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Islaimic Terms (from Wiki)

Islamic terms imported from Wikipedia. Please note, this is a work in progress and needs editing. This is my first time using Quizlet.


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"Lesser Jihad" (الجهاد الأصغر):
in defence, fighting to protect Islam from attack or oppression. In such fighting, no woman, child or innocent civilian is to be harmed, and no tree is to be cut down. (see Qitaal)
"identity" or "union," the experience of personal union with Allah as felt by a mystic.
Burda (بردة)
not an Arabic term; means "curtain" in Persian. Means covering or to cover.
Al-Ḥamdu lillāh (الحمد لله)
"Praise be to God!" Qur'anic exclamation
Ahlul-Bayt (أهل البيت )
members of Muhammad's Household. Also known among Shia as the Masumin (infallibles; spiritually pure).
Ākhirah (الآخرة)
hereafter or eternal life
Bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi (بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم)
"In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful".
Dhimmi (ذمّي)
"Protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others[1], such as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), living in an Islamic state whose right to practice their religion is tolerated under Islamic law.
Bint (بنت)
Fard ayn
obligatory on every individual Muslim to aid in any way he can.
Hajj (الحجّ haj)
pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam
Da`wah (الدعوة)
the call to Islam. (See aslim taslam)
Farḍ (فرض), plural Fara'id (فرأض)
a religious duty, or an obligatory action: praying 5 times a day is fard Neglecting a fard will result in a punishment in the hereafter. (See wajib)
Ijmā` (إجماع)
the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) - one of four bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself. Shi'a substitute obedience to the Imam.
Jihād (جهاد)
struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal, physical, for righteousness and against wrong-doing;
Al Amr Bi'l Maruf
fundamental Islamic doctrine of enjoining right and discovering wrong
Jazakallahu Khayran (جزاك الله خير)
Dar ash-Shahada (دار الشهادة)
See Dar al-Amn
Jilbāb (جلباب)
(pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, baggy garment worn by some to fulfill the mandates of sartorial hijab. Some more conservative Muslims believe that jilbāb is incumbent upon Muslim women to wear this as a sign of modesty. (See abaya. burka, chador)
Dar al-`Ahd (دار العهد)
the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states
`Id ul-Adha (عيد الأضحى)
"the Festival of Sacrifice." The four day celebration starting on the tenth day of Dhul-Hijja.
'Awrah (عورة)
The part of a person's body that must be covered before everybody but a spouse. It may also be used to refer to what must be concealed of a woman before non-related men
Juz' (جزء)
one of thirty parts of the Qur'an
Dar ad-Dawa (دار الدعوة)
a region where Islam has recently been introduced.
Aḥkām (أحكام)
rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. Five kinds of orders: Wajib, Mustahab, Muharram, Makruh, and Halal.
the short, opening sura of the Qur'an, which begins "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds..." These words hold an important place in Muslim liturgies and forms the core of the salat.
Ḥanīf (حنيف)
pre-Islamic non-Jewish or non-Christian monotheists. Plural: ḥunafā' (حنفاء).
Asmā' Allah al-Ḥusnā (أسماء الله الحسنى)ddd
apostasy (see murtadd.)
Amānah (أمانة)
the trust. Of all creation, only human beings carry the "trust", which is free will.
`Id ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر)
"the Festival of Fitr (Breaking the fast)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.
Aḥad (أحد)ddd
Hijra (الهجرة)
Muhammad and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina. Literally, "migration". This holiday marks the beginning of the Muslim New Year on the first day of the month of Muharram. See Rabi Al-Awwal and abbreviation A.H..
Hadith (حديث ḥadīth) plural ahādīth
literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah
Amīrul-Mu'minīn (أمير المؤمنين)
In some countries like Morocco, a Amīrul-Mu'minīn or Commander of the faithful is the religious chief.
Baṣīrah (بصيرة)
Insight, discernment, perceptivity, deep knowledge. Sometimes used by Sufis to denote the ability to directly perceive a transcendental Truth.
Caliph (خليفة khalīfah)
literally successor; refers to the successor of the Prophet Muhammad, the ruler of an Islamic theocratic monarchy
Hudā (هدى)
Dajjal (دجّال)
an Islamic figure similar to the Antichrist; means "liar" or "deceiver"
Ḥasan (حسن)ddd
Ḥukm (حكم)
Jannah (جنة)
Paradise, Heaven, the Garden
Ahlul-Fatrah ( أهل الفترة)
people who live in ignorance of the teachings of a revealed religion, but according to the "Fitra", the "Natural Religion" innate to human nature as created by God.
Ḥudūd (حدود) (sing. hadd)
Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by Allah on man; penalties of the Islamic law (sharia) for crimes which are described in the Qur'an such as theft and adultery.ddd
Fanā' (فناء)
Sufi term meaning extinction - to die to this life while alive. Having no existence outside of God.
Bid'ah (بدعة)ddd
Infāq (إنفاق)
the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charity
Ijaz (إعجاز)
miracle, the character of the Qur'an in both form and content.
Dua (دعاء)
personal prayer, supplication
Hadath asghar
minor ritual impurity
Dīn (الدين)
the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Dīn is often used to mean the faith and religion of Islam.
The interior or hidden meaning. A person who devotes himself to studying such hidden meanings is a batini.
insurgency against a legitimate government
Itmām al-hujjah (اتمام الحجة)
clarification of truth in its ultimate form.
'Āshūrā' (عاشوراء)
Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day God saved Moses and the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. The grandson of the prophet Muhammad, Imam Hussayn sacrificed his life along with 72 of his companions on the sand dunes of Karbala. Sunni Scholars recommended to fast during this day. To the Shias, it is also a day on which they mourn the death of the third Shia Imam, Husayn ibn Ali, along with his family and companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala. They cry and weep and organize lamentating programmes where they not only learn how to live a proper Islamic life and improve their Spiritual Self but also cry at the end of the ritual to show their true love and faith towards imam Hussayn.
Ifṭār (إفطار)
a meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset during the month of Ramadan.
Dhuhr (الظهر)ddd
Isnād (إسناد)
chain of transmitters of any given hadith
Darwīš (درويش)
an initiate of the Sufi Path, one who practices Sufism
Athān (أذان)
call to salat (prayer), sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced Azaan and Adhan.
Fajr (فجر)
morning, as in the morning prayer. The time of the day when there is light in the horizon before sunrise.
Aminah (أمنة)
Muhammad's mother. Aminah fell sick and died in Abwa, near Madina (then Yathrib) when Muhammad was six years old.
Eid Al-Adhha
The "feast of sacrifice." It is celebrated from the tenth through the thirteenth days of Zul-Hijjah, the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. (See Id)
Ghusl (غسل)ddd
The bridge on which judgement of where a person's Akhira (afterlife) will lie is passed.
Iḥrām (إحرام)
state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.
Hadath akbar
major ritual impurity which requires Niyyat for cleaning
Hudna (هدنة)ddd
Ilāh (إله)
deity, a god; including gods worshiped by polytheists.
Astaghfirullāh (أستغفر الله)
"I seek forgiveness from God." Islamic expression.
Al-'Isrā' (الإسراء)
"Night journey" of Muhammad
Jihād al daf'a
Defensive jihad.
Iqamah (إقامة)
the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.
Ḥarām (حرام)
forbidden. An individual is rewarded for keeping away from haram done out of obedience, (rather than out of fear, shyness or the inability to do it.) Antonym: halal. (See mazur, makrouh)
'Asharatul-mubashshirūn (العشرة المبشّرون)
Faqih (pl. fuqaha)
One who has a deep understanding of Islam, its laws, and jurisprudence. (see fiqh)
Fitna (فتنة)
trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any civil strife.
Istislah (إستصلاح)
public interest - a source of Islamic Law.
polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.
I'dad Al-'oda
"preparation for battle" according to Qur'an
Genuine in religious beliefs.
Audhu billah (أعوذ بالله 'A'ūdhu billāh)
"I seek refuge in God". This is a phrase at the beginnings of the two last suras in the Qur'an.
ruling in the Qur'an or Sunnah
`Ibādah (عبادة) ddd
Allāh (الله)
God (in monotheistic understanding of the word); the only entity worthy of worship
Fī sabīlu-llāhi (في سبيل الله)ddd
vaginal bleeding except Haid and Nifas
Ḥaram (حرم)
Furqān (فرقان)ddd
'Aqīdah (عقيدة)
The Islamic creed, or the six articles of faith, which consists of the belief in God, Angels, Messengers and Prophets, Scriptures, the Day of Judgment, and Destiny.
an unclean state of body as in breaking Wudu
Allāhu Akbar (الله أكبر)
"God is the Greatest." Islamic expression.
Haqq (‎‍حق)ddd
Aslim Taslam (أسلم تسلم)
"Submit to Islam" (See dawah)
Dhikr (ذكر)
remembrance of God; A Muslim devotional practice whereby the name of God is repeated in a rhythmical manner.; Sufi spiritual exercise; Muslims believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of God.
possessed unlawfully
an unclean state of body caused by discharge of semen or sexual intercourse
Ḥākim (حاكم)
a ruler's or gubernatorial title
Ijtihād (إجتهاد)
During the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new solution to a juridical problem. Has not been allowed in conservative Islam since the Middle Ages. However, Liberal movements within Islam generally argue that any Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic organization. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid, Arabic for "imitation".
"Greater Jihad" (الجهاد الأعظم):
internal struggle for the soul (nafs) against evil, e.g. Lust, Greed, Envy, etc. Also to thrive to do actions that have great value in Islam, and that one has to overcome one's self to do it, e.g.: to overcome the temptation to sleep when it is time to pray the morning prayer is a greater jihad.
Imān (إيمان)
personal faith
Barzakh (برزخ)
life after death in which the soul of the deceased is transferred across the boundaries of the mortal realm into the spirit world.
Zinā (زناء , زنى)
sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words adultery and fornication)
Fiṭrah (فطرة)
innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.
'Adl (عدل)
Justice especially distributive justice: social, economic, political, environmental.
Hidāyah (هداية)
guidance from God.
Ḥalāl (حلال)
lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable. (See mustahabb, mandub)
Akhlāq (أخلاق)
The practice of virtue. Morals.
Bid'ah sayyi'ah
Inquiry prohibited in Islam.
Fāsiq (فاسق)ddd
Allahumma (اللَّهُمَّ)
"O God."
a certificate authorizing one to transmit a subject or text of Islamic knowledge
Jahannam (جهنم)
the Hell-fire; Hell
Awliyā' (أولياء)ddd
Ghaflah (غفلة)ddd
As-Salāmu 'Alaykum (السلام عليكم)
The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you"; In addition, wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu means "and the Mercy of God and His blessing". The response to this greeting is wa-'Alaykum us-Salām wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu --"And on you be the Peace and Mercy of God and His Blessing".
Bay'ah (بيعة)
an oath of allegiance to a leader, traditionally the Caliph or Imam.
Dar al-Harb (دار الحرب)
translated (house of war), refers to areas outside Muslim rule; the non-Islamic world who are hostile to the Muslims (see also House of Peace and House of Neutrality).
Zakat (زكاة)
tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation.
Āyah (آية), plural āyāt (آيات)
A sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.
Isra (الإسراء)
the night journey during which Muhammad (محمّد)is said to have visited Heaven. See miraj.
Fatwā (فتوى)
legal opinion of an (alim) binding on him and on those who follow his taqlid
Basher (بشر)
Human(s). Literally means 'face' but generally it refers to a person (man/woman).
Islam (الإسلام) (help·info)
"submission to God". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.
Jāhiliyyah (الجاهليّة)
the time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.
Āmīn (آمين)
Amen, a supplication meaning, "O God, accept our invocation!" (used only in Sunni Islam)
Iblīs (إبليس)
a jinn banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; aka Satan : derived from the Greek Diabolos or Devil He is the equivalent of Lucifer.
Exterior meaning
Jahl (جهل)
ignorance, arrogance
Fiqh (فقه)
jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws. (see faqih)
Ghayb (غيب)ddd
the return of the Shia Mahdi
Imamah (إمامة) or imamate
successorship of Prophet Muhammad and the leadership of mankind.
Falāḥ (فلاح)
success, happiness, well-being
The faithful who fear Allah.
Baitullah (بيت الله baytullāh)
Dar al-Kufr (دار الكفر)
translated (domain of disbelief), the term originally refers to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between Prophet Mohammed's flight to Medina (the Hijra) and his triumphant return.
Ḥāfiẓ (حافظ)
someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.
Istish'hād (إستشهاد)
Iḥsān (إحسان)ddd
"philosophy" The methods and content of Greek philosophy which were brought into Islam. A person who tries to interpret Islam though rationalist philosophy was called a faylasuf ("philosopher").
atheist - from the root ad dahr meaning time. in Islam, atheists are seen as those who think that time only destroys, hence the term ad dahriyyah for the concept of atheism.
Āyatullāh (آية الله, also spelled Ayatollah)
Sign of God Title given to highly ranked religious scholars in Sh'ia sect.
Jinn (جنّ)
An invisible being of smokeless fire
Janaza (جنازة)
funeral prayer
Adab (أدب)
Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example, being courteous is good adab. However, the term can be used very broadly, and the proper translation would be "the proper way to go about something," as in the example, Aadaab al Qitaal, or, "The Proper Way of Fighting in War," (Qitaal in Arabic means mortal combat) in which the word "etiquette" does not befit the context.
seclusion in the masjid for the purpose of worship usually performed during the last 10 days of Ramadan.
Barakah (بركة)
a blessing. Also, spiritual wisdom and blessing transmitted from master to pupil. The special favor or divine grace which is possessed by the "friends of God," or Sufi masters in particular.
Jihād al talab
Offensive jihad.
Injīl (الإنجيل)
Arabic term for the holy book called The Gospel said to have been given to Jesus, who is known as Isa in Arabic; Muslims believe the holy book has been lost and the New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are not the word of Allah, only Christian stories about Jesus.
Insha'Allah (إن شاء الله)
Allah Willing.
Hādī (هادي)ddd
Houri (حورية ḥūrīya; pl. ḥūrīyāt حوريات)
beautiful and pure young men and women, that Muslims believe inhabit Paradise, or Heaven.
Ka'bah (الكعبة)
cube-house; the cube-shaped building i.e in Mecca toward which Muslims pray. Muslims, however, do not worship it, nor pray to it. Muslims only pray to Almighty God.
Fajarah (فجرة)ddd
`Ilm (علم)
all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for science
Arkan singular rukn (ركن/أركان)
'Aṣr (العصر)
The third salat prayer. The time of the day before sunset and after noon. also means "era".
Jizya (جزية)
`Ishā' (عشاء)
night; the fifth salat prayer
To deny. Jaahid (the denier). Disbelief out of rejection. When there comes to them that which they [should] have recognized, they refuse to believe in (kafaru) it.( 2:89) Accordingly, juhud includes rejection (kufr at-taktheeb) and resistance (kufr al-'inaad)
midday prayer beginning around noon
Dunya (دنيا)
The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter
Anṣār (أنصار)ddd
Literally this means "wisdom" and refers to the highest possible level of understanding attainable by a Muslim. In particular, it refers to the illuminative, mystical sort of wisdom which a Gnostic or Sufi might accomplish.
Dar al-Amn (دار الأمن)
translated (house of safety) refers to status of a Muslim living in some of the Western world.
Zaidi (الزيدية)
Islamic sub-sect of Shi'ah, popularly found in Yemen , with similarities to Sunni
Ḥijāb (حجاب)
literally "cover". It describes the self-covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity. (See abayah, al-amira, burnuk, burqa, chador, jilbab, khimar, milfeh, niqab, purdah, shayla)
`Īsā (عيسى)
Jesus - 'Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), a matronymic (since he had no biological father. The Qur'an asserts that Allah has no sons and therefore, 'Isa is not the son of Allah. Muslims honor 'Isa as a nabi and rasoul.
Ahl ul-Kitāb (أهل الكتاب )
"People of the Book", or followers of pre-Islamic monotheistic religions with some form of scripture believed to be of divine origin which were mentioned in Quran: Jews, Christians, Sabians, Magians or Zoroastrians. Sometimes said to include also Hanifs. Has at times been extended to include pre-Islamic religious traditions with scriptures which were not mentioned in Quran, e.g.: Buddhists, Hindus, Taoists, Confucians.
Jumu'ah (جمعة)
Friday prayer
A.S. ('Alayhis-salaam)
This acronym evokes a blessing and is appended to the names of the prophets who came before Muhammad. It will also be applied the mothers of those prophets. When following a woman's name, the feminine form is 'Alayhas-salaam.
Dallal (ضلال)ddd
Fard kifayah
an obligation on the Muslim community as a whole, from which some are freed if others take it up.
Abd (عبد)
servant, worshipper, slave. Muslims consider themselves servants and slaves of God. Common Muslim names such as Abdullah (Servant of God), Abdul-Malik (Slave of the King), Abdur-Rahmān (Slave of the most Beneficent), Abdus-Salām (Slave of Peace), all refer to names of Allah.
Alayhis Salam
"Peace be upon him" This expression normally follows after naming a prophet (other than Muhammad), or one of the noble Angels (i.e. Jibreel[Gabriel], Mikaeel[Michael], etc.)
'Ālamīn (عالمين)
Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, angels and all that exists
'Ālim (عالم)
One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion); similar to Japanese sensei, "teacher"
'Azl (عزل)
coitus interruptus, Intercourse characterized by withdrawal of the penis before ejaculation. Literally means "isolation".
Diyya (ديت)
fine for unintentional murder.
Jāmi'ah (جامعة)
"gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.
`Id (عيد)ddd
Ḥizb (حزب)
one half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an
Imām (إمام)
literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer; the Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the twelve Allah-appointed successors of Prophet Muhammad.
'Aql (عقل)ddd
Ghafara (غفر)ddd
Ḥimā (حمى) dd
Zabur (زبور)
the Psalms revealed to King David
Property of the Imam

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