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History Terms 2


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Civilian Conservation Corps
1933 a job agency that put 2.5 million young men age 18-25 to work planting trees, bridges, dams, reservoirs, fish ponds, and fire towers
Public Works Administration
1933 established by the National Industrial Recovery Act, appropriated a 3.3 billion for hiring the unemployed to build roads, sewage and water systems, public building, and other projects
Agricultural Adjustment Act
to restore farmerÂ’s purchasing power, government encouraged farmers to grow less, they would pay farmers to reduce their acreage or plow under crops already in the fields, receive payments based on Parity- a system of regulated prices for products, subsidies funded by taxes levied on the processors of agricultural commodities
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
1933 companies met together to draft codes of fair competition, guaranteed workers the right to unionize and to bargain collectively- business and government get together, to set up codes, government has to approve the codes
Nation Industry Recovery Act
established the National Recovery Administration companies met together to draft codes of fair competition, guaranteed workers the right to unionize and to bargain collectively
Schechter v. US
1935, struck down the NIRA, asserting that it granted the White House excessive legistlative power and that the commerce clause of the Constitution did not give the federal government authority to regulate intrastate businesses
Tennessee Valley Authority
1933 expansion of the depressed TN River valley, was to build dams to both control floods and generate hydroelectric electric power, wanted to enhance the economic well-being of the Valley -actually caused pollution, greatest environmental catastrophe
Works Projects Administration
1935 built highways, roads, public buildings, parks, schools, hospitals, and nurseries, and established schools to combat adult illiteracyÂ… (Federal Theater Project,Federal Writers Project, Steinbeck and Wright)
Social Security Act
1935 established old-age insurance under which workers who paid SS taxes out of their wages, matched by their employers, would receive retirement benfits beginning at age 65
-Aid to Dependent Children
-government did not pay for old-age benefits
- the tax was regressive in that the more workers earned, the less they were taxed proportionatly
-it was deflationary because it took out of peopleÂ’s pocket money
-the law had a disparate impact on Americans, excluded agricultural labor, domestic service, and casual labor
National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act
1935 granted workers the right to unionize and bargain collectively with management, established a federal board, that union elections are conducted in an appropriate way so leaders donÂ’t get fired or black balled, unionized labor supoorts Roosevelt
Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
formed in 1938, by John Lewis, bread and butter labor organizations, included women and blacks, rivaled the AFL
-organized sit down strikes, picket, refuse to leave factory, and do not want to destroy the factory
Court-Packing Plan
wants to pact the Supreme Court Justices, wants to add 6 more justices, Judiciary Act- add 50 federal judges across the nation, Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937- requested the authority to add a federal judge whenever an incumbent failed to retire within 6 months of reaching age 70
-Roosevelt got to appoint 7 new judges
Father Coughlin
priest, followed by 30 million Americans, supporter of Roosevelt at first and then against him, demagogue (critics of the government) very radical, appeal to emotions and religions, believes that the wealthy control every aspect in life, anti-Semite, a Roman Catholic priest who in his weekly radio sermons criticized the new deal , blamed on Jewish bankers
Huey Long
critic and demagogue, Democrat, would have gotten the Democratic vote but he was assassinated in 1935, Share The Wealth Program- every man a King, grassroots campaining
-US senator, who supported the New Deal
-wrote the Share Our Wealth Society- which advocated the seizure by taxation of all incomes greater than $1 million an all inheritances of more than $5 million, ASSASSINGATED
Kellogg-Briand Pact
1928, 62 nations agreed to condemn recourse to war for the solution of internal controversies, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy, public policy, war is barbaric
Good Neighbor Policy
1933, US would be less blatant in its domination, less willing to defense exploitative business practices, less eager to launch military expeditions, and less reluctant to consult with Latin Americans
Neutrality Acts
-1935, prohibited arms shipments to either side in a war once the president had declared the existence of belligerency
-1936, forbade loans to belligerents
-1937, introduced the cash-and-carry principle: warring nations wishing to trade with the US would have to pay cash for nonmilitary purchases and carry the goods from US ports in their own ships, forbade Americans from traveling on the ships of belligerent nations
Quarantine Speech
1937 called for quarantine to cub the epidemic of world lawlessnessÂ…refused to declare the existence of war, avoided activation of the Neutrality Acts to help China, says what will guide American foreign policy; he says war is contagious and should be isolated
Lend Lease
1941, US should lend rather than sell weapons, US navy patrolled halfway across the Atlantic, donÂ’t charge them, sent aid to the Allies
Greer Incident
Germany bombs a US ship, gets US involved in the war, said it was an unprovoked attack, but it had added the British, German submarine launched torpedoes at the American destroyer- stated war with Germany
Korematsu vs US
1944, the Court approved the removal of the Nisei from the West Coast, challenged Japanese interment camps, said he was an American citizen and that his rights were being violated. Court said that during time of war Japanese were a threat and could be dealt with, national security right, Apology and $20,000 was given to the surviving Japanese American 1988
government owns everything, communist party is supposedly representing the people, believes that “the people” are running the government, can’t elect government under a communist nation, they come to power through persuasion and propaganda, Stalin rose through the party, can’t have free speech, no classes, no longer owns private property, or means of production
Cold War
Soviet Union was expanding (Poland, Bulgaria, Czech, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania) think that Communism would take over, very aggressive, Germany is divided in 2, Soviet Union and the US competed for power over the fallen powers, Fall of Japan and Germany led to power vacuums
Arms Race
SU and US compete to gain more weapons and build their arms
Berlin Blockade
Soviets cut off Western Land access to Berlin, Truman countered by ordering a massive airlift of food, fuel, and other supplies to Berlin, lifted the blockade in 1949, founded East Germany, Russians cut Berlin off from everything to pressure Allies, America comes to their aid, EVENTUALLY in the 60Â’s Split them up, West Berlin = West Germany, East Berlin = East Germany
Truman Doctrine
response to the Cold War, dramatic speech, said that the policy of the US is to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure, said people should intervene! Wanted to actively support Greece who was being threatened by a communist nation
Domino theory
that small neighboring nations would fall to communism like a row of dominoes if they were not propped up by the US
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO, 1949, US, Canada, and western European nations, military alliance, had a Mutual Defense Assistance Act, alliance- helped each other outÂ… 1st action was 1995
National Security ACT
1947, created the Office of Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, and established the Central Intelligence Agency
Marshall Plan
1947, announced that the US would finance a massive European recovery program, sent $12.4 billion to Western Europe. Give them money but made them buy American products so it boosted both economies, also gave them American products, also wanted to stop communism from spreading. By making them a strong nation, they would not need communist help. Caused inflation, failed to solve a balance-of-payments, spurred impressive western European industrial production and investment, economy grows 40%.
Warsaw Pact
the Soviet, military alliance formed in 1955 with communist countries of eastern Europe, response to NATO
people accused of communist, not given jobs or fired. Public refuses to watch shows and voice their disgust to sponsors who put pressure on the companies to get rid of people
anti-communist, Senator Joseph McCarthy- being in 1950 with a furious speech about anticommunism, accused people of being communist, he made accusations of a communist underground in the government
- Army McCarthy: hearing held by the Senate subcommittee in 1954, became a showcase for the senatorÂ’s abusive treatment of witness, appeared drunk, career as a witch-hunter was over
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
1950, arrested for conspiracy to commit espionage, sentenced to death
Red Channels
-magazine published which accused people of being communist, listed many Hollywood actors, musicians, radio personalities, Jews
HUAC- House Un-American Activities Committee
came to Hollywood to expose communist influence, supported by Ronald Reagan
Betty Friedan
wrote Feminine Mystique (1963), went to Smith, an all womenÂ’s college(very selective) but wasnÂ’t able to make anything of herself, moves to Greenwich and writes for a paper, got fired when she got pregnant. Had to choose between wife and mother or career women, her classmates of Â’56 at Smith find that most women are unhappy, blames media propaganda (magazines).
middle-class kids, went to college, decided to rebel and hang out with junkees, benefiting from funding of society, Go- first Beat novel, written by Ginsberg, Kerouac, Burroughs, and John Clellon Holmes, more intellectual and artistic, against the establishment, pro-drugs, different, those who lived outside the system, lied outside the law, fascinated by criminal life. Howl- Ginsberg, (1955) wrote a long poem, On the Road- written by Jack Kerouac (1957), stream of consciousness not narrative, poem, abstract
Federal Emergency Relief Act
1933, Congress authorized $500 million in aiid to state and local governments
Emergency Banking Relief Bill
1933, Roosevelt's first measure for the New Deal, declared a 4 day national bank holiday, provided for the reopening of banks, under a Treasury Department license, prohibited the hoarding of gold

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