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Posttest 3.20.06


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schizophrenia and culture
Mexican Americans in families with low warmth have an increased risk for relapse with schizophrenia

AngloAmericans from families with high criticism have an increased reisk of relapse with schizophrenia
behavioral marital therapy uses what theories
operant, social and social exchange theory
primary goals of behavioral marital therapy
alter behavior exchanges
increase communication
improve problem solving
structural family therapy
boundaries are a key target
overly rigid or too diffuse, then there is a problem
goal: clear boundaries
Bowenian family therapy
term differentiation
goal of therapy to increase differentiation of self and decrease anxiety
Lockean tradition, Western, individual psychology
ex. Freud, Jung, Adler, Rogers
-emphasizes linear cause-effect
-value free science
non-Western & systems approaches
relativism, collectiveness
transcortical aphasia
affects major speech areas in the left (Dominant)hemisphere when this area becomes blood deprived and isolated from other areas of the brain
-can't verbally describe what he sees/wants
-deficits in language comprehension
-may be able to repeat what others say, but can't initiate
transcortical motor aphasia
can understand but has trouble speaking
transcortical sensory aphasia
problem with comprehension only
beta blocker uses
Inderal (propranolol) decrease anxieties physical sxs.
beta blocker side effects
moderate to severe head injury
-both retrograde and anterograde amnesia
-remote memories return first
solitary-non-social play
-not a sign of less maturity
-goal oriented
-lead to a sense of increased competence
aggressive kids
-focus on cues at the end of a social interaction
-interpret peer behavior as aggressive, expecially if its ambiguous
-have access to fewer responses that are more aggressive and less prosocial
-can believe aggressive behavior will have positive outcomes
Comparision of Freud and Erickson
Oral birth to 18 mths
trust vs. mistrust

Anal 18 to 3 years
autonomy vs. shame

Phallic 3-6
initiative vs. guilt

Latency 6-puberty
industry vs. inferiority
job analysis
process of defining a job in terms of its component tasks or duties and the knowledge or skills required to perform them
job evaluation
an outcome of job analysis. a technigue that attempts to determine the value or worth of particular jobs to organizations so that salaries can be set accordingly.
needs analysis
identifying training needs to determine training program content.
leniency bias
Likert scales are most susceptible to this. occurs when a rater rates a behavior highly regardless of the subjects performance.
forced choice scale
eliminates leniency bias b/c the items have been identified as being of equal social desirability in dyads or triads and requires the rater to pick the item that best describes the ratee.
a type of rating scale that was developed to increase rater reliability, but has not proven to do so
bibliographic information blank--is not a rating scale
Fiedler's Contingency Theory of leader effectiveness

LPC scale
effective leadership is a joint function of the characteristics of the leader and features of the situation.

believed leaders cannot change their leadership style

LPC scale=least preferred co-worker scale

High LPC= person oriented
Low LPC=task oriented

Hi LPC leaders most effective in moderately favorable situations

LO LPC most effective in highly favorable or unfavorable situation
The Premack Principle
type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occurring behavior. ex. kid watches tv after cleaning up his room. watching tv is a frequently occurring behavior used as a reinforcer to clean up the room
serial position effect
people who are asked to recall a list of words immediately after remembering them tend to recall the words at the beginning and the end of the list better than those in the middle.. words at the beginning have been transfered to long term memory and those at the end have been stored in short term memory.
multi-store memory storage
includes 3 distinct memory systems: sensory register, short-term memory and long term memory
referent power
an individual's desire to identify with or be like the influential person
reward power
person controls the desirable rewards
expert power
person has superior knowledge or expertise
legitimate power
person has authority, status, or social position
fundamental attribution bias
when an observer makes an attribution about the behavior of another person
in groups:
1. individuation
2. social trap
3. group polarization
4. group contagion
1. occurs when person feels anonymous as a group member
2. a conflict occurs when behavior has positive short-term consequences with negative long-term consequences
3. tendency of people to make more extreme decision when actin as members of a group than they would have made as individuals
4. transmission of emotion through a crowd or group.
IQ score coefficients
the more genetically similar people are the higher their IQ score coefficient will be
-children and adolescents: 50% of IQ score variability is genetic
-adults: 70-80% of IQ score variability is genetic
IQ score correlations:
1.for identical twins reared together
2. identical twins reared apart
3.biological siblings reared together
4. unrelated individuals reared together
1. .85
2. .70
3. .48
4. .18
WAIS-III performance
1.Verbal IQ
2.Performance IQ
3.Verbal Comprehension
4.Working Memory
5.Perceptual Organization
6.Processing Speed
7.Letter-number sequencing
1. relatively stable until 70-80, the slight decline
2. begins decline at 20
3-6. most stable over lifespan
7.similar to PErformance IQ, declines at 20

Younger people show a greater increase in score on retesting
hypnosis and false memories
hypnosis tends to elicit false memories
in the case of a court ordered evaluation
1. its not necessary to obtain informed consent
2. subject should be told about the purpose of the evaulation
3.if the subject doesn't want to be evaluated, person's attorney should be consulted
standard error of the mean
is the standrad deviation of the sampling distribution of means and serves as an index of sampling error.

standard error increases as the numerator increases or the denominator decreases
research study design
1. counterbalanced
2. mixed
3. natural groups
4. between groups
1.presenting the different levels of the IV to different subjects or groups in different orders

2. where 1 variable is a between groups variable and the other is a within subjects variable

3. describes a study in which the IV is an organismic variable (IQ)

4. comparisons of different levels of the IV are made between different groups
statistics for making comparisions between studies
effect size most effective
level of significance, probablity that the null hypothesis is FALSE
kappa coefficient
used to evaluate inter-rater reliability
effect size
the index calcualted when conducting a meta-analysis. Converts data from different studies to a common metric so the results can be directly compared
coefficient alpha
used to assess internal consistency reliability
to calculate a 68% confidence interval
+/- 1 standard error of measurement
Pearson r
both variables are measured on a continous scale
Biserial correlation coefficient
one variable is an artificial dichotomy (a continuous variable that has been artifically or arbitrarily dichotomized) and the other variable is continuous
Spearman rho
used when both vairables are expressed in terms of ranks
point serial correlation
when one variable is a true dichotomy and the other is continuous
World Health Organization studies on schizophrenia
course and outcome differences between developing and industrialized countries. developing countries more likely to have acute onset, shorter clinical course, and complete remission
greatest risk for suicide
older, divorced, widowed men
semantic memory
memories of meaning and understanding and other factual knowledge/concepts
episodic memory
recollection of events, time, place and emotion
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
greater loss for recent memories than remote memories
Richard Stuart's operant-interpersonal approach to marital therapy
involves subtefuge, manipulation and misinterpretation as examples of negative exchanges
quid pro qua in marital therapy
something for something exchange
marital schism in marital therapy
charaterized by disharmony, self-preoccupation, and freq. threats of divorce
ulterior transactions in marital therapy
in transactional analysis, involve more than 2 eo states and contain social and psychological components, some of which are communicated non-verbally
transactions between people
1. complementary transactions
2. symmetrical transactions
3. parallel transactions
1. between unequals
2. between equals
3. combo of complementary and symmetrical
if a stroke effects the right hemisphere (non-dominant) pt. more likely to exhibit
unilateral (contralateral) neglect and involves the left side of the body
conduction aphasia & ideomotor apraxia
left hemisphere damage
Gerstmann's syndrome
4 primary symptoms
damage to left parietal lobe
finger agnosia
left-right disorientation
damage to the hippocampus
impacts memory most, memory consolidation, explicit memory and spatial memory
damage to medial temporal area
1. autobiographical memory
2. semantic memoroy
3. spatial memory
damage to prefrontal cortex
impacts short term memory
in their 80s and 90s 3 Big 5 personality traits change
agreeableness and acceptance increase, sociability decreases
preoperational child
unable to conserve due to cognitive limitations
Piaget cognitive limitations of the preoperational child
1. irreversibility: refers to the inability to undertand than an operation can be reversed

2.transductive reasoning: child's tendency to see a causal relationship in sequential events when none exist

3. centration-focusing on 1 aspect of a situation while ignorning others-primary reason why preoperational children can't conserve
Piaget & decentration
energes in concrete operational stage and allows a child to conserve
Stability of Big 5 personality traits
longitudinal and cross sectional students suggest they are stable until late adulthood
Holland's approach to career counselling of a highly differentiated person
resembles 1 persoanlity type and no other. Also have more accurate predictions of personality-occupational match
Donald Super and Career Maturity
-stage theory w/ 5 stages:exploration,establishment, maintenance and disengagement
-refers to the individual's mastery of tasks at each developmental stage
Thorndike and Woodworth
I/O identical elements
transfer of training is maximized when there are identical elements in the learning and performance settings
poor metacognitive skills (knowing about knowing)
an inability to monitor one's own cognitive processes
1. personalization
2. arbitrary inference
3. selective abstraction
4. dichotomous thinking
all terms of cognitive distortions-BECK
1.when a person attributes external events to self w/o evidence supporting such a causal connection
2. drawing a specific conclusion w/o supporting evidence or in the face of contradictory evidence
3. a person inteprets a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
4. categorizing an experience in terms of 1 of 2 extremes (black and white thinking)
Moscovi and social influence/conformity
-proposed that to be influential, a minority must become visible to other grop members and create tension or conflict that causees members of the majority to reconsider their position
-a minority that sticks to his position is most successful in swaying the opinion of the majority
research on crowding in lab studies of dorm living
is inconsistent. women show more distress in crowded dorm rooms than men. women increase their interactions where men simply leave the situation
impact of sexually explicit movies on men
-rate their own partners as less attractive
-more likely to rape if they could get away with it
-recommend more lenient prison sentences for a convicted rapist
-more likely to view a woman's friendliness as sexual
Raven Colored Progressive Matrices
a 36 item test of intelligence that uses figural test stimuli presented in a 6-option MC format.
nonverbal test. appropriate for non-English speaking children and for kids with speech impediments
Name the BIG 5 personality traits-atheoretical
consientiusness extroversion/introversion
openness to experience
emotional stability
-derived by factor analysis and the lexical approach
protocol analysis
have a person think aloud while problem solving, record the words, and analyze the trancript of the recording
trend analysis
analysis of the variance that is used when the IV is quantitative, helps identify patterns/trends
test/retest reliability
if a test is supposed to measure stable traits, then you would want to make sure the scores were stable over time.
-indicates the total amount of variability in a set of tests or other variables that is explained by an identified component or factor
-is calculated for each component extracted in a principal component analysis (factor analysis)
early signs of AIDS dementia complex
lapses in concentration
dificulty walking
social withdrawl
Huntington's Disease dementia
disorganized speech
lack of initiative
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease dementia
concentration problems
sleep disturbances
Pick's Disease dementia
behavioral disinhibition
reduced speech production
neglect of personal hygiene
adolescent suicide attempts
girls attempt more; boys complete more
increases with age
ass w/ poor social skills, poor school achievement (but not low IQ), parental separation/divorce
Prognosis for schizophrenia ass/w

Best prognosis sxs.?
Worst prognosis scs.?
-gender, age, type of onset, predominant sxs. presence of precipitating event, family hx.
-females, later age of onset, +positive sxs. which respond to medication better
-male, early onset, -sxs.
positive sxs. of schizophreneia?
disorganized speech
disorganized behavior
catatonic behavior
negative sxs. of schizophreneia?
-affective flattening
-alogia (poverty of speech)
-avolition (inability to iniate or persist with tasks)
motivational interviewing
Miller and Rollinick
an approach designed to help clients build commitment and readines to change. based on teh assumption that interventions are most effective when they are match to the individual's level of readiness
repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse vs. continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse and pathology in both groups
repressed memory women scored higher on dissociation, sxs. of depression and PTSD than those with continuous memories
Focus of Gestalt therapy
contact (here and now), conscious awareness (focused attention when required), and experimentation (trying something new to increase understanding).
ADHD linked with
frontal lobe activity and dopamine depletion
Prospective memory (ability to remember to perform an intended action at a particular point of time in the future)
linked to prefrontal lobe and executive functioning
Damage to the right hemisphere of the brain results in:
indifference, apathy, denial of one's disabilities, verbal disihibition (joke in sarcastic or childish manner about one's disabilities)
Damage to left frontal lobe
depressed mood
mood fluctuations,anxiety, irritability
bilateral hemispheric lesions
pathological laughing and crying
attachment theory
internal working models (general rules about self and others in intimate relationships) develop in early childhood
involves transference with therapist
positive transference=secure attachments
negative transference=insecure attachments
impact of early temperment on adjustment at 21
temperment at age 3 predicts behavior at 21 for children classified as undercontrolled, inhibited (slow to warm up), or well-adjusted

inhibited children were most likely to report depression and low levels of social support at 21
management philosophy

1.transactional leaders

2.transformational leaders
1. employee behaviors are goal directed and they will act rationally
use contingent rewards as motivators
laissez-faire leadership

2. employees will function best if treated individually and given personal attention.
equity theory and employee motivation
proposes that a worker compares his input/outcoem ratio to the ratio of another worker performing the same or similar job. When rations seem equal the worker is motivated to continue peforming at the same level. Unequal ratios have an effect on motivation, performance and other job outcomes.
Beck's constructs
voluntary thoughts
automatic thoughts
cognitive schemas
cognitive distortions
automatic thoughts
spontaneously triggered by a specific circumstance and accompanied by an emotional reaction, less accessible, more stable

tx focuses on inaccurate automatic thoughts
cognitive distortions
systematic errors in reasonnig that are evident during times of psychological distress
cognitive therapy and
1.all or nothing thinking
4.emotional reasoning
1.evaulate performance or personal qualities in terms of black and white categories.
2.arbitrarily drawing the conclusion that a single negative event will happen over and over
3. a person sees something as being far more significant than it really is
4.I feel; therefore I am
court ordered evaluation and informed consent
court ordered evaluations preclude the need for an informed consent, even if the person is a minor. However, the evaluee ALWAYS has the right to know the purpose and procedure of the evaluation
managed care and legal liability
best method is proper credentialing attesting to competent providers
managed care and cost containment strategies
capitation, utilization review, behavioral health carve outs
Tic Disorder NOS
dx. of a tic disorder after age 18
Atypical Tic Disoder does not exist!
4 Tic Disorders
Chronic, Tourette's, Transient, and Tic Disorder NOW
Schizophrenia predictors
best predictor of the future is past performance
Reactive Attachment Disorder dx.
characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally -inappropriate social relations in most context
-must include evidence of pathogenic care
-sxs. begin before age 5
Kernberg and object relations fundamental premise
early social relations impact future social situations
3 types of prevention:
1.aimed at reducing development and incidence of mental disorders

2. target individuals who have begun to exhibit sxs. of a disorder

3. have a disorder and goal is to reduce the risk for chronicity and relapse and anxillary problems
Chodorow's object relations approach to feminist theory
mother's react differently to female and male children which contributes to gender differences in social relatedness and personality
Weber's Law
the more intense the stimulus the greater the change in intensity that must occur for the person to perceive the change
Steven's Law
the psychological magnitude of a sensation is proportional to the power of the stimulus producing it.
Most common Ritalin Side effects
loss of appetite
abdominal pain
Lithium side effects
weight gain
benzodiazepine side effects in elderly
memory loss
side effects of analgesics and anti-inflammatory in elderly
bizarre/hostile behavior
side effect neuroleptics of in elderly
extrapyramidal sxs.
cardiovascular effects
Jerome Kagan and hi and lo reactive infants
-heavily influenced by genetics
-early levels of reactivity are predictive of future behavior
-15-20% of children born into secure homes have an inherited tendency to be highly reactive
Piaget and equilibration
involves a combination of assimilation and accomodation and is motivated by a drive for balance or order
Sadker and Sadker research on how teachers treat their students
1. Boys call out answers more in class and are picked more by teachers than girls

2.Boys receive more positive AND negative attention from teachers

3.White and minority boys get more teacher attention than White and minority girls

4. girls are sexually harassed by their teachers more than boys
moderator variable linked to differential validty
whenever a characteristic is acting as a moderator variable, this means that the validity coefficients forthe predictor and criterion are different for groups that differ in terms of that variable.
Abraham Maslow and hierarchy of needs and self-actualization
based on his clinical work with patients, students, and study of highly productive people. people have different needs.
calibration (confidence calibration)
cognition literature: the degree of similarity between a person's level of confidence about being successful on a task and the actual success or accuracy of the person on the task.
means-end analysis
problem-solving technique that involves identifying goals, the current situation, and what is needed to achieve the goals
using assimilation and accomodation to gain understanding of new information or a new event
resolution (confidence discrimination
ability to discreminate between what one knows and doesn't know
used in verbal learning tasks
1. paried associate-respond to one member of a pair when presented with the other member
2. serial learning task-individual learns and recalls a list of words in a particular order
Abramson and hopelessness depresseion
1. hopelessness is a cause, but NOT a sxs.of hopelessness depression
2. Attributions are contributors to depression to the degree that they foster feelings of hopelessness
3. hopelessness is a sufficient cause
4. 9 core sxs. of hopelessness depression
-retarded initiation of voluntary responses
-sad affect
-suicidal behaviors
-lack of energy
-psychomotor retardation
-sleep disturbance
-difficulty in concerntration
-mood-exacerbated negative cognitions
Tx for PTSD
Foa et al.
prolonged exposure was more beneficial in terms of both PTSD sxs. and depression that stress inoculation training and the combined. All 3 are effective, but prolonged exposure is the best.
Autistic people and pragmatic (social) use of language (in higher functioning Autistic pts.)
have problems with:
social use of language
inability to understand humor,
irony and implied meaning
Best medication for RAPID and effective tx. of tardive dyskensia?
benzopiazepenes: diazepam and clonazepam
another word for "traditional neuroleptic medication" in schizophrenia
antipsychotic drugs.
Hallucinations improve with antipsychotic/neuroleptic drugs
elicited imitation tasks indicate that the ability to recall the past begins
much in 6-12 mths of life!
by 24 mths children aer able to provide verbal evidence of long-term recall of earlier events
Patterson and his parent training program and aggressive children
-freq. fail to connect their punishments to the child's behavior
-do not state clear rules
-do not consistently punish rule violations
Assessing the perceptual abilities of a 3-4 mth old infant
heart rate

head turning is for 5 y.o. and up!
Top 3 characteristics on which young children discriminate
age, gender: before 1 y.o.

race: preschool age
multiple regression is ALWAYS use for
PREDICTING! add and subtract variables to see their influence on the IV
young, white, females and crisis hotlines
most freq. callers
dominant population
most likely to be depressed
most freq. suicide attempts
Drug of choice to treat OCD?
Master's and Johnson
sex therapy
most effective with premature ejaculation b/c of the "squeeze technique" for prolonging ejaculation
loss of language function due to brain impairment
Wernicke's Aphasia
fluent output
impaired repetition
poor comprehension
Conduction Aphasia
fluent output
impaired repetition
intact comprehension
global aphasia
nonfluent output
disturbed repetition
abnormal comprehension
Broca's aphasia
nonfluent output
poor repetition
intact comprehension
ethics of working with a couple or family
the couple or family is considered the cl. and takes precedence over individual need
Kuder-Richardson statistical test high coefficient means
the test is homogenouse
used to assess internal consistency reliability with dichtomous variables
team working on inter-dependent tasks
Locke and Latham research, founders of goal-setting theory
optimal to set goals for group and individuals in the group
active ingredient of systematic desensitization
extinction: the repeated exposure to the conditioned stimulus without the the unconditioned stimulus
characteristics of Alzheimer's Dementia
illusions and hallucinations
depression and anxiety
visuospatial impairments
Vascular Dementia
dementia brought on by impaired blood flow
hemiparesis: paralysis of one side of the body
hemiplegia: vertical portion of body is weak or paralyzed
sensory loss
visual field deficits
dysphasia: partial or complete loss of ability to read, write, speak, understand
structural family therapy is concerned with?
restructing the family homeostatis...which means introducing stress to unbalance the boundaries can be realigned
primary cause of mental retardation?
50-75% due to genetic abnormalities, congenital infections, other prenatal factors
Rorschach confabulation
overgeneralizing 1 part of the inkblot to the entire inkblot. Suggests brain damage, mental retardation, or emotional disturbance
release of records to 3rd parties for peer review
in court ordered evaluations, inform the client, but don't need informed consent

in the case of an insurance company requesting for peer review, confidentiality is relaxed somewhat, you trust the insurance company will protect client's identity...and then only release what pertains to the peer review, not the entire record
testing without adequate training
always refer to a trained not do the evals yourself
declarative memory

2 types
stores facts and events, subject to forgetting. People can discuss/declare these memories

type 1-episodic; memory of a specific moment in time and place

type 2 semantic: Fact knowledge independent of time and place context
procedural memory
how to do something, memory of skill set
Alzheimer's have problems with ? memory
Depressed people have problems with ? memory?
children from divorced families vs. conflictual families
post divorce children do BETTER than if they had stayed in a conflictual relationship

contact with non-custodial parents only good if there is cooperation and low conflict between parents
transformational leaders
help employees put needs of organization first, over self-needs
Career: Holland's 6 occupational themes
job satisfaction, performance, etc. are directly related to the degree of congruence between the person's basic personalisty and the nature of the work environment
Career: Super's theory emphasized
role of self-concept in vocational development and choice
Career: ERG theory emphazided
theory of motivation tha posits 3 basic needs (existence, relatedness, and growth)
Career: Roe's theory emphasized
relationship between childhood experience and occupational choice
McGuire and persuasive messages. When are we least likely to change our opinions?
when the person had been previously exposed to the persuasive argument and refutations. Called this "inoculation" of information about a topic to resist persuasion
You've been supeoned by an attorney and the client does NOT waive confidentiality
have your attorney contact their attorney and try to work out a compromise


attend the deposition and assert privilege
Flanagan's "critical incident" technigue
have supervisors observe employees and identify specific behaviors associated with particularly effective and ineffective job performance.
temporary side effect of Prozac (fluoxetine)
temporary increase in anxiety and and sleep problems
reducing prejudice in children
have them work towards a common goal
strategic family therapists will assign?
strategies and homework assignments that will foster family members recognition of the conflict between family members
side effect of ECT
memory loss. less with unilateral, right hemisphere shock than bilateral shock
Larry P vs. Riles case re: black children and IQ tests were ruled
can't be used b/c the tests resulted in a disproportionate number of black children being placed in dead end (EMR) classes
what is the most common diagnoses among elderly, psychiatric patients?
Dementia by 50%
Fear of death studies
college students' fear of death linked to desire to help the elderly

moderately religious people fear death the most

fear of death most associated with age, with middle aged being more fearful than young or elderly
work group demographics
heterogeniety is prefered over homogeniety, but there is also a higher turnover in these work groups if there are clashes between members
overjustification hypothesis of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
when an external award is given to a person performing an intrinsicaly rewarding activity, the person's intrinsic activity will decrease. Feminist Bem's research suggests that a woman, observing herself, would conclude that her behavior was driven by the external reward, not the intrinsic interest. A woman would devalue her intrinsic interest in the face of an external reward.
infants exposed to cocaine in utero
highly sensitive to environmental stimuli
effects of overlearning
good long term recall and resistance to extinction

good for short term and long term recall
BARS is an acronym for
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
with a BARS scale scale points are achored with:
critical incidents. "anchor" and "critical incidents" can be used interchangeably
Kohlberg's levels of moral development
-punishment and obedience
-kids 4-10

Conventional: moral judgement designed to make the person look good and avoid censure
-good boy/nice girl
-law and order

Postconventional: not reached by most adults
-concern for social order
-meeting criteria set by one's conscious
-legalistic orientation
-universal Ethical Principles
when managed care refuses to pay for services therapist knows are essential, what does therapist do?
file an appeal with managed care entity
Underlying premise of Ellis' RET therapy
irrational thoughts and beliefs
Underlying premise of Rogerian therapy
incongruence between self and experience
Underlying premise of Beck's therapy
one's automatic thoughts
Underlying premise of Perl's Gestalt therapy
lack of awareness
lithium is most effective with what type of Bipolar disease?
classic bipolar
most effective drug for rapid cycling and mania with anxiety/depression
carbamazepine (Tegretol)
rational decision making and Herbert Simon
fails b/c employee takes first possible solution to a problem rather than searching further for an optimal solution
Thomas and Chess goodness-of-fit model relates to?
childrearing. adjustment in children is related to the degree of congruence between a child's basic temperment and his parents' caregiving
what percentage of LD kids have an ADHD dx. as well?
Can children be dx. with GAD? with this often display perfectionism, filled with self-doubt, exhibit physical anxiety sxs. headache, stomach ache
80% rule for minority employment
when African American's are hired at a rate LESS than 80%, then they are likley being discriminated against.
depressed children often present with?
psychomotor agitation and somatic complaints and mood congruent hallucinations
depressed adolescents present with?
antisocial behaviors, drug/alcohol abuse, aggressiveness, sulkiness, uncooperativeness, social withdrawal, school problems
depressed elderly present with?
concentration problems, apathy, inattentiveness
Helm's White Identity Development Model
-oblivious of racism
-don't understand racism
-don't recognize their biases

-conflict over unresolvable racial moral dilemmas
-believe they are non-racist, but don't want daughter to marry a black man
-not admitting oppression exists, yet witnesses oppression

-resolves dissonance of previous stage by regressing to a superiority model, and ethnic groups are blamed for their own problems

-a more intellectual exercise
-attempts to understand racial issues
-based on people that are like themselves

-beginning to question what it means to be white
-willingness to truly confront own biases
-more active in combating racism

-increased awareness of Whiteness
-reduced feelings of guilt
-renewed commitment to abandon White entitlement
Factors that put people over 60 at risk for delirium
-advanced age
-medical illness/surgery
-rapid withdrawal from ETOH
Jung and transference
an aspect of projection by client to therapist
medulla function
breathing and heart rate, vital functions
hippocampus function
part of limbic system but more about memory than emotion
reticular activating system function
mediates attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles
when wanting to determine the amount of content a person has learned what type scores are most useful?
content or criterion referenced scores
expectancy tables
good when wanting to predict performance on another measure
stanine scores
are about comparing an individual to a norm-referenced group
percentile ranks
are also about comparing to a norm-referenced group
hypnosis is more likely to produce
more memories in general with increased false memories
research by Levinson re: mid-life crisis
age 40-45 often a shift in perspective from time from birth to time before death
primary function of state licensing boards?
establish minimum requirements of competence
parametric and nonparametric tests assumptions about the population
that the sample has been randomly selected
therapist self-disclosure in group re: Yalom's belief
advocates FOR self-disclosure, therapist acts as role model and facillitates interpersonal learning. must be well timed and thru a filter of responsibility
incremental validity of a predictor is determined by several factors, including validity coefficient, selection ratio, and base rate. When does a predictor have greatest incremental validity?
when the seletion ratio is low (lots of applicatns for a job) and the base rate is moderate (the current selection technique is moderately accurate
participant modeling: Bandura
is most effective when live modeling is coupled with guided participation
Piaget preoperational stage
-ages 2-7
-insight learning
-centration: inability to hold 2 dimensions at the same time
covert sensitization
a type of aversive conditioning in which the aversive stimulus is imagined. The goal is to DECREASE the behavior.
the most troubling ethical issue for psychologists is
immersion phase of Cross's Racial Identity Model, what type therapist are folks most likely to want?
a same race therapist
what part of the brain anatomy has been linked most regularly in schizophrenia
enlargement of the ventricles
use of a collection agency to collect delinquent fees
ethical if the cl. has been told this upfront, as a way of dealing with deliquent fees, or, informs cl. about this potential action BEFORE it is done
ratio of autism in boys vs. girls
4 times more likely
in the case of a colleague acting unethically one can
try to handle it informally...or file a report with the ethics committe. Cl. confidentiality must always be considered
effect size and meta-analysis
is a way to create a standardized mean difference between experimental and control groups. it gives the difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of standard deviation units.

involves subtracting the control group mean from the experimental group mean and dividing the result by the control grp. standard deviation or the poold within-group standard deviation.
which has the lowest reliability?
7-response mc
5-reponse mc
free recall
test reliability is an index of the degree to which scores on the test are free from random error (chance factors) and indicative of examinee's true scores. The greater the probability that an examinee can answer an tiem correctly by guessing it, the lower the test's reliability
primary gain is a goal of what DSM-IV dx.?
conversion disorder: acheived thru the symbolic expression of an underlying conflict ina physical sxs. such as paralysis or blindness
who seek therapy more often?
gays or heterosexuals?
gays, men and women...over heterosexual men and women
Herzberg's theory of job satisfaction and motivation
job responsibility and job context factors increase motivation
who have the highest rates of psychiatric admission?
-never married men
-age 25-44
examples of norm referenced scores?
percentile ranks
grade-equivalent scores
criterion referenced score?
among adolescents, suicide is most associated with?
affective disorders, conduct or antisocial disorder, substance abuse
function of state licensing boards?
set entry-level qualifications for licensure and monitoring the conduct of licensed psychologists.
what neurotransmitter is abnormally high in schizophrenia?
increased norepinephrine
high serotonin
reduced GABA
ethics of sexual relationships with students/supervisees
don't do when in a position of power
is it ethical to see a pt. who is already seeing a psychiatrist?
it is necessary to consider the tx. issues and potential cl.'s welfare. needs to be discussed with cl. and perhaps with other clinician

Deck Info