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ASD exam 2


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Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS)
-who gives it?
-what does it assess?
-what does the score mean?
-given by teachers, parents, professionals, SLPs
-for ages 3-22yrs
-gathers info form interview and observations about criteria on DSM IV
-helps diagnose and rate severity of autism
Autism Diagnostic Interview-R (ADI-R)
-who gives it?
-what does it assess?
-what do scores mean?
-interview for caregivers of PDD/ASD kids/adults
-diagnostic interview given in home or clinic (very long)
-determines if DSM IV criteria are met
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)
-who gives it?
-what does it assess?
-what do scores mean?
-given by trained examiner
-4 modules, for different ages and language abilities
-must be videotaped
-scores give ratings from ASD to autism
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT)
-screening tool for autistic features as young as 18 mos
-not diagnostic
-find 2(+) lack of pretend play, protodeclarative pointing, social interest, social play, jt attn
-American version of CHAT
-23q's, 9 from CHAT
Pre-linguistic ADOS
-given with help of parent
-evaluated behaviors
Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC)
-genral measure of autism
-not very reliable
Real Life Rating Scale (RLRS)
-evaluates treatment of motor, social, affective, language, and sensory behaviors
-quickly scored, used by anyone
PDD Screening Test (PDDST)
-screening, not diagnostic
-different stages of test given for (a) primary care clinics; (b) developmental clinics; and (c) autism clinic
Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning (2nd ed.) (ASIEP- 2)
-tests 18 mos - adult
-tests in Sensory, Relating, Body Concept, Language, and Social Self-Help
-very popular
Diagnostic Checklist for Behavior-Disturbed Children (Form E-2)
-used to identify autism from autistic-like features for research only
Psychoeducational Profile-Revised (PEP-R)
-for preschool age functionality, MA 6mo to 7yrs
-identify degree of abnormality in affect, motor control, play, responses, language, etc
-identifies behaviors consistant with an autism diagnosis
Southern California Ordinal Scales of Development (SCOSD)
-scales for cog., comm., social affective behavior, practical abilities, gross motor, and fine motor abilities
-criterion referenced
-uses Piaget levels
-assesses general development
Developmental Play Assessment Instrument
-evaluates qualitative aspects of play, variety of pretend play, etc
Evals done by a Psychiatrist
WPPSI, Brigance, Mullen, Vineland, ADOS, CHAT, Weschler, CARS, GARS
Evals done by SLPs

Autism types of diagnises, how they are different, what they mean
MEDICAL: Given by any MD, means that insurance will cover treatment

EDCUATIONAL: Given by school psych, SLP, etc, means that they can get services in school
What is the role of the ___ in the pre-assessment process?


s--must provide free evaluation and education. Find and identify special needs

p--give input to evalutators, support the team
Reasons to speak up about autism
-you're an expert in child developmetn thru training and experience
-parents may be worrying
-differences may be qualitative
-you observe peer interaction on a constant basis
-you are aware of reactions students have to the child
-differences more obvious at school than home
-may be onlyone who can take steps to get him services
More reasons to speak up about autism
-your info may become a starting point
-children learn better earlier in life
-child/family may be headed for crisis
-help/support other kids in classroom
-school has "child find" obligation
-ASD kids don't automatically improve
-more cost effective early
-kids cant get services when out of school
Componants of a Comprehensive assessment
-background info (parents and family, social and developmental Hx
-medical hx
-previous testing, school records
-use screening tools and rating scales
-psych evals
-soc/emo testing, medical testing, educational testing
-s/l comm testing
-behavior analysis
-OT, sensory regulation, PT assessment
-hearing eval, not screen!, vision too
-play/leisure time
-adaptive PE
-pre-voc skills assessemnt
-community based skills assessment
Challenges to the assessment process
-stress (for everybody)
-trust (parents and child to trust professional)
-defensiveness (esp. in older kids, don't want to be stupid)
-variability of performance (behave dff in dff settings, may not act on demand)
-problems with generalization (transfer knowlege from one setting to next)
More Challenges to the assessment process
-attention (getting and keeping it)
-social skills (may appear rude or uninterested in test)
-masking (might read well, no comprehension--miss it)
-language (might not have enough or it might be weird)
-borrowed safe responses (might act from video or other experience to give "right" answer)
Purpose of assessments
measure particular areas of skill and funcioning. field specific, particular puposes
how standardized tests and informal assessments are used
s--normed, tabulate analysis for certain age range, compare to others of same age. criterion referenced, if ability is there or not

i--interviews with other adults who know child (busdriver, lunchlady), observation
psych or deuro diagnostic evals:

distinguish an emotional, behavioral, mental health disorder from neorological, developmental disorder (autism)
medical testing--purpose
make sure there is no physical cause for autistic symptoms
educational and psych testing
understand how a person thinks, learns, and functions on a daily basis. test range of abilities--academic, learning strenghts, self care, attn span, cog skills
speech lang comm assessments
p-look at all skills needed to communicate (speak, lang, read, devices, pragmatics)
c-artic, phonology, semantics, sytax, pragmatics, covo skills, interacting/reacting to others
m-test quality of response. comprehend words, have convo, be understood, retell story, understand idioms
social skills assessments
look at skills needed to interact effectively with same ages peers or adults. can overlap with s/l/c assessment
functional behavioral analysis
discover and explain the underlying causes for problematic behavior
OT and SI assessment
determine indivduals ability to physically function in daily living at home, school, work or in community
adaptive PE assessment
determing ability to participate in PE activities, if modifications are necessary, identify areas needing improvement, see how child participates in group games
audiology assessment
rule out hearing problems
auditory processing assessment
look at auditory discrimination, auditory memory, auditory sequencing, auditory blending, listening to and understanding speech in presense of other sounds
visual processing assessment
visual discrimination (one object from another, etc), visual closure (recog when only part is there or missing), visual memory, see whole/part relationships, visual coordination with movement
practical strategies for parenst and professionals to improve the assessemtn process
-don't discuss pt hx in front of him
-schedule seperate appt before asst to review hx with diagnostition
-provide detailed hx to whole team
-get list of assts and who gives them
-plan optimal time for assts
-ask assessers to give recomendations
-don't leave uncommunivative pts with dr alone
unusual pbut important considerations
-no scented anythings during testing
-don't wear colors they don't like
-don't bring up topics that bother them
-avoid physical contact if bothered by it
-don't have objects they're preoccupied with present
-allow to stand, rock, swing during parts of asst
how can home visits benefit both you and child?
-learn how parents prevent/avoid problem behaviors, see how child reacts at home with sibs
-let child see you differently, less scary
can a parent request info on your credentials?

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