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integral proteins
Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
gap junctions
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells; also known as a communicating junction.
basal body
A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole.
(1) An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
mitochondrial matrix
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells.
peripheral proteins
Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.
food vacuoles
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
sprout; germ
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
stick; club
passive transport
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.
A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and in cilia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton.
golgi apparatus
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
tight junctions
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
transport vesicles
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
well; good
A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles involved in cell division.
contractile vacuoles
A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
having fins
The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
selective permeability
A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
used to form noun from verb
A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
rough er
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
concentration gradient
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
smooth er
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
bio; bi
life; living
depth; height
The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
transport proteins
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
central vacuoles
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
eukaryotic cell
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles, present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals; also called eukaryote.
fluid mosaic model
The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
cell wall
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid and is the primary constituent of wood.
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the cell sap.
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
having arms
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
two; twice; double

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