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Baker Test 3

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What is the formula for computing some one's IQ?
IQ=(mental age)/(chronological age) X 100
What is meant by AGREEABLENESS in the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE)?
Someone who is high in agreeableness is somebody who will be willing to let other people suggest. An easy person to be around. Somebody who is agreeable.
What is the definition of motivation?
Motivation - an inner state energizes towards the fulfillment of a goal.
What are two symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)?
1.Re-living the event, 2.Nightmares about the event, 3. Intrusive hallucinations, 4.Dissociative experiences
What are the components of the (WAIS) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
Wechsler consists of 2 components with 9 subtests each. 5 are Verbal subtests and the others are Performance (non-verbal). By administering the test you can have a verbal IQ score and a performance IQ score and then a full scale score which is a combination of the verbal and non-verbal.
How does a psychologist confirm the diagnosis of depression?
Depression is confirmed or diagnosed if five (5) or more of the twelve (12) DSM symptoms must be present for at least two (2) weeks and they must represent a change. And one of the symptoms must be either Sad/Depress mood or Anhedonia.
What is Reaction Formation from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Reaction Formation is engaging in a behavior that's opposite to what you want to do. So if you Repress what it is that you'd want to do, and then you do the opposite, it will help you keep control over that unwanted behavior.
How does the development of the Oedipus complex in Freud's psychosexual stages of development illustrate the defense mechanism IDENTIFICATION from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
The resolution to the Oedipus complex was "Identification" with the same sex parent, you are living vicariously, you identify with the same sex parent.
Why is the diagnosing of psychological disorders somewhat arbitrary?
Unlike other medical problems such as pneumonia or diabetes. There's no empirical test, the diagnosing is base on symptoms, and there is an arbitrary cut off.
What does "A" stand for in the acronym OCEAN?
Agreeableness
What is the Bell shaped Curve representative of?
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes most scores fall near the average; fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
What is Aagoraphobia?
What is Aagoraphobia? Aagoraphobia is the fear of the marketplace. What it means in terms of the diagnosis is that they don't go out of their house.
What is False memory?
False memory is where the mind is capable of remembering things that didn't happen.
What was Baddeley's memory model saying about short term memory?
What was Baddeley's memory model saying about short term memory?
Does the Trait Theory of Personality satisfy the full definition of psychology?
The Traits Theory of Personality does not attempt to explain why you have these traits, it does not attempt to modify, there's nothing in trait theory about how you can change a trait or even saying that you should. It is just describing that this is the way that the person is, and predicting that a person with these traits will be good at these but not good with that.
If somebody has got a fairly low verbal IQ but a fairly normal performance IQ what does this mean?
We can infer from that that they have some kind of learning disability.
What types of people work in industrial organizational psychology?
Examples may be guidance counselors and people that work in the personnel department of many companies. They apply psychology to issues relating to task oriented groups such as those in the workplace or in non-workplace settings.
What instrument is employed by the Freudians to access the unconscious besides dream interpretation?
The Freudians used this kind of testing called PROJECTIVE TESTING to access the unconscious.
What are the important statistics for Depression?
Depression occurs in women 2-3X more than men. Women are 5-10X more likely to attempt suicide than men. Men are 3-4X more successful with suicides, men tend to use more violent means.
What is the relation between Psychosis and Schizophrenia?
Psychosis is Split off from personality can not be distinguish between reality and imagination. Schizophrenia - Most common type of psychosis, afflicts 1 % of the world's population.
Can we use Psychotherapy to treat Schizophrenia?
No. Schizophrenia almost always only responds with medications.
What are the 3 main components of Information Processor Model of Memory?
(1)Sensory Memory (Iconic - Visual information & Echoic - Auditory (hearing) memory) (2)Short Term Memory (same as "consciousness") (3)Long term Memory - there's no limit (infinite).
What is the fastest acting treatment for depression?
ECT, Electro Convulsive Therapy, about 2-3 sessions.
What are the three techniques that the Freudians used to access the unconscious?
One is free association and psychoanalysis, the second one is dream interpretation, and the third is projective testing.
Why do we have defense mechanisms according to Freud?
The ID is entirely unconscious, and the ID has these drives and motivations that make you want to do things that you are not suppose to do. So in order to protect oneself from these drives, Freud believed we engaged in these defense mechanisms.
What is the executive component in Braddeley's memory model?
Executive Function which corresponds or produces "attention". This is located in the pre-frontal cortex of our brain.
How do the anxiety disorder of Specific phobias develop?
Specific phobias are phobias for a specific thing that's why it's call a specific phobia. They are categories, animals, environmental, and weather. Besides either observing something terrible happening or having something terrible happened to you. It is Genetics. Both Nature and Nurture.
Why is fat good from an evolutionary perspective?
Fat is the most energy dense of the three food types. In a world where you can't go to the supermarket when you start running out of food, being able to have fat is a very important survival mechanism. As a consequence, we've developed a taste for fat.
Explain what anxiety is from the Freudian perspective.
Freudians believed that anxiety is the EGO sensing that it is being overpowered by the ID.
What is Projective Testing and what is its purpose?
Projective test is that some type of ambiguous stimulus is presented to an individual and they are asked to say what it is they see. And according to those that believe in the importance of the unconscious and in projection, the individual will talk about themselves in describing what it is they see.
How is depression an example of both an emotion and mood what differentiates the two?
An emotion can turn into a mood. When you find out somebody that you'd cared about somehow dies. You'll have an emotion, that emotion may be depression. Usually Emotion is different from a mood, mood is longer lasting while emotion is of a shorter duration. Short lasting.
Who came up with the concept of I.Q. = Intelligence Quotient?
William Lewis Stern was the inventor of the concept of the intelligence quotient.
How did Costa & McFrae develop their Model?
Through factor analysis, it was possible for Costa & McFrae to reduce the five thousand words in a dictionary down to five basic traits. These are the 5 traits (OCEAN) in the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE).
What is Repression from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
What Repression is, is keeping the unwanted thoughts and desires out of consciousness, pushing them down, keeping them unconsciousness.
What does Developmentally Delayed mean?
Developmentally delay means a delay in their performance. Their IQ would be 2 or more SD away from the mean.
What is the acceptable normal fat density for men and women?
In men it is around 20% and in women it's around 30% (average body fat). As you get older the percentage of fat in your weight increases. As you get older, you are a little bit slower, so you need to carry a little more fat with you, cause it will be a little harder for you to catch up with your next meal.
What does "E" stand for in the acronym OCEAN?
Extraversion
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is the ability to interact successfully with the environment.
How can you determine the traits of some one?
Through the administration of trait evaluation instruments such as the (MMPI) the Minnasota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. And it is a test which determines whether you are high or low on different traits.
Define Mustabatory Ideation
Albert Ellis says that people are always "Mustabating", and that's why they are unhappy. And really, when you put it in your mind that way, it makes the failure to achieve that all the more intolerable
What is the incidence of Schizophrenia?
World wide the prevalence is 1%, but it's 7-10% with 1st degree relatives and 50% with identical twins.
What is Visualization?
To visualize that you are indeed some place not anxiety provoking.
What is the definition of Language?
Language is the systematic way of communication which uses symbols and the rules for combining them.
What is a Panic disorder?
Panic disorder is when in response to a panic attack you drastically alter your life to avoid another panic attack.
What are the short falls of intelligence tests such as Wechsler's?
That they have a culture bias.
What is IDENTIFICATION from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
IDENTIFICATION - You identify with someone or something else, where you experience pleasure, you live vicariously through the accomplishment of others.
What are the class of medications given for depression?
This family of drugs are called TRICYCLICS, it was the 1st generation. The next generation of drugs are the SSRI's (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors).
What is the nature aspect of motivation?
Every behavior that you engage in exists because there is a circuit in your brain that produced that behavior.
Why do you think it is that some of the psychotic symptoms like hallucinations occur when people take drugs like amphetamine or cocaine?
Because they are an agonist for dopamine.
What is meant by the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is as a result of high levels of dopamine in the brain.
What is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
An anxiety disorder characterized by flashbacks and recurrent thoughts of life-threatening or other traumatic events.
How does Freud satisfy the full definition of psychology?
Freud kind of tries to do all four, he tries to explain like he has these psychosexual stages of development. And he predicts that if you have over gratification or under gratification, you will have a certain kind of personality type. And he uses psychoanalysis to modify behavior, so he attempts to describe, explain, predict and modify behavior.
What does the adaptive preparedness say about how we can develop a phobia?
Adaptive Preparedness model says that whether it is by association or observation, the thing for which you developed a specific phobia, must be something that there's a circuit in your brain which makes every body cautious about that.
What percentage of the population suffers from depression?
Something like 15% of the population have depression, but if you have a first degree relative with depression, you are about 2-3X more likely to develop depression.
What percentage of women, following giving birth experience a full blown major depressive episode and what type of depression is it?
About 15% of women following giving birth experience a full blown major depressive episode. It's called Post Partum Depression
What are some of the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
Muscle Tension, Insomnia, Difficult concentrating, Fatigue, Constant worrying.
What are some of the symptoms of a Panic Attack?
Racing heart, Difficulty breathing, Sweating, Trembling, Need to escape, Believe you are going to die, Short lasting.
How is fat related to the blood sugar level?
Fat tastes sweet to us. We have taste for sugar, that's what our brain runs on.
What is the personality component in Freud's model that corresponds to the Costa & McFrae Model?
Freud calls it the SuperEgo, it's the internalized rules and regulations of your primary care giver. This is like the CONSCIENTIOUSNESS trait in Costa & McFrae's Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE).
What's the difference between Bipolar and Manic depression?
It's the same disorder, the same collection of symptoms, it's just been given a new name.
Why do we love fat so much?
Long ago, fat was a very special thing that when you can get your hands on it the Nucleus Accumbens (the pleasure center, the "do it again" center) will get active.
What is an acute disease?
Depression is an acute disease, in order to meet the criteria for depression, you have to have NOT been like this and this has to represent a change in the way you are
How does classical conditioning apply in our Special Education system?
There are also people who are obviously intelligent but do not have good verbal skills. When they are placed in these special education classes, they see that the others are less intelligent and assumes that they must be the same. This leads to low self-esteem.
What are the symptoms of Schizophrenia?
Positive symptoms are presences of behaviors not found in "normals", 1.Hallucinations - sensory experiences not shared by others. 2.Delusions - beliefs not shared by others. Negative symptoms are absence of behaviors found in "normals", 1. Flattened affect - The absence of emotion. 2. Avolition - not initiating behavior.3. Alogia - don't speak, no language. They just don't talk.
What are two symptoms of Generalize Anxiety Disorder (GAD)?
1.Muscle Tension, 2.Insomnia, 3.Difficult concentrating, 4.Fatigue, 5.Constant worrying
Who was credited with the Five Factor Model of Personality?
Costa & McFrae.
What is the different between the Five Factor Model of Personality and the Trait Theory of Personality?
There is no different, rather, the Five Factor Model is a more detailed development based on Trait Theory of Personality. Allport said that there are some basic personality traits, through factor analysis, it was possible for Costa & McFrae to reduce the five thousand words in a dictionary down to five basic traits.
What are the results that can be obtained from the administration of (MMPI) the Minnasota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory?
Based on the things you say you like or dislike, this tests and other tests of trait, they kind of determine where you stand relative to the average.
What is meant by CONSCIENTIOUSNESS in the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE)?
It's kind of like conscience, Its that little thing in your brain that tells you what you're suppose to do. It keeps track of your responsibilities. So you could say responsibility.
What is the Trait Theory of Personality?
The basic conception of personality, from this approach is that there are certain traits and everyone has them, what differs from one person to another is the extend to which that particular trait exists, its very powerful or not so powerful.
What is consider a traumatic event?
It is an event that results from an overwhelming and unexpected event which the individual is helpless to do anything about, and threatens their life.
What's the name of the book that has the listing of the of the psychological disorders?
DSM 4TR
What does "O" stand for in the acronym OCEAN?
Openess
What is the definition of a psychological disorder?
A behavior or a mental state that causes distress or impairment.
Which is the most untreatable and the most responsive of the psychological disorders?
One of the most untreatable disorders unfortunately is PTSD. One of the ones which is most responsive, is actually panic disorder.
How does the Trait Theory of Personality demonstrate the predict component in psychology?
What Allport said is, that there are some basic personality traits that every body has, and everybody is just somewhere on that standard distribution.
What is characterized in Wechsler's and Gardner's intelligence models?
Wechsler comes along and states that there is 2 components: Verbal intelligence and a non-verbal intelligence. Gardner's model is of 8 intelligences.
What is Existentialism?
Existentialism is a belief that there is no meaning to life other than what you give it.
What is the violence in TV, nature or nurture?
Nurture, the environment.
Will violence in media always cause violence in individuals?
There needs to be a biological component as well, so everybody who watches TV isn't going to become violent, every one who watches violence in the movies will not become violent. But if you have the genetic pre-disposition and you are exposed to this violence through the media, there is a good possibility that this you will contribute to and whether you act on the genetic make up.
What is the Humanist approach to Psychology?
Humanist believe that we do have free will. Not only that they believe we have free will, but they also believe that exercising free will is essential to mental well being, mental health.
What is Visuospatial sketchpad?
One of the working memory dealing with images, which Baddeley used to explain short term memory. Visuospatial sketchpad is important in the memory of images non-verbal. This occurs in the right hemisphere, in the parietal lobe.
Which Psychological Approach is based on Operant Conditioning?
The Behaviorist approach to a great extent is based on Operant conditioning. So it's sometimes called behavior modification. By manipulating rewards and punishments.
What is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).?
This test has about a dozen cards, each card has a picture of somebody doing something, and the person who is taking the test is asked what's happening?
What are the key symptoms that must be present to constitute a diagnosis of depression?
They must have either depressed mood or Anhedonia.
What is Identification?
Identification is when you live vicarrously through others. That is the defense mechanism to resolve the Oedipus complex which occurs during Freud'd psychosexual stage, the phallic stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development.
What is meant by standard deviation?
The standard deviation is a statistic that tells you how tightly all the various examples are clustered around the mean in a set of data. When the examples are pretty tightly bunched together and the bell-shaped curve is steep, the standard deviation is small.
Which component of Freud's Topographical model of personality is responsible for the defense mechanisms?
EGO engages in defense mechanisms. The Defense mechanisms are created by the EGO.
What depression does 30-40% of women, following giving birth experience?
Post Partum Blues.
What is a chronic disease?
In order to meet this diagnostic criteria, you have to have had the symptoms for two years.
Which psychological disorder which is most commonly co-morbid with PTSD?
Depression.
Why does the professor call Generalize Anxiety Disorder (GAD) the "Mother Disorder".
He calls this the "Mother Disorder" cause when women become mothers they tend to move in this direction. They get worrying about everything that's going to happen to your kid.
What is the single entity intelligence model?
Spearman "g" factor, a single general ability/intelligence (g). If you have this kind of intelligence, then you will do well in everything.
Which psychotherapeutic approach focuses on models or schemas?
Cognitive therapy, it says the behavior is driven by schemas, which are models of the self and the world.
Who is Simon & Binat?
Designed the 1st tests for measuring intelligence, called the Binet-Simon Scale, were designed for children age three to twelve.
How does Freud explain the "C" trait in the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE)?
Freud calls it the SuperEgo, it's the internalized rules and regulations of your primary care giver.
What do alcohol, barbiturates, pain killers, heroine have in common?
They are all depressants and are potentially addictive to those who have a genetic predisposition for it.
What is the relevance of Motivation from the Classical Conditioning and with Operant Conditioning?
Both with Classical Conditioning and with Operant Condition, the concept that there is certain innate drives, like hunger and thirst and sex drive, there are other drives too, there's a drive to be loved, basic drive from the perspective of the brain, and basic drives like hunger stems from a structure in the brain called the Hypothalamus.
What is meant by projection?
Projection is when you think somebody else is thinking what you are thinking.
What was the EGO component of Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Ego refers to your identity, or sense of self. It grows out of the id and can control the id, to an extent. The ego functions according to the reality principle because its job is to gratify the id in accord with reality.
Which Psychological Approach is responsible for Client Center Treatment?
Carl Rogers: Client Center Treatment, from the Humanistic perspective.
What is CBT?
CBT, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is combining the Cognitive and Behavioral therapy. CBT attempts to address the cognitions, the schemas, but also use Behaviorist techniques too.
What is the relationship between emotion and daily behavior?
Emotion prioritizes your behavior.
How does the Thomas Chess & Birch experiment relate to personality?
Thomas Chess & Birch conducted a longitudinal study on temperament which is an aspect of personality. This was an example of how nature may play a role in personality. However we know situation drives the behaviors as well, so there is a nurture component.
How does the absence of emotion impact behavior?
Emotion places a relative value on the behavior, with out emotion, its almost impossible to figure out what to do.
What are the symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)?
Re-living the event, Nightmares about the event, Intrusive hallucinations, Dissociative experiences
What are the intelligence types in Gardner's model?
Verbal (Linguistic intelligence), Logical (mathematical intelligence), Musical intelligence, Athletic-kinesthetic intelligence, Spatial intelligence, Interpersonal intelligence, Intrapersonal intelligence, Nature (Naturalist intelligence)
When people become evangelicals, and is trying to keep sinful behavior out of their consciousness, and to prove to themselves and everybody else that they are not this bad person who is trying to sneak out. What defense mechanism does this illustrate from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Reaction Formation.
What does being within one standard deviation (SD) of the mean represent? And what is that standard deviation range?
If you are within one standard deviation (SD) of the mean, you are in the average range of intelligence. (from 85 to 115)
What was the purpose of the (WAIS) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
This will allow us to determine whether or not someone's overall intellectual ability is perhaps causing them a problem or perhaps there's a learning disability.
What is a likely reason that causes Post Partum Depression?
The likely reason is from the changes in the hormone levels.
Who is considered the first existentialist psychologist or the first humanist psychologist?
Alfred Adler is suggesting that we do in fact have free will. Things happen, stuff comes down on us. That we have no control over, we are constantly confronted with things that we can't control. But what we can control is how we respond to them.
What is meant by OPENNESS in the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE)?
Openness is flexible, meaning, are you willing to try new things or are you stuck in your ways.
Which psychological disorder is often associated with victims of Child Abuse?
Children that are abused often develop PTSD and like all the other things, every child who has been sexually abused doesn't develop PTSD, but a significant number of people with PTSD were abused as children.
What does the IQ score indicate?
This does not mean how smart or stupid you are. IQ really only tells how relatively well you will do in school. There are other factors that can affect success, such as creativity and dresire.
What is the RORSCHACH projection test?
RORSCHACH also known as ink blot test, responses to these ink blots with explanations as to what that interpretation of that ink blot means about the individual.
What was the unconscious component of Freud's Topographical model of personality?
The ID - functions according to the pleasure principle
What is the role of emotion in human behavior?
Emotion is aspect of your being that gives relative values to the various activities that you engage in.
What does a score in the 84% (percentile) mean?
84th percentile means you are taller than 84% of the population.
What is a side effect?
Side effect means is an effect other than the intend use of the drug.
What is another mood disorder besides depression?
Bipolar disorder where BIPOLAR DEPRESSION used to be called manic depressive.
What is Autonomic arousal in the definition of Emotion?
Autonomic arousal is something that stimulogically caused a subjective feeling that you perceive.
What is the most commonly found disorder with people that have PTSD?
The most commonly found disorder with people that have PTSD, is depression.
How is emotion relevant from an evolutionary perspective?
Emotion is really primitive parts of your brain regulating behaviors that are essential for survival and reproduction.
What is meant by a logical construct?
Logical construct is a term to describe something we see indirectly.
What does "N" stand for in the acronym OCEAN?
Neuroticism
What does the YERKES-DODSON Curve represent?
The YERKES-DODSON Curve represent relationship between high anxiety and performance.
And what's a reaction formation?
Reaction Formation is engaging in a behavior that's oppposite to what you want to do.
What structure in the brain is responsible for memory?
HIPPOCAMPUS, it encodes and retrieves information into and from memory. It is located in the temporal lobe.
What is meant by NEUROTICISM in the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE)?
They interprete everything as just overwhelming. They are sitting on the edge, just bearly able to function. Highly anxious, easily upset. "catastrophizing: everything is a catastrophe".
Why is it Freud important in Psychology from a historical perspective?
Freud is important on one level because he was the first to really try to put together a model of personality. Many of his descriptions of behavior are very insightful.
What is Adaptive Preparedness?
Adaptive Preparedness is a concept that there are specific categories of stimuli that our ancestors had evolved a cautiousness for, a fear of, and it is only in the presence of those stimuli that a phobia can develop.
Give two examples of Projective Testing used in Psychology.
RORSCHACH also known as ink blot test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). They are asked to make up a story about the picture.
What are two symptoms of Panic Disorder?
1.Racing heart, 2.Difficulty breathing, 3.Sweating, 4.Trembling, 5.Need to escape, 6.Believe you are going to die.7. Short lasting
What was the probable sequence of language acquisition from an evolutionary perspective for humans?
This probably reflects the sequence of acquisition from an evolutionary perspective for humans: SOUNDS, FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, GESTURE.
What is the difference between Emotion and Mood?
Emotion is different from a mood, mood is longer lasting while emotion is of a shoter duration. Short lasting.
What types of medications are used for treating depression?
Drugs used to treat depression, they are generally speaking drugs that are agonist for serotonin.
What is Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ?
Imaging using blood levels in the brain based on activity.
What psychotherapy approach does the Professor use most often?
The Cognitive Approach - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
In Freud's model, the ID is the structure in personality that is completely _____________.
Unconscious
Where observational learning that have a negative impact in our society?
Movies and TV, they constantly have violence. They constantly have images of people killing other people. And the evidence is pretty compelling that watching violence on TV, or in movies increases the violence in the society. America is the most violent place on earth, we have more guns per person than any other place.
What is cultural bias?
Questions are asked with the expectation that you know about this stuff. Example: If you get lost in the woods may not be fully understood by someone born and raised in the Bronx. You may not have ever experience what "woods" are like.
What medications are used to treat Schizophrenia?
THORAZINE. It was found to reduce or eliminate positive symptoms. Atypicals help with negative symptoms of Schizophrenia to a limited extend, and help with positive symptoms too , the mechanism of action was it was an antagonist for dopamine.
What is Intrusive Hallucinations?
A symptom of PTSD, it's re-experiencing it in a total three dimensional total sensory way, as if you are actually there again.
What is meant by "Inferiority Complex"?
Alfred Adler coined the phrase "Inferiority Complex". Adler believed that the motivation for all people was driving for superiority. Trying to become better. But if you instead of trying to get better, you just give up, and say " I'm just not as good as everybody else", then you have an inferiority complex.
What drives behavior or disorders from the Cognitive perspective?
Cognitive therapy, it says the behavior is driven by schemas, which are models of the self and the world.
According to Baddeley, how do you determine memory capacity?
Memory capacity is a function of the amount of information that you are presented with in a given amount of time and not bits of information.
What is the difference between Panic Disorder and Panic Attack?
Panic disorder is a disease, panic attack is a symptom.
What was the cause of all psychopathology according to Carl Rogers?
From Carl Rogers' perspective, the cause of all psychopathology is being raised with conditions of worth.
Who is responsible for RET?
Albert Ellis calls it Rational Emotive Therapy. Because he believes many of the ideas that are driving people's unhappiness, are irrational. And helping the person to see whether or not what they believe is rational or not.
What is the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE)?
OPENNESS, CONSCIENTIOUSNESS, EXTRAVERSION, AGREEABLENESS, NEUROTICISM
What is Schizophrenia?
An impairment with the regulation of their thought. Attentional disorder. Thought Disorder or Dysregulation.
What would be an example of the activities that occur as a result of sublimation?
Art, Music, Architecture, Sports are examples of the activities that occur as a result of sublimation
Which personality trait are of most interest to human resources or personnel department of employers?
CONSCIENTIOUSNESS trait, that they're above averaged in responsibility. As opposed to its not that important that you are above average in flexibility, but responsibility.
What's a reason that depression is found more commonly in women than in men?
1. Learned Helplessness Model, the idea that societies tend to subjugate women, and limit their ability to escape an aversive situation. 2.Greater prevalence of hormones and hormone variability in women, as compared with men may be a factor. 3.Men is less inclined to say that there is something wrong with them. So they are less likely to go for help, therefore men with depression are going to be less commonly seen.
What makes depression a fatal disease?
10-15% are suicidal, it has been described as having a toothache throughout your entire body.
What is the average IQ and what is the accepted standard deviation for IQ?
If a person with an IQ of 100 has an average IQ and a standard deviation is 15 points.
List 4 Behaviorists techniques for treating anxiety disorders.
Meditation, Visualization, Systematic Disensitization, Breathing Techniques
How do you access the unconscious according to Freud?
Freudians believe that you access the unconscious through dream interpretation or free association and projective testing.
What's the difference between Psychotherapy and medications?
Psychotherapy is longer and more arduous and much harder work, but psychotherapy is rewiring your brain, it is overcoming your disorder. It is changing your brain. Medications are simply blocking the symptoms. Medications have side effects.
What is Bandura's explanation for why some people may develop a specific phobias?
By observing something terrible happening.
Why do women suffer from depression more than men?
It has been suggested that it is this lack of control that causes the higher frequency of depression for women.
What are the basic foods for humans from the physiological perspective?
There are three basic food types: carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Give an examples of how the nature aspect of hunger motivator can be altered?
The most recently evolve part of our brain, the part of our brain that makes us different from all other species. The part of our brain that is able to make you postpone gratification.
Provide an example of the defense mechanism of IDENTIFICATION in Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Sport fans that feel "We're number one." What makes you number one? You can identify with a group, you identify with a team. You live vicarrously through the accomplishment of others.
What is the purpose of the DSM?
The DSM standardizes the disorders and for insurance reimbursement.
What is Systematic Disensitization?
Systematic Disensitization, is based on the idea that you can't have 2 feelings at once. So through an association, you can come to eliminate a negative.
What are the 3 components of Freud's Topographical model of personality ?
Freud proposed that in addition to conscious, preconscious, and unconscious components of our psyche, the psyche also is composed of three structures: the id, ego, and superego.
How do we treat depression?
By giving drugs that are Agonist for Serotonin and Norepinephrine. And by Psychoanalysis.
How does dopamine play a role in addiction?
It activates the Nucleus Accumbens the pleasure center in the limbic system of the brain. The "do it again" center. That's part of the reason why people take amphetamine or cocaine.
What is the difference between Post Partum Depression and Post Partum Blues?
Post Partum Blues is kind of being sad. Post Partum Depression is full blown depression.
What are Freud's proposed defense mechanisms?
Freud's defense mechanisms are Repression, Reaction Formation, Sublimation, Displacement, Identification. (SIDRR)
What is the incidence of Post Partum Depression and Post Partum Blues?
40% will experience Post Partum Blues following giving birth. And some 15% have a full blown episode of depression. And the theorized explanation for this is there is this drastic shift in the hormone balance.
What are the main points of Baddeley's memory model?
(1) 2 types of working memory: Phonological loop & Visuospatial sketchpad (2)Memory capacity is a function of the amount of information that you are presented with in a given amount of time and not bits of information. (3)Executive Function which corresonds or produces "attention". This is located in the pre-frontal cortex of our brain.
Why do we have anxiety according to Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Freud believed that anxiety was the result of the EGO sensing that it was going to be over powered by the ID.
What neuroscience evidence is there which validates Gardner's intelligence model?
Every behavior is produced by a collection of circuits (neurons) in the brain. There's a circuit for vision, one for hearing, one for fear, circuits for pleasure, and so on. Therefore Gardner's is logical, that there would be separate types of intelligence.
What is said about the nature vs. nurture debate from the memory perspective?
Behaviorists believe that we learned language through reinforcement. (NURTURE), "Chomsky" = LAD (Language Acquisition Device), It is a combination of Nature and Nurture which is the basis for all behaviors
What is intelligence?
Intelligence is the ability to adapt. Being able to use information to respond to or adapt to or engage successfully, the environment.
What is meant by EXTRAVERSION in the Five Factor Model of Personality (sometimes referred to as the BIG FIVE)?
Extraversion is somebody who is outgoing. So its out going-ness, the opposite where someone who is low on Extraversion is an introvert.
What is Dissociative Experiences?
A symptom of PTSD, you dissociate from yourself. It's like you are dreaming about yourself but you are awake, Out of body experience.
Which Anxiety system would meet the definition of emotion except there's no appropriately evocative stimulus?
Panic Attack
What would be an example of Sublimation from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Like you want to beat people up, so you play football and you tackle people. Sublimation is redirecting your sexual desires or sexual energy into socially acceptable behavior.
Which intelligence type in Gardner's intelligence model is associated with the DISPLACEMENT defense mechanism of Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Intrapersonal meaning being able to understand yourself, they won't think back and say that wasn't really appropriate to redirect their anger at an easier target.
What is DISPLACEMENT from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
DISPLACEMENT is essentially redirecting your anger at an easier target.
Which defense mechanism did Freud considered to be healthy?
Sublimation.
Give an example of projective testing.
Examples of projective testing are RORSCHACH or ink blot test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
What usually leads to the development of PTSD?
Usually occurs following an traumatic event.
What was the professor's assertion regarding human language acquisition?
Sequence of language acquisition in humans reflects the sequence.
What is the explanation for language acquisition.
Behaviorists believe that we learned language through reinforcement. (NURTURE), Nativists believes it is NATURE
What was the purpose of Binet & Simon's intelligence test?
They can determine relative to the average population, where the person was mentally.
Prior to the discovery of medications, what was the approach to treat Schizophrenia?
One was keep the person in a padded cell. The other was a prefrontal lobotomy.
What does "C" stand for in the acronym OCEAN?
Conscientiousness
What is the function of Hypothalamus?
The Hypothalamus monitors levels and temperatures in different parts of the body and turns on and off mechanisms that will bring that particular system back to a level it alt to be, where it was programmed to be, the genetic setting is for.
What is meant by an appropriately evocative stimulus in the definition of Emotion?
There are certain stimuli, certain sound, certain images, certain smells that evoke an emotional response. So A reaction to an appropriately evocative stimulus that involves, which means that includes these things - to be considered as parts to the emotional response.
What is Watson's explanation for specific phobias?
Association, an association is made between the trauma that was experienced and that stimulus that was present.
What is Post Partum Depression and Post Partum Blues?
They are forms of depression. They occur in women after they give birth.
What is the most widely used modern test of intelligence today?
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III).
Why are traits important in understanding personality?
Traits are the building blocks of personality. In other words, personality is the sum of the traits.
What other factor needs to be present in addition to the classically conditioned stimulus (allowing for Adaptive Preparedness) in order for a specific phobia to develop?
A genetic predisposition for phobias.
What is a Phonological loop?
One of the working memory which Baddeley used to explain short term memory which is important in the memory of words, located in the left hemisphere. Broca's and Wernicki's areas.
What is Top-Down from the memory perspective?
Already in memory. Retrieval from Long Term Memory to Short Term Memory.
What is Repressed memory?
Repressed memory, a memory that's been pushed out of consciousness. And it may be recovered, it may come back into consciousness.
What's the role of the stomach as it relates to hunger?
There's no physiological association, it is not the emptiness in your stomach that is making you hungry, it's the signals coming from your Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) that is syaing "time to eat".
How may observational learning play a role in acquiring a phobia?
A phobia can be developed based on seeing or observing a fear experience, especially via parents who may have phobia, the child may develop the same phobia.
What is the difference in the efficacy of medication verses psychotherapy?
While 2/3 of the people with depression will have a positive response to these drugs and their depression do remit, psychotherapy can achieve the same results.
What's the difference between the Behaviorist approach and RET?
Behaviorist believed in something called S.R. which stands for stimulus and respond. Something happens in the environment, and there's an automatic response. Rational Emotive Therapy says the sequence is actually: A—B—C. "A" is the activating event, "B" is the belief, "C" is the consequence.
What are the degrees of Developmental Delay?
Mild 55-70, Moderate 55-40, Severe 40-25, Profound below 25
What are the possible disorders which can be associated with malfunction of the motivation that can drive the eating behavior?
Ventral Medial Hypothalamus (VMH) is not functioning, Anorexia and then the Bulimia, eating is essential for survival, it is a brain based behavior.
What is the definition of personality?
Personality - the traits and characteristics of an individual that are fairly consistent over time and across situations.
What is characterized by Gardner's Intelligence model?
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences: People vary in their profile of 8 distinct forms of intelligence, scoring in one area has no impact on another area.
What is cognitive appraisal in the definition of Emotion?
Involves identifying or recognizing and evaluating to determine what is applicable.
In the Freudian perspective, are the defense mechanisms conscious or unconscious?
Understand that defense mechanisms by definition are unconscious even though they are created by the EGO
What are the four goals of Psychology?
Describe, Explain, Predict and Modify behavior.
What is the most popular diagnosis for psychiatrists and psychologists today?
Bipolar disorder
What is Bottom-Up from the memory perspective?
Information coming from your sensory system and it is being processed up to the Central Nervous System. (Sensory to Short Term Memory).
What is the definition of Emotion?
Definition of Emotion: A reaction to an appropriately evocative stimulus that involves cognitive appraisal, autonomic arousal, subjective feelings and goal directed behavior short lasting.
How is Panic Attack similar to the definition of emotion?
A panic attack, there's no appropriately evocative stimulus, and no cognitive appraisal. but there is autonomic arousal, subjective feelings and goal directed behavior short lasting. Those are the things that describe an emotion.
Who was credited with the Trait Theory of Personality?
Gordon Allport
What is Sublimation from Freud's Topographical model of personality?
Sublimation is redirecting your sexual desires or sexual energy into something that is socially acceptable this is the only mechanism that Freud considers to be healthy. Freud considers Sublimation to be the basis for all culture.
What is another course of treatment for depression other than medication and psychotherapy?
ECT, Electro Convulsive Therapy.
What was the SUPEREGO component of Freud's Topographical model of personality?
SUPER EGO - morality principle, Equivalent to your conscience.

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