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In comparing two solutions, the one with a lower solute concentration.
second messenger
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis.
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
storeroom; chamber
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
electrochemical gradient
The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.
coal; carbon
oxidative phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
new; recent
redox reactions
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
alcohol fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
sodium-potassium pump
A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
first messenger
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.
The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Krebs cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
facilitated diffusion
The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients.
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
oxidizing agent
The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
lactic acid fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
proton pump
An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consumes ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell and, in the process, generates a membrane potential.
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.
A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment.
The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
membrane potential
The charge difference between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid in all cells, due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.
reducing agent
The electron donor in a redox reaction.
cellular respiration
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
ATP synthase
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
acetyl CoA
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
proton motive force
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
active transport
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.

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