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Burwell Midterm

questions that we've had before. mhm.


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WEB Dubois
His newspaper was called "The Crisis"
Booker T. Washington
Founded the Tuskegee Institute for vocational and agricultural studies
General-in-chief of union army, organized the Army of the Potomac
George McClellan
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
covered by CSPAN/occured during 1858 campaign. popular sovereignty vs complete abolition
strove to curb immigration and naturalization, little success...mainly protestant membership
Mason-Dixon Line
demarcation line surveyed by Charles mason and Jeremiah Dixon in the resolution of a border dispute between british colonies in colonial america//now..cultural boundary between N & S (Missouri Comp)
only person executed for war crimes
Henry Wirz
Mormon Migration
Joseph Smith (Nauvoo, Illinois); Brigham Young (Salt Lake City)
African Americans will be segregated and will serve primarily in non-combat units//restrictions were eased after Pearl Harbor due to protests
War Department Policy, 1941
Lecompton Constitution
enshrined slavery and protected the rights of slave holders/allowed voters the choice of allowing more slaves to enter a territory VS Topeka Constitution
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act forbid discrimination in several areas and forbade unfair voting requirements
citizens of the us shall not be denied the right to vote on account of race or color
14th ammendment
Multi-racial organiztion that staged sit-ins and freedom rides
John Brown
abolitionist who led the unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry and the Pottawatomie Massacre in Bleeding Kansas//martyr in the North
10% of white voters of a state must take an oath supporting the constitution, the union, and freed slaves. They can then form a state gov't, write a const., and recieve a full pardon from the union
Lincoln's Plan 1863
the mutulatto
who is the 'central figure' in Brazil's racial democracy?
by will
under brazillian law, manumission was legal...
Wrote "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
Worked within american legal system to gain rights/ nonviolent/ Supported: Brown vs Board, March on WA, Mont. Bus Boycotts
Marcus Garvey
"Africa for Africans" was his slogan
Mexican War
Caused by our boundary with TX. Settled by Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo=US given TX, NM, & CA, and pays Mexico $15 million//Brought question of Slavery expansion
Marcus Garvey
His newspaper was called "The New World"
Reasons for African American Migration 1910-1940
most were younger people w/ no recollection of slavery, pushed out by Ag. disasters, increase in jobs in north (WW1), given the vote and education for their children
Inspired by MalcomX/ killed cops/made demands with fear to unite blacks and terrorize whites
Black Panthers
50% of whites in an ex-confed. state needed to petition for a new state gov't./ were also excluded from participation unless they made an oath of loyalty to the const.
Wade-Davis Bill 1864
Gold Rush
Started by Sutter and Marshall, led to mass immigration and anarchy in CA (1849)
antebellum America
bloody battles over religion, slavery became an explosive issue, pop culture entertained thousands, artists spoke in a confident new american vernacular, american social values improving
Cumberland Road from Maryland to Illinois, Fulton Steam Engine, RR, NYC=seaport
Transportation Revolution
Superintendent of Nurses for Union
Dorthea Dix
Brigham Young
"American Moses" & President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints/ moved 15000 mormans to Utah
N. Shiloh
Ulysses S. Grant
The North had more deaths/wounded than the south
Brown Vs. Board
This case strikes down separate but equal provision
Oneida Association
utopian society in upstate NY created by John Humphrey Noyes
counted slaves as 3/5 of a person
President Johnson
WEB Dubois
African-American leader who demanded opportunity for the "talented tenth"
Northern senators turned down 9000 sq miles of mex. territory to prevent spread of slavery
Gadsen Purchase
lighter sexual partners; increased immigration
"whitening" encouraged
Compromise of 1850
fugitive slave laws strengthened, Ca free state, other territories undetermined; created by Henry Clay
Dred Scott
slave who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom when his owner's wife moved into a free territory
Year Lincoln was elected
On Civil Disobedience
thoreau's writings contemplating the mexican war, "the work of comparatively few individuals using the government as their tool" refused to pay his taxes
Frederick Douglass
Maryland slave who obtained his freedom and spent the rest of his life writing and campaigning for abolition
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist who experimented with an isolated life at Walden Pond, where he hoped to live in harmony with nature.
Pop culture, americans mock slaves by performing african dances
Booker T. Washington
made the "atlanta exposition" address
focused on american rights in general/education & voting registration/ nonviolent civil disobedience/ Albany Movement/Birmingham Campaign/March on WA
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
assassinated on April 14th 1865 by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's theater in Washington
placated the white south by claiming that blacks didn't want social equality; urged whites to give blacks economic opportunities/ advocated patience in blacks
Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Exposition
Manifest Destiny
to overspread the continent alloted by providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying nations
opposed Jackson and the Democratic party;supported the supremacy of Congress over the Executive Branch and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism.
Stephen Douglas
Democrat that lost to Lincoln in 1860; good orator; reopened question of Slavery in Kansas-Nebraska act
John Quincy Adams successfully defended Africans who had seized a slave ship bound for Cuba, the _____, and landed in Connecticut. Africans murdered the ships captain and won their freedom.
Republicans in congress determined to assert authority over S. & President Johnson: Freedmen's Bureau Act, Civil Rights act of 1866, Military Occupation in the S., Impeachment of Johnson, civil war ammendments
Radical Reconstruction (1867)
Died at the battle of Chancellorsville
General Stonewall Jackson
Slaves were freed
Jan. 1, 1863
the better you dress, the better your education, and the better your social company, the whiter you appear
"money whitens"
Fort Sumter
On April 12, 1861 Confederate batteries opened fire under Major Anderson and General PGT Beauregard at
Clipper Ships
(Wood and canvas) Used narrow hulls and towering sails to attain speeds that had yet to be reached by any other sailing vessels of their size. Ventured to Canton and Shanghai for tea, silks, furs, and glassware
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Begun by Rosa Parks' stand
N. free soilers uncovered a plan by Pierce and southern collaborators to take over cuba for slavery
Ostend Manifesto
Seneca Falls Convention
first women's rights convention held in US. birthplace of feminism.
Lucretia Coffin Mott
American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of women's rights. first american feminist.
slaves down; coloreds up
In Brazil in the period of time before emancipation, what happened to the number of slaves and the number of freed coloreds?
forced congress to take a stand on slavery in new territories aquired in Mexico
Wilmot Provisio
Election of 1840
William Henry Harrison (Whigs) "hard cider and log cabins" campaign Vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrats)
James Buchanan
15th president/ battled Stephen Douglas for control of the Democratic Party/ one of the worst presidents in our history
who ended slavery in brazil
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and opened them to popular soveriegnty/ divided demo. party across north, united N. whigs
William Lloyd Garrison
american abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. editor of radical abolitionist newspaper: the liberator; one of founders of American Anti-Slavery Society
"fifty-four forty or fight"
arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country.The region at question lay west of the Continental Divide and between the 42nd Parallel of latitude on the south and the 54 degrees, 40 minutes line of latitude
Charles River Bridge Case
Supreme court decision that struck down the antiquated concept of state charters being allowed to est. monopolies in the building of a country's infrastructure
civil rights act of 1964
Credit for this law was given to pres. johnson
Great Migration of 1843
organized by Peter Burnett. Americans migrated to Oregon and California. extremely difficult trip, but "immense wealth" existed across the rockies
cultural awakening in lit & arts for african americans/ JAZZ: Ellington/ Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson/ supported by white patrons
Harlem Renaissance
Roger Brooke Taney
first Roman Catholic to become the Chief Justice(5)/ US Attorney General(12)
Preston Brooks
South Carolina Representative who caned Charles Sumner
S. Shiloh
Albert Johnston
Joined the Nation of Islam after studying the teachings of Elijah Muhammad in prison
manumission could be revoked for...
blacks integrated into industry positions (including black women)/ NAACP grew/ leaders in conflict over value of integration vs self-segregation...when?
Battle of Harpers Ferry
Robert Lee's army invaded Maryland under Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, captured 12419 soldiers
"The Washingtonians"
gave great vorce and visibility to a crusade against alcohol, marked an effort by drinkers to reform themselves, people in alllll classes
Formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
invented the musket
Charles Minie
advocated "black power"
Party formed in 1854 to unite disgruntled voters. Appealed to Whigs, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and N. Democrats "no man can own another man"
Republican party
advocated a "subtreasury system", abolition of nt'l banks, graduated income tax, reduction of tariffs, direct election of senators, etc in response to agricultural decline
Populist Movement
Union General...Anaconda Plan
General Winfield Scott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
wrote Declaration of Sentiments and presented it at Seneca Falls; worked with Mott
the Grimke sisters
Angelina and Sarah. Daughters of a South Carolina slave owner, they toured throughout the Northeast to campaign for the abolition of slavery
Caused by borrowing too much money and crop failures
Great Depression I
Panic of 1837
Economic downturn during presidency of Martin Van Buren. During this period, the country experienced high unemployment, bank runs, and bread riots, blamed on Andrew Jackson
Harriet Beecher Stowe: Africans have feelings too/ reinforced regional stereotypes
Uncle Tom's Cabin
encouraged poor whites to disfranchise southern blacks
James Seddon and Judah Benjamin
Davis' Secretaries of War & State
Fought defensively in the war, new an invasion would only help the enemy
Henry Clay
American statesman and orator who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and Senate. "The Great Compromiser". leader of Whig party
in the US, both the slave and the black man were feared
25% of the union army were
volunteer immigrants
oldest political party in the us
Urged americans to not imitate Europeans. to develop their own culture. Argued for self-reliance, independent thinking, and the primacy of spiritual matters over material ones
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Samuel F.B. Morse
Developed the telegraph in 1840 and the code system that allowed for its use in sending messages across the country
Crisis of 1850
California in anarchy as a result of Mexican war...needed gov't. question of slavery in CA posed
Confederacy General
Robert Lee
Brown Vs. Board
Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled on this landmark case
Erie Canal System
runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. opened on October 26, 1825
Bleeding Kansas
abolitionists and pro-slavery elements fought in Kansas to influence how Kansas would be admitted into the Union
Great Potato Famine
Blight struck Irish potato fields, 1 mil died, 1.8 mil migrated to America
Free-Soil Party
"fight on fight forever" "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men" supported Van Buren (Whig)
American Anti-Slavery Society
abolitionist society founded by Garrison and Tappan. F. Douglass often spoke at meetings. promoted a greater good for the slave
Charles Sumner
leader of antisalvery forces in Massachu. and the radical republicans; caned by Preston Brooks
inflation/riots/loss of civilian support/forced to centralize power(ironic)
Problems of Confederate Gov't
woman that fought with the union army and founded the American Red Cross
Clara Barton
Plessy Vs. Ferguson
Supreme court case that legitimized segregation
Daniel Webster
leading American statesman during the nation's antebellum era. He first rose to regional prominence through his defense of New England shipping interests. Influential Whig leader
encouraged black education/designed formal contracts between laborer and ladnlord/defined american citizenship/prevented future erosion of black rights
Freedmen's Bureau
case based on the desegregation of military units/ signaled the emerging primacy of equality as a guide to constitutional decisions/ claimed violation of 14th ammendment
Brown Vs. Board
Victory Lincoln waited for to issue his Proclamation
Battle of Antietam
popular soveriegnty
the state is subject to the will of its people
Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
Required the return of runaway slaves
Jackie Robinson
Broke the racial barrier by signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947
"That the Negro race became a race of slaves was not the fault of God was the fault of the race."/ created Universal Negro Improvement Assoc. & focused on black nt'lism
Marcus Garvey
Birmingham Riots
1963 Riot that led to the imprisonment of Martin L. King Jr.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Unitarian writer who turned to what would come to be called "Transcendentalism". "The American Scholar", his most famous speech, advocated that America find its "own voice"
2nd great awakening
Joseph Smith
founded Latter Day Saint movement (mormonism) and created Nauvoo in Illinois
Horace Mann
Massachusetts lawyer and politician who worked diligently to convince Americans that educated children would be good for the country
Julius Rosenwald
Philanthropist that donated millions to build schools for blacks in the South
Missouri entered union as slave state. No other slavery allowed in Louisianna Purchase above 36'30''. Maine= freestate
Missouri Compromise
Based on Emerson's idea of "transcending" ordinary experiences and moving toward mystical fulfillment/romantic and idealistic themes in art & lit.
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
General Zachary Taylor
American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States.achieved fame while leading U.S. troops to victory at several critical battles of the Mexican-American War. A Southern slaveholder who opposed the spread of slavery to the territories, he was uninterested in politics but was recruited by the Whig Party as their nominee in the 1848 presidential election
Julius Rosenwald
President of the Sears-Roebuck Corp.
Granted amnesty to former confeds. who took oath to const., property returned to them (except slaves), no amnesty to rich/powerful confed.<----failed, became extremely leniant, rejected by congress
The Johnson Plan 1865
Horace Greeley
Newspaper editor who, in the 1840s, gained fame by encouraging young people to "go...West"
Selma, Alabama
Protest begun to elicit a violent response from local authorities
DEMANDED blacks be given the vote, civic equality, and the chance for equal education, "talented tenth" given chance to improve themselves/ formed NAACP
WEB Dubois

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