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chapter 4 vocab MISS KING

Terms

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Cell membrane
The lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of a cell
Cilium
A short, hairlike organelle that extends from a cell and functions in locomotion or in the movement of substances across the cell surface
Nucleolus
In a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs most of the cell's activities
Vacuole
A fluid-filled organelle that stores enzymes or metabolic wastes in a plant cell
Chloroplast
A plastid containing chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
Eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Peripheral protein
A protein attached to the interior or external surface of the cell membrane
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that contains attached ribosomes
Fluid mosaic model
A model of cell membrane structure representing the dynamic nature of membrane lipids and proteins
Thylakoid
A flattened, membranous sac inside a chloroplast; contains most of the components involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis
Cell theory
The theory that all living things are made up of cells, that cells are the basic units of organisms, and that cells come only from existing cells
Organelle
One of several formed bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytoplasm and found in eukaryotic cells
Nucleus
in a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs most of the cell's activities
Chromosome
DNA and protein in a coiled, rod-shaped form that occurs during cell division
Cytoplasm
The region of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus
Cytosol
The gelatin-like aqueous fluid that bathes the organelles on the inside of the cell membrane
Nuclear envelope
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
Endoplasmic reticulum
A system of membranous tubules and sacs in eukaryotic cells that functions as a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another
Cell
A membrane-bound structure that is the basic unit of life
Mitochondrion
The organelle that is the site of aerobic respiration in eukaryotic cells
Plastid
An organelle of plant cells that contains starch, fats, or pigments
Nuclear pore
A small hole in the nuclear envelope through which substances pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks attached ribosomes
Microfilament
A polymer chain of the protein actin; the smallest strand in the cytoskeleton
Prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Microtubule
A hollow tube of protein that constitutes the largest strand in the cytoskeleton
Nuclear matrix
The nuclear skeleton, a shape-maintaining protein
Actin
One of two protein filaments in a muscle cell that function in contraction
Spindle fiber
One of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
Golgi apparatus
A system of membranes in eukaryotic cells that modifies proteins for export by the cell
Flagellum
A hair-like structure made up of microtubules that function in locomotion
Ribosome
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
Lysosome
An organelle containing digestive enzymes, existing primarily in animal cells
Chromatin
The DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a nondividing cell
Integral protein
A protein imbedded in the bilayer of the cell membrane
Selectively permeable membrane
A membrane that keeps out some molecules but allows others to pass through
Crista
A fold of the inner membrane of mitochondria
Cytoskeleton
A network of long protein strands in the Cytosol that helps maintain the shape and size of a eukaryotic cell
Cell wall
A rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants, fungi, many protests, and most bacteria

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