipolar.
b. bipolar.
c. tripolar.
d. multipolar.
24. In the global system, technology
a. can overcome obstacles and limitations imposed on states by the natural resources available to them.
b. that exists in the system at any time is an important constraint on what is possible.
c. can ex
25. The world system in the post-cold war era is best characterized as
a. unipolar.
b. bipolar.
c. tripolar.
d. multipolar.
26. The following two features distinguish states from other types of actors in the international system:
a. sovereignty and territoriality.
b. territoriality and ethnicity.
c. religion and ethnicity.
d. legality and sovereignty.
27. Internal sovereignty means
a. a democratically elected government and a just legal order.
b. supremacy over all authorities within that territory and population.
c. independence from outside influence.
d. a military force capable
28. A System-level explanation of international conflict might predict that:
a. Bipolar systems are unstable.
b. Groupthink causes war.
c. National bureaucracies screen information.
d. Democracies do not fight other democracies.
29. The central feature of diplomacy is
a. the establishment of visas.
b. communication and interaction among involved parties.
c. diplomatic immunity for all diplomats.
d. diplomatic protocol.
30. External sovereignty means
a. a democratically elected government and a just legal order.
b. supremacy over all authorities within that territory and population.
c. independence from outside authorities.
d. a military force capabl

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